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这是一个能让你起鸡皮疙瘩的视频 – 译学馆
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这是一个能让你起鸡皮疙瘩的视频

This Video May Give You Goose Bumps

本视频需要你集中精力
This… requires your full attention.
如果有头戴式耳机或耳塞式耳机 就戴上吧
And if you have headphones or earbuds, use them now!
这样就能拥有更好的体验
They’ll make the experience better.
好了 咱们开始吧
Okay, here we go.
船来了
There’s a boat.
杰克
Jack.
[音乐]
[Music]
这些片段曾被用于科学研究
All of these clips have been used in scientific studies
其中研究人员试着让人们的汗毛竖起来
where researchers have tried to make people ’ s hair stand on end;
导致我们平常所说的
and cause what we commonly know as
鸡皮疙瘩 鹅皮 寒栗疙瘩 鹅皮疙瘩
goose bumps, goose flesh, chilly bumps, or goose pimples.
这些现象的科学术语是“竖毛反射”
The scientific term for this is the pilomotor reflex
或者“立毛”
or “piloerection”…
一说这个词我就起鸡皮疙瘩
I probably won’t use that word again.
实际上 鸡皮疙瘩的成因多种多样
Really, all sorts of things can give you goosebumps.
请你想一下最近一次你起鸡皮疙瘩的经历
And I want you to think of the last time you remember experiencing them.
本视频开始的时候吗?
Was it at the beginning of this video?
因为寒冷而起鸡皮疙瘩?
And if not, was it from cold?
或者因为音乐?
Or music?
因为电影?
A movie?
你会因为某些事产生紧张的情绪反应吗?
Were you just having an intense emotionalresponse to something?
最明显的起鸡皮疙瘩的时刻是
The most obvious time we experience goosebumps is
当我们感觉寒冷时
when we’re cold.
为什么呢
In this case,
因为竖起的汗毛在皮肤和冷空气之间
your hair standing on end creates a buffer
起到缓冲作用
between your skin and the cold air,
帮你调节体温
helping you thermoregulate.
这很有道理
This makes sense,
但是我们听音乐 看电影时
but why do we also get goosebumps
为什么也起鸡皮疙瘩呢?
from listening to music or watching a movie?
咱们来一探究竟吧
Let’s take a closer look.
体内的每根汗毛底部
There ’ s a tiny muscle at the base
都有一块小小的肌肉
of every individual hair on your body,
也就是 竖毛肌
the arrector pili.
当竖毛肌收缩时
When these muscles contract,
就会牵动汗毛
they pull on your hairs,
使汗毛竖起来
making them stand upright.
当竖毛肌放松时
And when they relax,
汗毛就会再次躺平
the hair lies flat again.
竖毛肌是“不随意肌”
These are involuntary muscles and they ’ re part
是人体“交感神经系统”的一部分
of our sympathetic nervous system,
负责人体的大多数战斗反应 逃离反应
which is responsible for most fight or flight responses.
战斗或逃离反应和我们的情绪状态紧密相连
The reaction is closely tied to our emotional state.
所以除了寒冷以外
And apart from being cold,
电影也是最好的鸡皮疙瘩触发器
this is why movies may be the best trigger for goosebumps.
电影往往模拟社会互动
Movies tend to simulate social interactions,
还有视听刺激的结合能够
and the combination of both audio and visual
触发紧张的逃离或战斗反应
stimuli can trigger intense flight or fight responses,
导致肾上腺素的释放
resulting in adrenaline release,
然后小小的竖毛肌就会收缩
and that tiny arrector pili muscle contraction.
而对绝大多数成年人来说
But listening to music also causes goosebumps
听音乐也能引起鸡皮疙瘩
in a vast majority of adults –
不过原因有细微差别
though the reasons are a little more nuanced.
理论证明
One theory suggests that just the
音乐的结构和性质本身足够引起鸡皮疙瘩
structure and nature of music itself are sufficient to cause goosebumps
因为它能引起大脑反应
because it creates anticipation in the brain.
我们的大脑经常自动预测
Often, our minds automatically try to predict
歌曲中心动的地方
