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激流——到海滩去的惊险与刺激 – 译学馆
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激流——到海滩去的惊险与刺激

This Takes Hundreds of Lives Each Year, But Only 5% Know About It!

嗨 想要去海滩?哇哦 那听好了!
Hey! Going to the beach? Wo-ah. Listen up!
海滩每年会带走数百条生命
This phenomenon takes hundreds of lives each year.
但是只有5%的人知道这一点
But only 5% of people know about it.
任何有经验的救生员都会警告你
Any experienced lifeguard will warn you
海滩遇险是一种致命的现象
about a deadly phenomenon that claims the lives
而美国每年去海滩的人中有100多个被夺去生命
of more than one hundred American beach goers every year.
事实上 救生员进行的80%的救援
In fact, about 80% of all rescues that lifeguards make
和“鲨鱼”“有毒的水母”之类的之间没关系
have a connection to this danger.
而和海滩遇险有关
No, it’s not ‘sharks’ or ‘poisonous jellyfish’ or anything like that.
海洋中会发生在你身上的最危险的事情就是
The most treacherous thing that can happen to you in the ocean,
一种被称作“激流”的完全自然现象
it’s a totally natural phenomena called a rip current.
我们会告诉你关于海滩遇险你所需要知道的一切
We’re gonna tell you everything you need to know about it
从而保证你在海水里的安全
in order to stay safe in ocean waters.
但在那之前
But before we do that,
请抓住机会点击那个大大的红色按钮
take this opportunity to hit that big red button
来订阅这个“生活中的光明面”频道
and subscribe to the BRIGHT SIDE of life.
添加订阅之后
While you add it,
请打开通知按钮
ring the notification bell,
这样你就会一直第一时间看到我们的日常更新
so you’ll always be the first to see our daily updates.
什么是激流 为何它如此致命?
What is a rip current and how is it so deadly?
激流基本上是从海岸流走的
A rip is basically a strong current on the surface of the ocean
海洋表面的猛烈水流
that flows away from the shore.
激流形成因素是各不相同的
Different factors can cause the rip current to form.
例如 如果海浪高度过于迅速地发生改变
For instance, if wave heights change too rapidly,
通常就会出现激流
a rip will usually appear.
这种激流会出现在防洪堤
This type of current can show up near piers,
以及船坞 港口附近
boarding docks and groins,
它并非自发形成
not the bodily kind,
但保护海岸免于侵蚀的那些建筑构造
but the structures built to protect the shore from erosion
也会引起激流
that go by the same name.
还有 当海里出现小断层或沙洲时
Also when there are some breaks and sandbars,
水会通过这些水槽返回大海
water returns to the ocean through these channels.
这种情况通常发生在海滩附近
This usually happens near the beach
会造成极度猛烈的激流
and create extremely strong rip currents
而这种激流会待在相同的地方几周甚至数月
that can stay in the same place for weeks or even months.
但在任何情况下
But in any case,
所有激流产生的主要材料是破碎波
the main ingredient for all rip currents is breaking waves.
如果没有破碎的波浪
If there are no breaking waves,
你就不用担心会产生任何激流
you don’t have to worry about any rips.
激流的主要危险在于
The main danger of a rip is that
它是从海岸向海里流动的
it flows seaward away from the shore,
所以很容易把还没意识到危险的游泳者卷入其中
so it can easily pull unaware swimmers with it.
激流能有多危险?
How dangerous a rip can be?
这取决于天气 海滩的形状 潮汐
Depends on the weather, the shape of the beach,
以及其它因素
tides and other factors.
激流的平均移动速度是1-2英尺/秒
Average rip currents move at a speed of about 1 to 2 feet per second.
但是如果激流特别猛烈的话
But if a current is particularly strong,
就能以8英尺/秒的惊人速度把你卷入公海
it can pull you out into the open ocean at an astonishing 8 feet per second.
在激流的冲击下 即使最好的奥林匹克游泳运动员
Even the best Olympic swimmer out there
也不能全身而退
wouldn’t be able to get back to the shore again.
