One of the concepts that comes up over and over again with prolific creative minds that
多产的创意人士时 有一个概念会不断出现 即创造
I’ve interviewed for the Tim Ferriss Show or for the book Tools of Titans is creating
其中有位来宾乔希 维茨金从不上任何节目 这真是简直了
And one of the guests Josh Waitzkin, who never does any media, can I curse on this?
He always texts me with profanity laden SMSs because I’m the only one who can pull him
out of his cave to do media.
But he is best known perhaps as the chest prodigy, and I’ll explain why I put that in
air quotes, besides how funny it looks on camera, that formed the basis or who formed
the basis for Searching for Bobby Fischer, both the book and the movie.
He was a very well known chess player and continues to be an incredible chess player.
But he has applied his learning framework to more than chess.
So he was a world champion in tai chi push hands, he was the first black belt in Brazilian
jujitsu under the phenom probably the best of all time Marcelo Garcia, who trains in
New York City and he’s a nine-time world champion something like that.
And he’s now tackling paddle surfing and he can apply it to just about anything.
He works with some of the top financial mines in the world, hedge fund managers and beyond,
高级别人员 佼佼者中的佼佼者 前百分之一
the best of the best; top one percent.
What are the principles that he shares?
其中有一条就是创造空间 并把它作为一种生活方式 这些
One of them is creating empty space, cultivating empty space as a way of life, and these are
all tied together so I’ll mention another one.
Learning the macro from the micro and then beginning with the end in mind.
And these all work together.
So I’ll explain in fact the last two first.
乔希学象棋 更准确地说 他第一位真正的教练训练他的
Josh learned to play chess or I should say more accurately was coached by his first real
coach in the opposite direction when compared to most training and most chess books.
He was taught in reverse.
What does that mean?
He began with the end game and with very few pieces.
他们不从头开始 而把残局上的子清光 意味着
So they cleared all the pieces off the board, instead of starting with openings, meaning
what do you do first the first five to ten moves, he started with the ending game with
king and pawn versus king.
What does this do?
这强迫你专注于一些特殊原则 如对峙 创造空间 被动强制
Well this forces you to focus on principles like opposition, creating space, zugzwang,
which is a principle of forcing your opponent to do anything that will destroy their position
or anything they can possibly do will worsen their position.
And these types of principles that you learn when there’s an empty board with a few pieces
accomplish a few things.
第一 你学习到的大原则 适用于每个具体的小棋局
Number one, you are learning the macro, the principles that you can apply throughout the
game of chess in almost any scenario through the micro, this end game situation.
And these principles are adaptable.
You become a machine that can bob and weave with the circumstances very effectively.
正如乔希说的 打个比方 如果你从开头记忆 就像
Compared to that, as Josh would put it, if you’re memorizing the openings, and this might
be like memorizing recipes if you’re learning to cook, you’re effectively stealing the answers
from the teacher’s guidebook to a test and you’ll be able to beat your friends for a
while and maybe even be considered a pretty decent chess player, but on a deep level you
你不懂这个游戏 会遇到瓶颈 而且永远无法突破瓶颈
don’t understand the game and you will hit a ceiling and you will never progress past
that and you’ll get beaten by really good players.
所以这可以被应用到别的项目 比如 巴西柔术
So that can be applied to, for instance, Brazilian jujitsu.
Josh taught me basically all of the most important principles of jujitsu through one move, at
就是比赛最后致胜的一个绞技 叫做断头台 是马塞洛最
the end the game, which is a choke called The Guillotine, which Marcello was famous
他的这招被称为马塞洛断头台 它就像这样 你用这里绞
His version was called The Marcelotine, but it’s effectively like this you’re choking
住对手的头 他的方式很古怪 他把他的前臂
someone’s head in here and he has a weird way of doing it where he puts his forearm
on top of your shoulder.
It’s pretty wicked.
If you want to be put unconscious you can go to that gym and experience that yourself.
But that can also be applied to many, many other things.
比如 如果你正在创业 眼下正流行这个
For instance, if you’re trying to build a startup, this is a common trendy thing to
do these days and I think everybody should start a business at some point.
但在创业中 比如在我住的硅谷 如果你打算进入
But in the startup game in say Silicon Valley where I live if you’re going to go into the
venture backed world, well you and your founder better think a lot about the end game and
而且你绝对应该达成协议 至少是约定 初步商定
you should definitely have an agreement, at least a working agreement, tentative agreement
on what type of exit, say acquisition offer is acceptable to you.
If those end goal components aren’t in place then it’s just a slow motion train wreck waiting
And how might you do that?
Well, if you’re trying to learn the macro from the micro you can think about what the
acquisition agreement might look like.
你可以和律师谈谈 做份协定的模本 阅读其中的条文
So you could talk to lawyers, get a sample template agreement and look at the provisions,
看看条款 然后反方向推上来 看看当你成立公司时
look at the clauses and then reverse engineer it so that when you’re forming the company,
when you’re hiring employees your decisions at that point make it possible to have that
contract at the end.
