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宇宙终结的三种方式 – 译学馆
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宇宙终结的三种方式

Three ways the universe could end - Venus Keus

宇宙中充满了魔法 正耐心等待我们的发现——伊登·菲尔波茨《白驹过隙》
我们知道宇宙的过去:
We know about our universe’s past:
大爆炸理论 预言所有的物质 时间 空间
the Big Bang theory predicts that allmatter, time, and space
都开始于140亿年前一个极其微小 紧凑的状态
began in an incredibly tiny, compact state about 14 billion years ago.
我们也知道宇宙的现状:
And we know about the present:
科学家对星系运动的观察
scientists’observations of the movement of galaxies
告诉我们 宇宙正在加速膨胀
tell us that the universe is expandingat an accelerated rate.
但未来怎么样呢?
But what about the future?
我们知道我们的宇宙将如何终结吗?
Do we know how our universeis going to end?
宇宙学家对这个问题有三个可能的答案
Cosmologists have threepossible answers for this question,
大冻结 大撕裂和大紧缩
called the Big Freeze, the Big Rip and the Big Crunch.
为了理解这三种情况
To understand these three scenarios,
想象两个代表星系的物体
imagine two objects representing galaxies.
用一根短而紧的橡皮筋把它们绑在一起
A short, tight rubber band isholding them together—
这便是引力
that’s the attractive force of gravity.
与此同时 再用两个钩子把它们分开
Meanwhile,two hooks arepulling them apart—
这便是膨胀宇宙的排斥力
that’s the repulsive forceexpanding the universe.
一遍又一遍地循环这个系统
Copy this system over and over again,
你就得到了一个近似真实的宇宙
and you have somethingapproximating the real universe.
这两股反作用力之间的战斗结果
The outcome of the battle betweenthese two opposing forces
决定了宇宙的终结方式
determines how the end of theuniverse will play out.
大冻结的情况是
The Big Freeze scenario is what happens
如果把物体拉开的力足够强
if the force pulling the objects apart
就像拉伸橡皮筋 用力太大 皮筋最后会失去弹性
is just strong enough to stretch the rubber band until it loses its elasticity.
膨胀是不能再加速的
The expansion wouldn’t be able toaccelerate anymore,
但是宇宙会持续变大
but the universe would keepgetting bigger.
星系团会分离
Clusters of galaxies would separate.
星系中的物体——恒星
The objects within the galaxies– suns,
行星和诸太阳系
planets, and solar systems
会彼此远离
would move away from each other,
直到星系溶解成孤独的物体
until galaxies dissolved into lonely objects
在广阔的空间中独自漂浮
floating separately in the vast space.
它们发出的光会以低 很弱的能量
The light they emit would be redshiftedto long wavelengths
红移到波长很长的地方
with very low, faint energies,
从它们发出的气体太薄 无法形成新的恒星
and the gas emanating from them would be too thin to create new stars.
宇宙会变得越来越黑暗和寒冷
The universe would becomedarker and colder,
接近一种冻结状态 也被称为大冷冻
approaching a frozen state also known as the Big Chill,
或宇宙的热寂
or the Heat Death of the Universe.
但如果排斥力过大呢
But what if the repulsive forceis so strong
把橡皮筋拉伸到其弹性的极限
that it stretches the rubber bandpast its elastic limit,
真的会把它撕断吗?
and actually tears it?
如果宇宙的膨胀继续加速
If the expansion of the universecontinues to accelerate,
它最终将不仅克服万有引力—
it will eventually overcome not onlythe gravitational force –
撕裂星系和太阳系——
tearing apart galaxies and solar systems–
而且会克服将原子核维系在一起的
but also the electromagnetic, weak,and strong nuclear forces
电磁力 弱核力和强核力
which hold atoms and nuclei together.
结果就是 组成恒星的物质会被撕裂成微小的碎片
As a result, the matter that makes up stars breaks into tiny pieces.
甚至原子和亚原子粒子也会被摧毁
Even atoms and subatomic particleswill be destroyed.
这是大撕裂
That’s the Big Rip.
第三种情况呢 橡皮筋会在哪里胜出呢?
What about the third scenario, where the rubber band wins out?
这与一种可能的未来相对应
That corresponds to a possible future
在这种未来中 万有引力会使宇宙的膨胀停止
in which the force of gravity brings the universe’s expansion to a halt—
然后将其逆转
and then reverses it.
星系会开始向彼此冲去
Galaxies would start rushingtowards each other,
当它们聚集在一起时 它们的引力就会变得更强
and as they clumped together their gravitational pull would get even stronger.
恒星也会撞击在一起
Stars too would hurtletogether and collide.
随着空间变得越来越紧 温度也会上升
Temperatures would rise as spacewould get tighter and tighter.
宇宙的尺寸会急剧变小
The size of the universe would plummet
直到所有的东西都被压缩到一个非常小的空间里
until everything compressed into sucha small space
小到以至于原子和亚原子粒子都不得不挤在一起
that even atoms and subatomic particleswould have to crunch together.
其结果是一个密度极高 温度极高 结构紧凑的宇宙——
The result would be an incredibly dense,hot, compact universe —
非常像大爆炸之前的状态
a lot like the state thatpreceded the Big Bang.
这便是大紧缩
This is the Big Crunch.
那么这个微小的物质点会引发另一次大爆炸吗?
Could this tiny point of matter explodein another Big Bang?
宇宙是否可以一次又一次地膨胀和收缩
Could the universe expand and contractover and over again,
重复它的整个历史呢?
repeating its entire history?
描述这样一个宇宙的理论被称为大反弹理论
The theory describing such a universe is known as the Big Bounce.
事实上 我们无法知道
In fact, there’s no way
已经发生了多少次反弹——
to tell how many bounces could’ve already happened—
也无法知道未来会发生多少次反弹
or how many might happen in the future.
每一次反弹都会抹去宇宙先前历史的任何记录
Each bounce would wipe away any record of the universe’s previous history.
那么哪一种情况才是真实的呢?
Which one of those scenarioswill be the real one?
答案取决于宇宙的确切形状
The answer depends on the exact shapeof the universe,
其蕴含的暗能量的数量
the amount of dark energy it holds,
以及膨胀率的变化
and changes in its expansion rate.
到目前为止
As of now,
我们的观察表明 我们正走向一场大冰冻
our observations suggest that we’re heading for a Big Freeze.
但好消息是
But the good news is
距离大冰冻来临
that we’ve probably got about 10 to the 100th power years
还有10到100次方年
before the chill sets in,
所以现在不要开始囤积手套哦
— so don’t start stocking up on mittens just yet.
担心从现在到宇宙毁灭该怎么打发你的时间?
观看我们的时间管理视频 以帮助你做好该做的事

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本片介绍了宇宙终结的三种方式。

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甪里

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审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=itpLU7OzNV8

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