激流就是这么强
Such a mighty current.
更糟的是
What’s worse,
激流往往会在短期内进行戏剧性加速
rips tend to gain speed dramatically over a short period of time.
许多去海滩不会游泳的人
A lot of beach goers who can’t swim
宁愿选择待在及腰深的水域
prefer to stay in waist-deep water.
因为他们脚踩到实地会觉得有安全感
Because they feel safe when their feet are touching the bottom.
但是激流中无处有安全
But there are no safe from rip currents.
因为激流会很容易地将你的脚带离地面
Because a rip can easily swipe you off your feet
并将你拉离海岸
and yank you away from the shore.
如果你不会游泳
And if you can’t swim,
结果就悲剧了
this can end tragically.
关于激流有各种各样的误解
There are all kinds of misconceptions surrounding rip currents.
一个最流行的就是激流会将你拉入水底
One of the most popular is that they’ll pull you underwater.
但事实上 激流不会让你下沉
But in reality, a rip won’t drown you.
它只会把你带离海岸
It’ll simply carry you away from the shore.
呼 我猜你松了一口气
Hoo that’s a relief. I guess.
另一个广泛传播的误解就是如果你卷入激流
Another widespread mis is that if you get caught in the rip current,
你就得永远待在海里了
it’ll keep pulling you out into the ocean forever.
再次声明 这种说法并不完全正确
Again, not quite.
是的 激流会远远地将你带进公海
Yes, a rip can pull you quite far into open waters.
但就算在最糟糕的情况下
But even in the worst case scenario,
你也不会发现自己远离海岸几英里
you won’t find yourself miles away from the shore.
不过你可能得游上一段时间
You’ll probably just have to swim a pretty long way
才能回到海滩
to get back to the beach.
有一种情况是完全有可能的
It’s also entirely possible,
非常有可能的
and quite probable
即激流会自己把你带回来
that the rip itself will bring you back.
因为90%的激流
And that’s because 90% of rip currents
会进行巨大的圆圈运动
move in gigantic circles.
这意味着它们会从浅水区流向公海
This means that they flow from the shallow waters
然后再流回来
to the open ocean and then back again.
另一个误解就是 如果你看不到激流
There’s also a misconception that if you don’t see a rip current,
就无需担心
you don’t need to worry.
但是海水本身完全可以形成激流
But these things can totally form out of the blue.
比如在来自不同方向的海浪相互碰撞的情况下
like if several waves coming from different directions crushing into each other.
嘣 现在离岸流产生了
Boom, you now have a rip tide.
如果这个海滩因激流而恶名昭彰
So if the beach here visiting is infamous for rip currents,
那你就要一直保持额外的谨慎
always be extra cautious.
如何确认激流呢?
How to identify a rip current?
请往下看
Going off that last note.
要保持额外的谨慎以及保证海滩安全
In order to be extra careful and safe for the beach,
你需要定位激流的发生地点
you need to know how to spot to a rip current.
激流经常看起来像两个破碎海浪之间的平坦地带
It often looks like a compage of water between breaking waves,
第一眼看上去就像最好的进水区域
which at first glance seems like the best place to enter the water.
但不要被表面的平静欺骗
But don’t let the tranquility deceive you.
因为你可能无意中挑选了一个最危险的游泳区域
Because you might inadvertently pick the most dangerous place to swim.
以下几点也表明有激流的存在
The following sides can also indicate the presence of a rip current.
1. 一些比其它水域颜色深的地方
Some area has a deeper darker color than the rest of the water.
2. 流动的海浪有间断
There’s a break in the coming waves.
3. 有海草和泡沫从海里被冲向海岸
There’s seaweed and foam moving toward the shore from the ocean.
4. 波浪起伏之地
You see an area of choppy water.
陷入激流的你能做什么?
What to do if you’ve been caught in a rip current?
当一个人陷入激流
When a person gets caught in a rip,
他的行动就决定了他的命运 终点
their actions determine their fate, period.
你首先而又完全有必要做的一点就是保持冷静
