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技术变革教育?为什么这么难? – 译学馆
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技术变革教育?为什么这么难?

This Will Revolutionize Education

这将彻底变革教育
This will revolutionize education.
迄今没有哪个预言像此预言般被频繁引用 也不像此预言一样错误
No prediction has been made as often or as incorrectly as that one.
在1922年
In 1922,
托马斯·爱迪生宣称
it was Thomas Edison who declared that,
电影注定
“ The motion picture is destined
要革新我们的教育系统 在几年内
to revolutionize our educational system and that in a few years,
它将在很大程度上代替
it will supplant largely,
但也不是完全取代 教科书的使用
if not entirely, the use of textbooks.”
是的 你知道那是如何实现的吗
Yeah. And you know how that worked out?
20世纪30年代 通过收音机
the 1930s it was radio.
想法就是 你可以直接地发送专家(声音)到教室
The idea was you could beam experts directly into classrooms,
以更低的成本提高针对更多学生的教育质量
improving the quality of education for more students at lower cost.
那将意味着你只需更少的熟练教师
And that would mean you require fewer skilled teachers,
这是所有教育革命所推崇的共同主题
a theme common to all of the proposed education revolutions,
比如20世纪50-60年代的教育电视
like that of educational television in the 1950s and 60s.
(当时的)研究旨在确定
Studies were conducted to determine
学生是否更喜欢看讲座现场
whether students preferred watching a lecture live,
或是坐在邻近的教室里
or sitting in an adjacent room where
教室里闭路电视广播同样的讲座
the same lecture was broadcast via closed circuit TV.
你倾向哪种
What would you prefer?
在80年代毫无争议的是
In the 80s there was no debating.
计算机是我们教育困境的革命性解决方案
Computers were the revolutionary solution to our education woes.
它们是视听教学的 交互的
They were audiovisual, interactive,
可编程的 去做几乎你喜欢的任何事
and could be programmed to do almost anything you like.
那时候 它们能运行Oregon Trail
Well at the time, they could run Oregon Trail.
它们的潜力是显而易见的
But their potential was obvious.
研究者们猜想 如果他们能教小孩子编程
Researches suspected that if they could teach kids to program,
讲述如何在屏幕上移动乌龟
say how to move a turtle around a screen,
那么他们程序推理能力也将提高
then their procedural reasoning skills would also improve.
后来怎样了呢?
So how did it go?
学生们更擅长编程(乌龟)
Well the students got better at programming the turtle,
但是他们的推理能力没有得到提高
but their reasoning skills were unaffected.
即使到了90年代 我们也没有
Even by the 1990s we had not learned
从过去的预测中吸取教训
from the failure of our past predictions and
我引言 在课堂教学中 视频光碟的使用
I quote, “ The use of video discs in classroom instruction
每年都在增加
is increasing every year
预示着将在未来课堂发生变革
and promises to revolutionize what will happen in the classroom of tomorrow.”
视频光碟?是的 那些超大规格的CD
Videodiscs? Yeah, those giant oversized CD things.
还记得它们变革教育的时候吗?
Remember when they revolutionized education?
如今 很多东西都准备革新教育 比如
Nowadays plenty of things are poised to revolutionize education like,
电子白板 智能手机 平板电脑 和慕课
smartboards, smartphones, tablets, and M.O.O.C.s.
即大规模开放在线课程
Those are massive open online courses.
一些人相信我们已经
And some belief we’re getting
离通用的教学机器很近了
close to universal teaching machine,
一台计算机速度如此快 程序设计得很好
a computer so quick and well-programmed that it ’ s basically
基本像是拥有一个机器里的私人教师
like having your own personal tutor in a machine.
一个学生能够通过良好的结构课程
A student could work through well-structured
以他们自己的节奏 得到即时的 个性化的反馈
lessons at their own pace receiving immediate and personally-tailored feedback,
且全程没有来自好干涉又收费高昂的教师的干扰
and all without the interference of a meddlesome andexpensive teacher.
这些说法听起来耳熟吗
Do these claims sound familiar?
在过去的100年中
Over the past 100 years,
生活大面积翻天覆地 但教育
a lot of areas of life have been revolutionized,
并不是其中之一
but education is not one of them.
总的来说 学生仍旧以群体形式由一个老师授课
By in large, students are still taught in groups by a single teacher.
那看上去不像变革
And that is not what a revolution looks like.
有些人可能会把这归咎于
Some might blame this state of affairs on
我们教育机构的惰性
the inertia of our educational institutions.
要改变一个庞大的官僚机构实在是太难了
It’s just too hard to get a huge bureaucracy to change.
但我认为
But I think the reason
技术未能彻底变革教育的原因是其他原因
technology hasn ’ t revolutionized education is something else,
而这就是教育的实质核心
something that goes to the very heart of what education is.
让我们考虑一下学习的过程
Let’s consider the process of learning.
如果你想要教某人 人类的心脏是怎样泵血的
Say you want to teach someone how a human heart pumps blood.
你认为哪种学习帮助将更有效
Which learning aid do you think would be more effective,
是这种带解说的动画
this animation with narration
还是这种含文字的静态图?
or this set of static picture with text?
显然动画效果更好
Obviously the animation is better.
我想说的是 它精确地显示了心脏的功能
I mean for one thing it shows exactly what the heart does.
数十年来 教育研究
For decades, educational research
聚焦于此类问题
focused on questions like this.
视频是否比书本更能提升学习
Does a videopromote learning better than a book?
现场讲座比电视转播的讲座更有效吗
Are live lectures more effective than televised lectures?
动画比静态图更好吗?
Is animation better than static graphics?
在所有对照研究中 结果都没有显著差异
In all well-controlled studies, the resultis no significant difference.
也就是说 只要两种方法的内容是等价的
That is, so long as the content is equivalent
那么所有不同媒体的学习效果
