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不用学会这个游戏你就能赢下它 大师技能 – 译学馆
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不用学会这个游戏你就能赢下它 大师技能

Tim Ferriss on Mastery: Start with End Game and Make Space for Creativity

在我为《蒂姆秀》或者《巨人的工具》一书采访那些
One of the concepts that comes up over and over again with prolific creative minds that
多产的创意人士时 有一个概念会不断出现 即创造
I’ve interviewed for the Tim Ferriss Show or for the book Tools of Titans is creating
空间
empty space.
其中有位来宾乔希 维茨金从不上任何节目 这真是简直了
And one of the guests Josh Waitzkin, who never does any media, can I curse on this?
他总发满是脏话的短信给我 因为我是唯一能拉他
He always texts me with profanity laden SMSs because I’m the only one who can pull him
出“洞”做节目的人
out of his cave to do media.
但他最大的名声是“棋坛天才” 我解释一下为什么我用了
But he is best known perhaps as the chest prodigy, and I’ll explain why I put that in
引号 除了在镜头上看着好玩以外
air quotes, besides how funny it looks on camera, that formed the basis or who formed
他为《寻找鲍比·费舍尔》奠定了基础 不管是书还是电影
the basis for Searching for Bobby Fischer, both the book and the movie.
他曾是名噪一时的棋手 而且一直是位优秀的棋手
He was a very well known chess player and continues to be an incredible chess player.
但他把他的学习方法应用到了棋类之外
But he has applied his learning framework to more than chess.
他曾是太极推手的世界冠军 是取得巴西柔术黑带第一人
So he was a world champion in tai chi push hands, he was the first black belt in Brazilian
仅次于也许是史上最佳的运动员马塞洛·加西亚
jujitsu under the phenom probably the best of all time Marcelo Garcia, who trains in
加西亚是在纽约接受训练并九次获得世界冠军
New York City and he’s a nine-time world champion something like that.
目前他在攻克划桨冲浪 而且他能把这方法用到任何地方
And he’s now tackling paddle surfing and he can apply it to just about anything.
他为世界一流的金融组织服务 作为对冲基金经理或者更
He works with some of the top financial mines in the world, hedge fund managers and beyond,
高级别人员 佼佼者中的佼佼者 前百分之一
the best of the best; top one percent.
所以 为什么他会成功
So, why?
他分享了哪些原则?
What are the principles that he shares?
其中有一条就是创造空间 并把它作为一种生活方式 这些
One of them is creating empty space, cultivating empty space as a way of life, and these are
原则融会贯通 所以我要提到另一条
all tied together so I’ll mention another one.
以小见大 以目的为导向
Learning the macro from the micro and then beginning with the end in mind.
这些都相辅相成
And these all work together.
接下来我会先解释最后两点
So I’ll explain in fact the last two first.
乔希学象棋 更准确地说 他第一位真正的教练训练他的
Josh learned to play chess or I should say more accurately was coached by his first real
方式是倒过来的 跟多数人的训练和象棋教程相反
coach in the opposite direction when compared to most training and most chess books.
他是以相反方式接受指导的
He was taught in reverse.
什么意思?
What does that mean?
他从残局开始 棋盘上只有很少的子
He began with the end game and with very few pieces.
他们不从头开始 而把残局上的子清光 意味着
So they cleared all the pieces off the board, instead of starting with openings, meaning
别人都是首先从前面五子十子地下,他是从残局开始
what do you do first the first five to ten moves, he started with the ending game with
王和兵对阵王
king and pawn versus king.
这有什么用?
What does this do?
这强迫你专注于一些特殊原则 如对峙 创造空间 被动强制
Well this forces you to focus on principles like opposition, creating space, zugzwang,
就是迫使对手走任何一步 都最终导致失败
which is a principle of forcing your opponent to do anything that will destroy their position
或者走任何他们能走的一步 都会使情况更不利
or anything they can possibly do will worsen their position.
从仅剩几颗子的棋盘上学习到的这些原则
And these types of principles that you learn when there’s an empty board with a few pieces
会达到几个效果
accomplish a few things.
第一 你学习到的大原则 适用于每个具体的小棋局
Number one, you are learning the macro, the principles that you can apply throughout the
从单个残局 学到象棋普适原则
game of chess in almost any scenario through the micro, this end game situation.
而且这些原则具有很广的适用性
And these principles are adaptable.
你变成了能根据情况高效地左挡右闪的机器
You become a machine that can bob and weave with the circumstances very effectively.
正如乔希说的 打个比方 如果你从开头记忆 就像
Compared to that, as Josh would put it, if you’re memorizing the openings, and this might
你记菜谱来做菜 你迅速地从教师参考答案里偷到了
be like memorizing recipes if you’re learning to cook, you’re effectively stealing the answers
考试的答案 你在一段时间里能打败你的朋友们
from the teacher’s guidebook to a test and you’ll be able to beat your friends for a
甚至被人认为是个不错的棋手 但从更深层次来说
while and maybe even be considered a pretty decent chess player, but on a deep level you