This is another example.
Micro, maybe it’s a 10/20-page document.
Macro, building a company that gets acquired by a much, much larger company.
So that is learning the macro from the micro.
再比如 我刚提到了做菜 选择一个菜谱
Another example, just because I brought up cooking, would be say choosing a recipe that
involves two or three primary techniques and perhaps three to five primary ingredients
that apply in many, many, many different dishes.
所以你就在学习不同的原则 像调料组合 用对流
So you’re learning principles of say flavor combination, principles of using convection
而不是浅炒 快炒而不是蒸 等可以广泛使用的东西
versus shallow frying or sautéing versus steaming that apply across the board.
这么做时 我们再限定一下 你没有菜谱 计时器或
And in doing so let’s say you do it without a recipe, without a timer or I should say
a meat thermometer or something like that, you’re going to learn also to test the food
to know whether it is done or not.
That then applies to everything.
你可以学到这些 仅仅通过学做辣蟹蛋糕 加上蒸花椰菜
But you can do it just a learning how to make Harissa crab cakes with the steam broccoli
还有 我乱说的 糖渍山芋之类的东西
and I have no idea say candied yams something like that.
So that’s that.
And we’re also talking about the ending game.
So we’ve covered that.
Creating or cultivating empty space is a way of life.
This is very important to Josh Waitzkin who I mentioned, it’s very important to people
比如保罗·格雷厄姆（Y Combinator的共同创始人） 这公司
like Paul Graham, who’s cofounder of Y Combinator, which is like the Navy SEALs Harvard of startup
accelerators, keeping it simple let’s just call it that for now.
如果你是个创意人 是创造者 而不是经理 这点很重要
If you are a creator, if you are a maker and not a manager, this is important, which by
the way is a decision so a lot of really good entrepreneurs start as a technician or a tactician
they’re very, very good at one thing then they end up in a managerial role that they
这并不是说你必须忍受 你看很多人 比如埃文·威廉姆斯
It doesn’t mean you have to stay there, and you see a lot of folks like Evan Williams
and others who then at some point realize this and return it to a more product focused
role even if they are also the CEO of making some high-level 30,000-foot decisions.
如果你是个创造者 你决定做个创造者 或者你刚好是
But if you are a maker, if you’ve decided to be a maker, if you just happen to be a
maker or creator let’s call it three to five hour uninterrupted blocks of time are extremely
critical if you want to connect the dots, if you want to have the space to allow yourself
to have original ideas or at least original combinations of ideas you really need to block
out that time and protect it at least once a week.
在《巨人的工具》里 有很多人这么做 比如雷米特 赛特
So in Tools of Titans there are many people who do this, Remet Set, for instance, who
has a very, very successful multi, multi million dollar business that he built out of a blog
大学时期的博客做起 这个博客关注点非常细分 他隔出
he started long ago in college, which was very, very niche in its focus, he blocks out
I believe it’s every Wednesday for three to five hours of time he’ll block it out for
诺亚·卡根 另一位企业家 也是如此
Noah Kagan another entrepreneur does the same thing.
每周三 从上午九点到下午一点 这段午饭前的时间我会
So on Wednesdays for me I have from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., this is pre-lunch, I have creation,
创作 包括写作 记录和其他一些我脑子中的类似的活动
that means writing, recording or some similar aspect of in my mind creating with my skillset
and my assets.
And it is extremely important that I do that before I’m barraged by inputs.
换句话说 而且乔希·维茨金也如此 早上他做的第一件事
In other words, and this is true of Josh as well, first thing in the morning he’s doing
里德·霍夫曼 一个亿万富翁 领英的共同创始人 也一样
Reid Hoffman, a billionaire, cofounder or founder of LinkedIn, same story.
He will plant a seed in his mind the night before a problem he wants to solve, a project
也许是他想改进的项目 然后醒来时 完全空白
he wants to think about improving perhaps and then waking up, tabula rasa complete blank
slate immediately working on that problem with journaling before any text messages,
before any email, which is why, for instance, I don’t have email set up on my phone.
I do not have mail set up on my iPhone.
I do not get to notifications.
I also put my phone on airplane mode for a lot of reasons, for our body to explain some
别的原因 睡觉时开启飞行模式 创作时保持飞行模式
other physical ones, but onto airplane mode when I go to bed and it stays in airplane
mode until I’m done with my creation period and then it comes on.
Because as soon as you go into bullet dodging or like Wonder Woman bullet blocking mode
with everyone else’s agenda for your time, which is very often the inbox or text messages,
you’re DOA, you’re done.
Your creativity is all for not in general.
所以对于我 对于很多人 比如程序员 音乐家 对于创意型
So for me, for many people who are say programming, for musicians, for creative types slack in
the system, you have to create slack.
You have to create space.
You have to create large uninterrupted blocks of time and the only way to do that is to
put it on your calendar.
如果它不在你的日程里 它就不是真的 你必须把它放进
If it’s not on your calendar it’s not real, you need to put it in your calendar and defend
it just like you would anything else.