between the two treatments, the learning outcomes
都是相同的
are the same with all different media.
这怎么可能呢
How is this possible?
事情怎会这样
How can something which
像动画 看上去如此给力
seems so powerful, like animation,
没法比静态图更有效了
be no more effective than static graphics?
从其中某一方面来说
Well for one thing,
动画是转瞬即逝的
animations are fleeting and
随着动画的演示 那么你可能会错过一些东西
so you might miss something as they go by.
此外 既然对你来说 所有部分都是已经做好的动画
Plus, since the parts are animated for you,
你不必在心理上预想 每一部分是怎样运动的
you don ’ t have to mentally envision how the parts are moving.
所以你不需要 投入太多精力来
And so you don’t have to invest as much mental effort which would
让它更令人难忘
make it more memorable.
事实上 有时候静态图比动画效果更好
In fact, sometimes static graphics perform better than animations.
我认为这说明了教育的一个基本方面
And I think this points to a really fundamental aspect of education which is,
那就是 学习者外在发生什么并不重要
it doesn ’ t matter what happens around the learner.
我们不能仅限于给学生传授我们能够传授的经验
We are not limited by the experiences we can give to students.
限制学习的是学生头脑里发生的东西
What limits learning is what can happen inside the student’s head.
那就是学习的重要部分发生的位置
That is where the important part of learningtakes place.
没有一种技术一定优于其它任何技术
No technology is inherently superior to any other.
研究人员花了大量时间研究一种媒介或技术
Researchers spent so much time investigating whether one medium or technology
是否比另一种技术更有效
was more effective than another
他们未能准确地研究如何利用
that they failed to investigate exactly how to use the
这项技术来促进有意义的思维过程
technology to promote meaningful thought processes.
因此问题实际上是 什么经验
So the question really is what experiences
促进了学习所需的思考
promote the kind of thinking that is required for learning?
最近这项研究正在进行中
Recently, that research is being conducted
我们发现了一些非常重要的东西
and we’re finding out some prettyimportant stuff.
我的意思是 它看上去显而易见
I mean it may seem obvious,
但事实证明 图文结合的学习
but it turns out learning with words and pictures together,
无论是叙述性动画或静态图和文字
whether they ’ re animation and narration or static pictures and text,
都比单单文字要更好
works better than words alone.
同时我们也看到
Also, we see that
任何无关的东西都需要从课堂上清除
anything which is extraneous needs to be eliminated from a lesson.
举个例子 屏显文字与图像相对比
For example, on-screen text competes with visuals,
当略去文字而不是显现文字时 学习者学得更好
so learners perform better when it is omitted than when it is present.
现在我们知道如何最好地制作教育视频
Now that we know how best to make educational videos,
任何体验都能在视频设置中进行模拟
and any experience can be simulatedin the video setting,
油管必是能够变革教育的平台
YouTube must be the platform that will revolutionize education.
我意思是油管上的教育视频数量每日递增
I mean the number of educational videos on YouTube is increasing every day.
那么为何 我们需要教师呢?
So why do we need teachers?
如果你认为 一个教师的基本工作就是
Well, if you think that the fundamental job of a teacher is to transmit
把信息从他们的大脑传递给学生
information from their head to their students,
是的 他们确实是过时的
then you’re right, they are obsolete.
我是说 你可以想象在一个教室里
I mean, you probably imagine a classroom where
教师一次性灌输大量知识
this teacher is spewing out facts at a pace
这种做法只对某一个学生而言是合适的 对半数学生而言则太快
which is appropriate for one student, too fast for half,
对其余学生而言又太慢
and too slow for the rest.
幸好教师的基础角色不是传递信息
Luckily the fundamental role of a teachers is not to deliver information.
而是指导(学生)社会化过程的学习
It is to guide the social process of learning.
教师的工作是激励 挑战
The job of a teacher is to inspire, to challenge,
激发学生的学习欲望
to excite their students to want to learn.
是的 他们也会解释 说明 展示
Yes, they also do explain and demonstrate and show things,
但基本上这是无关紧要的
but fundamentally that is beside the point.
老师所做的最重要的事情
The most important thing a teacher
是让每个学生都觉得自己很重要
does is make every student feel like they are important,
使得他们感受有责任
to make them feel accountable
去学习
for doing the work of learning.
但这一切并不是说科技对教育没有影响
All of this is not to say technology has had no impact on education.
学生和教师 通过计算机工作和交流
Students and teachers work and communicate via computers.
视频可用于教堂内外
And videos are used both inside and outside of classrooms.
但所有这些最好认为是一次进化 而不是变革
But all of this is best characterized as an evolution, not a revolution.
教育的基础仍根植于
The foundation of education is still based on
师生之间社会交互
the social interaction between teachers and students.
由于每一项新技术似乎都具有变革意义
For as transformative as each new technology seems to be,
像电影或计算机或电子白板
like motion pictures or computer or smartboards,
真正重要的是学习者头脑里
what really matters is what happens
发生了什么
inside the learner ’ s head.
让学习者同其它学习者一起 在一名细心的老师的指引下
And making a learner think seems best achieved in a social environment
在互动环境中达到最佳的学习效果
with other learners and a caring teacher.

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视频概述

从收音机到电视电影,从静态图、文到动画,以及计算机编程,不同技术对学习效果的影响是相同的。重要的是学生头脑的内在发生。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

陶依云

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GEmuEWjHr5c

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