The first thing you absolutely must do is stay calm.
恐慌没有用
Panicking does not help.
实际上 当你不能克服恐慌时
In fact, it ends up costing people their lives
它最终会让你付出生命的代价
when they’re overcome by it.
第二 你需要保持体力
Second, you need to conserve energy.
不要试图顽抗激流并游向海岸
Do not attempt to swim against the rip current toward the shore.
因为甚至最弱的激流动得也比你快
Even the weakest rips move faster than you can swim.
如果你试图和激流作斗争
If you try to fight the current,
你就会花光力量和体力
you’ll just expend all your energy and strength,
落得个悲剧的下场
which will lead you tragic consequences.
正如我们已经提到的
As we already mentioned,
绝大多数激流沿着巨大的圆圈移动
the vast majority of rip currents move in huge circles.
它们的典型离岸流速是160-300英尺
They typically flow 160 to 300 feet offshore
然后再以这个速度返回
and then come back around.
但是仍然要提一下顾问劳勃·布兰德教授
But still, associate professor Rob Brander
他的研究领域是激流 海滩危害与安全
whose field of research is rip currents and beach hazards and safety
他测到激流的离岸速度是1300英尺
measured rips that went up to 1300 feet away from the shore.
布兰德博士还在激流中完成了
Doctor Brander also established that there it isn’t just one
不止一次成功的战略逃脱
overachieving escape strategy from a rip current.
你应该将环境和激流特征考虑在内
You should take into consideration the conditions and the rip features.
最好的行动办法就是保持飘浮状态
The best thing you can do is stay afloat.
请务必保持手臂高举 以引起救生员的注意
Remember to hold your hands up to get the lifeguards’ attention
还要发出你需要救援的信号
and signal that you need help.
之后 你有两个选择
After that, you have two options.
如果激流循环流动
If the rip is circulating,
它最终会将你带到沙滩或破碎波中
it will eventually bring you back either to a sandbank
从而带你回到海岸
or to breaking waves that’ll take you back to the shore.
它也会一直把你往海里带 直到破碎波消失
It could also just take you seaward until there’re no more breaking waves.
此刻 激流就不再存在了
At that point, the current ceases to exist.
那么你可以等待救生员 甚至自己游回海岸
And you can wait for rescuers or even swim back to the shore.
只需确保你沿着激流圈游动即可
Just make sure you’re swimming around the rip.
然而第二种方法仅在你泳技超高的情况下才起作用
The second option will only work for really good swimmers.
如果你擅长游泳
If you’re one of them,
那你可以试着平行于海岸游动
you can try to swim parallel to the beach
以摆脱激流
to get out of the current.
一些情况下 你有可能破浪前行
In some cases, it’s possible to break free this way.
但这仍然是一个主观性很大的争议
But this is still a subjective on-going debate.
杰米·麦克曼博士是一位海洋学教授
Dr. Jamie MacMahan, a professor of oceanography,
他一度被困在激流里
was once caught in a rip current himself.
好吧 他并不是真正的被困
Well, he wasn’t really caught.
因为他是自愿被困的
But put himself in one at it’s on free will.
作为蒙特利学院海军研究院的激流专家
As a rip current expert at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey CA,
他决定从内部调查激流
he decided to research rip currents from the inside
并为国家海洋和大气管理局录制安全视频
and record a safety video for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.
所以他一度被困在激流里
At one point, well, he was trapped in the current.
他试图遵循救生方针 以平行于海岸的姿势游向海岸
He tried to follow lifesaving guidelines and swim parallel to the shore,
但他意识到自己做不到
but realize he couldn’t do it
因为激流并没对他屈服
because the rip wasn’t giving in.
而麦克曼博士在这方面是非常有经验的
Dr. MacMahan is very experienced with this sort of stuff,
这也是他不会卷入突发危险的原因
which is why he wasn’t in any immediate danger.
