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为何快乐易逝而痛苦永驻 – 译学馆
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为何快乐易逝而痛苦永驻

Time Paradox: Why Pleasure Is Fleeting and Pain Endures | Dean Buonomano

我认为有一件事情几乎与所有人相关
So I think something almost everybody can relate to is the mismatch that we all experience
那就是我们所经历的客观与主观时间的不协调
between objective time and subjective time.
很多人熟悉这个概念”当你玩耍时时间飞逝”
So everybody’s familiar with this notion that “time flies when you’re having fun”
或者是”当你等待时时间漫长”
or “a watched pot never boils”.
当你专心从事一项任务或者你在做一个快乐的
When you’re tightly engaged in a task, or where you’re doing something that you find
事情时——我们说”时光飞逝”
enjoyable, time—we say time seems to fly by.
这说明你的生物钟可能比外部时间走得更缓
Which means that your internal clock is probably going a bit slower than an external clock
因为你会感到惊讶:外部时间刚过去1小时 但是
because you’re surprised that maybe an hour has elapsed in external time, but your internal
你的生物钟告诉你:”不,时间可能只过去5分钟”
clock is telling you “No, maybe only 15 minutes have gone by.”
现在为了明白这一点 最关键的是区分两种
Now in order to understand that, it’s very important for us to distinguish between two
类型的时间
types of timing.
一个是我们说的”预期时间” 一个是我们说的”回溯时间”
One we call “Prospective Timing” and one we call “Retrospective Timing”.
这与”假期悖论”相关
So this relates to something called the Vacation Paradox.
假设你在度假 你第一次去雅典
So maybe you’re on vacation, you’re in Athens for the first time.
在这天 你体验了一回新的早午餐 享受到新风景和新声音
During the day you’re experiencing a bunch of new events and new sights and sounds, and
时间过去了——这是”预期时间” 它仿佛飞逝
as it’s going by—that is prospectively it seems to be flying by.
而当讲到”回溯时间” 可能下一天或者
In retrospect however, maybe the next day or you’re back from vacation looking back
在假日结束之后回想那一天 那一天就看起来很长了
upon that, it seems to be a long day.
所以”回溯时间”似乎是时间的延长
So retrospectively it seems that it was an extended period of time.
在遥远的100年以前 威廉詹姆斯就已经在神经系统
And this is something that was pointed out as far back as William James in his Principles
科学方面提出了这一法则
of Neuroscience over a hundred years ago.
“回溯时间”的原因是 在回顾时 我们并没有那么多的谈论时间
And the point is that retrospectively we’re not so much telling time but we’re rebuilding
而是通过我们记忆中的经历的数目重建或估计时间
or estimating how much time has elapsed based on the number of experiences we have in memory.
回顾时 你会更倾向于估计时间流逝有多慢
So retrospectively you’re more estimating how much time has elapsed, if there was a
如果有一段时间 充满了新记忆 那么你
period full of new memories then you’re left with the impression that it was a long
那么你回忆起它时 会留下这是一段漫长时间的印象
period of time retrospectively.
但是”预期时间”发生在你多多少少专注于
But prospectively as it was taking place you were paying attention to some sort of internal
脑内生物钟时 当你在询问或着眼于脑内生物钟时
clock in our brain, which you were looking at or querying, that was telling you that
它会告诉你没有过去多久 因为你根本不那么关注时间
not much time has elapsed, because you weren’t paying much attention to time.
但另一方面讲 当你十分无聊或者是在一个焦虑状态
So on the other hand when you’re very bored or in an anxious state people experience time
人们会经历时间的拖欠和变慢
as dragging or going slow (again, prospectively).
如果你非常焦虑 你等着听到在医院的人的情况
If you’re very anxious, you’re waiting to hear from somebody who you know is at the
或者你刚刚结束一个电话 等着有人打回来
hospital or you just got an important telephone call and you’re waiting for somebody to
这时你会觉得时间延长了
call you back, time seems to drag.
它好像变得更慢了
It seems to be going slowly.
这时候 在预期时间中 你当然还是专注于时间的
Of course prospectively you’re attending to time.
你非常——你在一个机场 航班晚点 你现在很无聊
You’re very—you’re at the airport, the airplane is delayed, you’re very bored,
你在等待你的旅行是否能继续的消息
you’re waiting for news about whether you’re going to make your trip or not and then you
想要知道它是否能在6个小时内起飞 在这种情况下
find out it’s going to be in six hours, now you’re just in sort of this on hold
时间看似延长了 变得很慢 这还是预期时间
mode in which time seems to be dragging, going very slowly, prospectively.
当你回顾一下 这只是时间中的一个点
You look back on that, and that’s merely a blip in time.
因为回溯时间在你的记忆中并没有留下很多东西
Because retrospectively there’s not many items in your memory.
当你第一次去机场洗手间时 没有什么特殊的东西值得高兴
There’s nothing particularly exciting about visiting the airport bathroom for the first
以至于不会留下记忆
time so that doesn’t stick in your memory.
所以 当你在回溯时间中保持这种感觉的话 并不会感觉时间过了很久
So you’re left with this feeling retrospectively that time actually was not very long lasting.
所以你有了这个悖论 回溯时间流速看似很快
So you have this paradox in which retrospectively time seemed to have not occupied much of your
而预期时间流速却变慢了
conscious experience but prospectively you were aware of it dragging.

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