what fits next within a song,
而在我们音乐的同时体内会形成“赌注”
and the internal stakes build while we listen.
如果我们的预测正确
If our predictions are correct,
到时候就会释放多巴胺
we receive a dopamine release and eventually this can
最终导致寒冷的感觉
be enough to cause a chilling sensation.
一项研究表明
One study found that
塞缪尔·巴伯的弦乐器慢板乐章
Samuel Barber ’ s Adagio for Strings,
就是我们现在播放的背景乐
what ’ s playing in the background right now,
能够非常奏效地引起多数人的鸡皮疙瘩
was extremely effective in causing goosebumps in a majority of people.
另一个理论表明
Another theory suggests that sad songs are more
悲伤的音乐比欢喜的音乐更能引起寒栗
likely to cause chills than happy songs,
不过因人而异
and depending on who you ask,
可能是因为悲伤或怀旧的音乐
this could be because sad or nostalgic music recreates the
能够创造一种社会迷失的寒冷感
chilling feeling of social loss.
与家庭和社会团体的隔离感
Feeling separate from your family or social group
通常能引起鸡皮疙瘩
is known to give rise to goosebumps,
但原因不明
but the reason why isn’t well understood.
我们知道因音乐而在脊柱上形成的寒颤
We do know that getting shivers down the spine
它和其它能产生愉悦感的东西
from music activates the same brain structures
比如像美食和某些药物一样
as other things that make us feel euphoric –
激活相同的脑部结构
like food and some drugs.
脑成像研究发现
Brain imaging studies have found
鸡皮疙瘩能够活跃扁桃腺
that goosebumps activates structures like the amygdala and
和前额皮质之类的结构
parts of the prefrontal cortex,
这些结构能产生愉悦感和满足感
and they ’ re commonly involved in pleasure and reward.
寒栗让我们感觉很棒
Getting the chills can make us feel good,
但你想啊
but when you think about it,
如果没有寒栗
if we didn ’ t get them,
许多其它东西也能引起愉悦感
lots of other things would make us feel good too.
比如朋友 蛋糕
Like our friends, or cake.
鸡皮疙瘩…没啥用
Goosebumps… are pretty useless.
但对猫 狗和其它动物来说
But chills are more useful to cats,
寒栗非常有用
dogs and many other animals–
当它们害怕时
their hair stands on end when
就会炸毛
they’re especially worked up or afraid.
竖毛反射让它们看起来大了一圈
The same pilomotor reflex that we get makes them look bigger,
也更吓人了 或许还能震慑一下捕食者
scarier and may deter predators.
假如你是一只针鼹鼠
Imagine you’re an echidna.
你的刚毛底部的成束肌肉
Similar bundles of muscles
使你能够自主地移动毛发
at the base of their quills allows them to move their quills independently,
来保护自己
for protection.
至于我们 鸡皮疙瘩则是我们的进化残余物
And for us, goosebumps are a remnant of evolution.
有衣时代以前 毛发能保暖
Our hair standing on end kept us warm
炸个毛还能震慑捕食者
before clothing and it may have deterred predators as well.
不夸张地说 你能看到因为寒栗起的鸡皮疙瘩
These chills are a weird and wonderful quirk
是我们生命现象里的
of our biology that you can, quite literally,
一个不可思议而有趣的怪现象
see on the skin of a goose.
鸡皮疙瘩在不同的国家名称各异:
Goosebumps have many different names in different countries –
鹅皮 母鸡皮
Goose skin, skin of the hen,
鸡皮 鸭皮 鸟皮
chicken skin, duck skin and bird skin.
请在评论中告诉我你们的鸡皮疙瘩叫什么
Let me know what you call it,
如果有让你起鸡皮疙瘩的电影和音乐
and if there ’ s any movies or songs that specifically cause it,
请在评论区告诉我们
down in the comments.

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视频概述

看电影、听音乐和寒冷都能导致鸡皮疙瘩的产生,本视频介绍了鸡皮疙瘩的成因。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=grjm3JqQYNM

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