但是这种情况使他思考:
But the situation made him think,
可能以平行的姿势游向海滩
perhaps trying to reach the beach, swimming parallel to it
并不是最好的逃生策略
isn’t the best escape strategy.
由此麦克曼使用GPS设备开始了自己的研究
He started his own research using GPS devices
他在法国 英国和美国追踪激流
to track rip currents in France, England and the US.
除此以外 他自己也对跳遍全球激流这一举动
On top of that, he himself has eagerly jumped into rips
怀着深切的渴望
all over the globe.
这就是对事业的献身精神
Talk about dedication to your work.
在庞大的激流研究中
Among the great number of currency studied,
仅有10-20%的激流没有返回海岸
only 10 to 20% did not return back to the shore.
而其它都以圆圈运动
The rest of them moved in circles.
所以如果你被困在激流中
So, if you get trapped in a rip,
你真的不会知道它要流往何处
you can’t really know where it’s flowing.
所以 若你以平行于海滩的体位
Therefore, swimming parallel to the beach
顽抗激流
leaves you with a 50/50 chance
那你成功的机会就是50%
that you’ll be struggling against the hazardous current.
基于调查所得出的结论
The conclusions made based on these research
肯定不同于大多数人被告知的事实
are certainly different from what most people are told.
根据麦克曼博士的观点 当你卷入激流时
According to Dr. MacMahan, when caught in a rip current,
你应该放松 随水流动
you should just relax and go with the flow.
他说 这样的话
He says the chances are
水流就很有可能带你返回海岸
it’ll bring you back to the shore in a few minutes.
在激流研究社区
MacMahan’s research has definitely sparked a number of
麦克曼的研究引发热烈讨论
heated discussions within the rip currents research community.
麦克曼的研究在澳大利亚也很知名
And well his findings are used in Australia
能够教人们如何在危险的激流中生存
to teach people how to survive dangerous rips.
然而对于麦克曼的结论和建议 一些国家的人们不以为然
In some countries, his conclusions and recommendations are ignored
甚至认为它们存在潜在的致命性
or even consider potentially fatal.
在任何情况下 被卷入激流时
In any case, the main reason why people lose their lives
人们丢失生命的主要原因在于
when stuck in a rip current
恐慌
comes down to panic.
当人们发现自己突然以一种较快的速度
When they find themselves suddenly being pulled away
被带离海岸时
from the shore at a high speed,
恐惧就席卷而来 他们就开始惊慌失措
terror rinses, they start to panic
此时他们就会因此不战自败 沉入海底
where themselves out in the fight and drown because of it.
而你应做的就是保持冷静
What you should do instead is stay calm,
掌控情境
take control of the situation,
保持飘浮状态 并权衡利弊
keep afloat, weigh your options
不要让自己筋疲力尽
and don’t exhaust yourself.
如果你采用了这些步骤
If you take these steps,
你就能有更大的可能性逃出可怕的激流
you’ll have a much better chance of
得以续命
getting out of this horrible situation alive.
那么你看到过(或卷入过)激流吗?
So, have you ever seen (or been caught in) a rip tide?
为了逃脱你会做或者做过了什么?
What would you do or have you done to escape on?
请在下方评论中告诉我们关于此话题你的经历和观点
Let us know about your experiences and opinions on the topic in the comments below!
我们希望这些救命信息对你有所帮助
We hope this lifesaving information has been useful for you.
如果确实如此 请给本视屏点赞并把它发送给你所认识的人
And if it has, give the video a like and send it to everyone you know.
到海滩去请注意安全 下次“生活中的光明面”我们再见
Stay safe out there, and we’ll see you next time on the BRIGHT SIDE of Life.

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视频概述

本视频介绍了对海滩遇险的误解,激流的成因、判定以及被卷入激流后如何最大程度提高生存几率。

听录译者

RyanZ

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9IFaBH2vdk

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