This will revolutionize education.
No prediction has been made as often or as incorrectly as that one.
it was Thomas Edison who declared that,
“ The motion picture is destined
to revolutionize our educational system and that in a few years,
it will supplant largely,
if not entirely, the use of textbooks.”
Yeah. And you know how that worked out?
the 1930s it was radio.
The idea was you could beam experts directly into classrooms,
improving the quality of education for more students at lower cost.
And that would mean you require fewer skilled teachers,
a theme common to all of the proposed education revolutions,
like that of educational television in the 1950s and 60s.
Studies were conducted to determine
whether students preferred watching a lecture live,
or sitting in an adjacent room where
the same lecture was broadcast via closed circuit TV.
What would you prefer?
In the 80s there was no debating.
Computers were the revolutionary solution to our education woes.
They were audiovisual, interactive,
and could be programmed to do almost anything you like.
那时候 它们能运行Oregon Trail
Well at the time, they could run Oregon Trail.
But their potential was obvious.
Researches suspected that if they could teach kids to program,
say how to move a turtle around a screen,
then their procedural reasoning skills would also improve.
So how did it go?
Well the students got better at programming the turtle,
but their reasoning skills were unaffected.
Even by the 1990s we had not learned
from the failure of our past predictions and
我引言 在课堂教学中 视频光碟的使用
I quote, “ The use of video discs in classroom instruction
is increasing every year
and promises to revolutionize what will happen in the classroom of tomorrow.”
Videodiscs? Yeah, those giant oversized CD things.
Remember when they revolutionized education?
如今 很多东西都准备革新教育 比如
Nowadays plenty of things are poised to revolutionize education like,
电子白板 智能手机 平板电脑 和慕课
smartboards, smartphones, tablets, and M.O.O.C.s.
Those are massive open online courses.
And some belief we’re getting
close to universal teaching machine,
a computer so quick and well-programmed that it ’ s basically
like having your own personal tutor in a machine.
A student could work through well-structured
以他们自己的节奏 得到即时的 个性化的反馈
lessons at their own pace receiving immediate and personally-tailored feedback,
and all without the interference of a meddlesome andexpensive teacher.
Do these claims sound familiar?
Over the past 100 years,
a lot of areas of life have been revolutionized,
but education is not one of them.
By in large, students are still taught in groups by a single teacher.
And that is not what a revolution looks like.
Some might blame this state of affairs on
the inertia of our educational institutions.
It’s just too hard to get a huge bureaucracy to change.
But I think the reason
technology hasn ’ t revolutionized education is something else,
something that goes to the very heart of what education is.
Let’s consider the process of learning.
Say you want to teach someone how a human heart pumps blood.
Which learning aid do you think would be more effective,
this animation with narration
or this set of static picture with text?
Obviously the animation is better.
I mean for one thing it shows exactly what the heart does.
For decades, educational research
focused on questions like this.
Does a videopromote learning better than a book?
Are live lectures more effective than televised lectures?
Is animation better than static graphics?
In all well-controlled studies, the resultis no significant difference.
That is, so long as the content is equivalent
between the two treatments, the learning outcomes
are the same with all different media.
How is this possible?
How can something which
seems so powerful, like animation,
be no more effective than static graphics?
Well for one thing,
animations are fleeting and
so you might miss something as they go by.
此外 既然对你来说 所有部分都是已经做好的动画
Plus, since the parts are animated for you,
you don ’ t have to mentally envision how the parts are moving.
And so you don’t have to invest as much mental effort which would
make it more memorable.
In fact, sometimes static graphics perform better than animations.
And I think this points to a really fundamental aspect of education which is,
it doesn ’ t matter what happens around the learner.
We are not limited by the experiences we can give to students.
What limits learning is what can happen inside the student’s head.
That is where the important part of learningtakes place.
No technology is inherently superior to any other.
Researchers spent so much time investigating whether one medium or technology
was more effective than another
that they failed to investigate exactly how to use the
technology to promote meaningful thought processes.
So the question really is what experiences
promote the kind of thinking that is required for learning?
Recently, that research is being conducted
and we’re finding out some prettyimportant stuff.
I mean it may seem obvious,
but it turns out learning with words and pictures together,
whether they ’ re animation and narration or static pictures and text,
works better than words alone.
Also, we see that
anything which is extraneous needs to be eliminated from a lesson.
For example, on-screen text competes with visuals,
so learners perform better when it is omitted than when it is present.
Now that we know how best to make educational videos,
and any experience can be simulatedin the video setting,
YouTube must be the platform that will revolutionize education.
I mean the number of educational videos on YouTube is increasing every day.
So why do we need teachers?
Well, if you think that the fundamental job of a teacher is to transmit
information from their head to their students,
then you’re right, they are obsolete.
I mean, you probably imagine a classroom where
this teacher is spewing out facts at a pace
which is appropriate for one student, too fast for half,
and too slow for the rest.
Luckily the fundamental role of a teachers is not to deliver information.
It is to guide the social process of learning.
The job of a teacher is to inspire, to challenge,
to excite their students to want to learn.
是的 他们也会解释 说明 展示
Yes, they also do explain and demonstrate and show things,
but fundamentally that is beside the point.
The most important thing a teacher
does is make every student feel like they are important,
to make them feel accountable
for doing the work of learning.
All of this is not to say technology has had no impact on education.
Students and teachers work and communicate via computers.
And videos are used both inside and outside of classrooms.
But all of this is best characterized as an evolution, not a revolution.
The foundation of education is still based on
the social interaction between teachers and students.
For as transformative as each new technology seems to be,
like motion pictures or computer or smartboards,
what really matters is what happens
inside the learner ’ s head.
And making a learner think seems best achieved in a social environment
with other learners and a caring teacher.