你不懂这个游戏 会遇到瓶颈 而且永远无法突破瓶颈
don’t understand the game and you will hit a ceiling and you will never progress past
最终会被真正优秀的棋手打败
that and you’ll get beaten by really good players.
所以这可以被应用到别的项目 比如 巴西柔术
So that can be applied to, for instance, Brazilian jujitsu.
乔希告诉我基本上柔术所有的重要原则都在于一个动作
Josh taught me basically all of the most important principles of jujitsu through one move, at
就是比赛最后致胜的一个绞技 叫做断头台 是马塞洛最
the end the game, which is a choke called The Guillotine, which Marcello was famous
为人所知的一招
for.
他的这招被称为马塞洛断头台 它就像这样 你用这里绞
His version was called The Marcelotine, but it’s effectively like this you’re choking
住对手的头 他的方式很古怪 他把他的前臂
someone’s head in here and he has a weird way of doing it where he puts his forearm
放在对手的肩膀上
on top of your shoulder.
滋味很不好受
It’s pretty wicked.
如果你想晕一次 你可以去那家健身馆亲自体验一把
If you want to be put unconscious you can go to that gym and experience that yourself.
但这招也可以被用到其他很多很多的事情中
But that can also be applied to many, many other things.
比如 如果你正在创业 眼下正流行这个
For instance, if you’re trying to build a startup, this is a common trendy thing to
而且我认为每个人都应该或早或晚创个业
do these days and I think everybody should start a business at some point.
但在创业中 比如在我住的硅谷 如果你打算进入
But in the startup game in say Silicon Valley where I live if you’re going to go into the
融资圈 那你和你的创始人最好对临门一脚想清楚
venture backed world, well you and your founder better think a lot about the end game and
而且你绝对应该达成协议 至少是约定 初步商定
you should definitely have an agreement, at least a working agreement, tentative agreement
退出方式 比如你可以接受怎样的收购条件
on what type of exit, say acquisition offer is acceptable to you.
如果这些最终的目标没设定好 那么等待你的就是火车
If those end goal components aren’t in place then it’s just a slow motion train wreck waiting
最终会翻车
to happen.
你该怎么做呢?
And how might you do that?
如果你想“以小见大” 那你可以考虑一下
Well, if you’re trying to learn the macro from the micro you can think about what the
收购协议长什么样
acquisition agreement might look like.
你可以和律师谈谈 做份协定的模本 阅读其中的条文
So you could talk to lawyers, get a sample template agreement and look at the provisions,
看看条款 然后反方向推上来 看看当你成立公司时
look at the clauses and then reverse engineer it so that when you’re forming the company,
当你请员工时 你的决定是不是最终会让这个协议有可能
when you’re hiring employees your decisions at that point make it possible to have that
实现
contract at the end.
这就是另一个例子
This is another example.
小的 也许是个十页二十页的文件
Micro, maybe it’s a 10/20-page document.
大的 是建立一家公司并被另一家大很多的公司收购
Macro, building a company that gets acquired by a much, much larger company.
这就是“以小见大”
So that is learning the macro from the micro.
再比如 我刚提到了做菜 选择一个菜谱
Another example, just because I brought up cooking, would be say choosing a recipe that
这菜谱需要两三项基础技巧 也许三五样基础材料
involves two or three primary techniques and perhaps three to five primary ingredients
这些技巧和材料在很多很多菜里都可以使用
that apply in many, many, many different dishes.
所以你就在学习不同的原则 像调料组合 用对流
So you’re learning principles of say flavor combination, principles of using convection
而不是浅炒 快炒而不是蒸 等可以广泛使用的东西
versus shallow frying or sautéing versus steaming that apply across the board.
这么做时 我们再限定一下 你没有菜谱 计时器或
And in doing so let’s say you do it without a recipe, without a timer or I should say
肉类温度计或别的什么 那你还要学习试试食物
a meat thermometer or something like that, you’re going to learn also to test the food
确定到底熟没熟
to know whether it is done or not.
那这些就有普适性了
That then applies to everything.
你可以学到这些 仅仅通过学做辣蟹蛋糕 加上蒸花椰菜
But you can do it just a learning how to make Harissa crab cakes with the steam broccoli
还有 我乱说的 糖渍山芋之类的东西
and I have no idea say candied yams something like that.
这个就讲完了
So that’s that.
我们讲的是残局
And we’re also talking about the ending game.
已经讲完了
So we’ve covered that.
创造或者培育空间是一种生活方式
Creating or cultivating empty space is a way of life.
这对我提到过的乔希·维茨金很重要 对有些人也很重要
This is very important to Josh Waitzkin who I mentioned, it’s very important to people
比如保罗·格雷厄姆(Y Combinator的共同创始人) 这公司
like Paul Graham, who’s cofounder of Y Combinator, which is like the Navy SEALs Harvard of startup
在创业孵化器中就像是海豹突击队和哈佛(大学)
accelerators, keeping it simple let’s just call it that for now.
如果你是个创意人 是创造者 而不是经理 这点很重要
If you are a creator, if you are a maker and not a manager, this is important, which by
顺便提一下 很多很好的企业家出身是技术或者策划
the way is a decision so a lot of really good entrepreneurs start as a technician or a tactician
他们在某件事上做得很好很好 最后陷入一个管理的角色
they’re very, very good at one thing then they end up in a managerial role that they
而且他们不喜欢这个角色
hate.
这并不是说你必须忍受 你看很多人 比如埃文·威廉姆斯
It doesn’t mean you have to stay there, and you see a lot of folks like Evan Williams
和其他一些人意识到之后就又回归到一个更基于产品
and others who then at some point realize this and return it to a more product focused
的角色 即使他们同时是做高层决定的CEO
role even if they are also the CEO of making some high-level 30,000-foot decisions.
好了
Okay.
如果你是个创造者 你决定做个创造者 或者你刚好是
But if you are a maker, if you’ve decided to be a maker, if you just happen to be a
个创造者 三五个钟头不被打扰的整块时间极其重要
maker or creator let’s call it three to five hour uninterrupted blocks of time are extremely
如果你想把点连好 如果你想有空间让自己
critical if you want to connect the dots, if you want to have the space to allow yourself
产生原创的想法或者至少一些想法的创意组合 你真的要
to have original ideas or at least original combinations of ideas you really need to block
至少每周隔出这段时间并保护它
out that time and protect it at least once a week.
在《巨人的工具》里 有很多人这么做 比如雷米特 赛特
So in Tools of Titans there are many people who do this, Remet Set, for instance, who
他有一家极其极其成功的值几千万美元的公司 他从早在
has a very, very successful multi, multi million dollar business that he built out of a blog
大学时期的博客做起 这个博客关注点非常细分 他隔出
he started long ago in college, which was very, very niche in its focus, he blocks out
我想是 每周三的三到五个小时来
I believe it’s every Wednesday for three to five hours of time he’ll block it out for
学习
learning.
诺亚·卡根 另一位企业家 也是如此
Noah Kagan another entrepreneur does the same thing.
每周三 从上午九点到下午一点 这段午饭前的时间我会
So on Wednesdays for me I have from 9:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m., this is pre-lunch, I have creation,
创作 包括写作 记录和其他一些我脑子中的类似的活动
that means writing, recording or some similar aspect of in my mind creating with my skillset
运用我的技能和才华
and my assets.
而且在我吸收的信息变得太多之前 这么做是极其重要的
And it is extremely important that I do that before I’m barraged by inputs.
换句话说 而且乔希·维茨金也如此 早上他做的第一件事
In other words, and this is true of Josh as well, first thing in the morning he’s doing
就是写日志
journaling.
里德·霍夫曼 一个亿万富翁 领英的共同创始人 也一样
Reid Hoffman, a billionaire, cofounder or founder of LinkedIn, same story.
他会在前一晚在脑中种下一棵种子 也许是想解决的问题
He will plant a seed in his mind the night before a problem he wants to solve, a project
也许是他想改进的项目 然后醒来时 完全空白
he wants to think about improving perhaps and then waking up, tabula rasa complete blank
立刻着手写日志来解决这一问题 而不是先去看短消息
slate immediately working on that problem with journaling before any text messages,
和电子邮件 这也是为什么我不在手机上装邮箱
before any email, which is why, for instance, I don’t have email set up on my phone.
我的苹果手机上没有电子邮箱
I do not have mail set up on my iPhone.
我不允许推送消息
I do not get to notifications.
我会因为很多原因让手机处于飞行模式
I also put my phone on airplane mode for a lot of reasons, for our body to explain some
别的原因 睡觉时开启飞行模式 创作时保持飞行模式
other physical ones, but onto airplane mode when I go to bed and it stays in airplane
直到结束才恢复常规模式
mode until I’m done with my creation period and then it comes on.
因为一旦你进入躲子弹或者神奇女侠挡子弹模式
Because as soon as you go into bullet dodging or like Wonder Woman bullet blocking mode
别人要占用你的时间 通常是通过邮箱来件或短消息
with everyone else’s agenda for your time, which is very often the inbox or text messages,
那么你就完了
you’re DOA, you’re done.
通常你的创造能力就废了
Your creativity is all for not in general.
所以对于我 对于很多人 比如程序员 音乐家 对于创意型
So for me, for many people who are say programming, for musicians, for creative types slack in
的人 你必须创造宽松环境
the system, you have to create slack.
你必须创造空间
You have to create space.
你必须创造不被打扰的整块时间 唯一办法就是
You have to create large uninterrupted blocks of time and the only way to do that is to
把它放进你的日程里
put it on your calendar.
如果它不在你的日程里 它就不是真的 你必须把它放进
If it’s not on your calendar it’s not real, you need to put it in your calendar and defend
日程并保证它的实现 就如你做其他事情一样
it just like you would anything else.

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视频概述

象棋大师如何成为跨界高手?创意型大师有何共同秘密?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kphr-8GLD_8

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