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这张照片差点引发核战 – 译学馆
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这张照片差点引发核战

This photo almost started a nuclear war

1962年10月22日
October 22, 1962.
美国总统肯尼迪向古巴部署了一支舰队
US President John F Kennedy deploys a fleet of warships to Cuba.
以拦截途中的苏联货船
To intercept Soviet cargo ships, which arealready on the way…
这些货船正向岛上运输着核导弹
…transporting nuclear missiles to the island.
对这次即将开始的决战 肯尼迪作出战略性的指示
Kennedy strategically called the impendingshowdown: KENNEDY:
“严格把控所有进攻性军事装备”
“a strict quarantine of all offensivemilitary equipment.”
而这次行动事实上
What it really was,
是一次封锁 即一次侵略
was a blockade – which is an act of aggression.
任何一方的一步错误行动都会引发全面的核战争
One wrong move on either side would trigger an all out nuclear war.
一周前 一切在这里开始
And it all started here, a week earlier.
这张航拍图 看起来没显示出太多内容
With an aerial photograph that doesn’t seemto show much…
除非你在寻找一些特别的东西
…unless you’re looking for something specific.
沃克斯观点 暗室
DARKROOM
第二次世界大战 反法西斯同盟几乎刚胜利
Pretty much immediately following the allied victory in World War II,
美国和苏联就成为了仇敌
the United States and Soviet Union became bitter enemies… …
开始了长达几十年的对全球影响力的争夺
kicking off a decades-long struggle for global influence known
也即“冷战”
as the “ Cold War ”.
间谍活动和情报活动是这场冷战的中心
Espionage and intelligence were at the center
最关键的是围绕着
of this conflict, most crucially surrounding
各自建立的能够造成空前破坏的核武器库
the mutual buildup of nuclear arsenals capable of unprecedented levels of destruction.
但美国最初很难追踪到他们的强硬对手
But the US initially had a hard time keeping track of their nemesis.
苏联是出了名的深藏不露
The Soviet Union was notoriously secretive,
对世界隐瞒自己的行踪
and hid itself – and its actions – from the world.
“一道铁幕在大陆上落下
CHURCHILL An iron curtain has descended acrossthe continent.
没有人知道苏联在不久的将来打算做什么”
Nobody knows what Soviet Russia intends to do in the immediate future.
然后 美国总统艾森豪威尔
Then-US President Dwight D Eisenhower saw
在第二次世界大战实验情报收集的基础上
a solution that built on experimental intelligence
提出了一个对策
gathering from World War II:
即 航拍
Aerial photo analysis.
在20世纪50年代末
In the late 1950s,
新的高空U-2侦察机将摄影侦察技术提升到更高的层次
the new high-altitude U-2 spy plane took photo reconnaissance to the next level
它装有一个强大的相机
It was equipped with a powerful camera andcould fly
并且可以在离地球表面70000英尺
at a staggering height of 70,000 feet… …or,
也就是大约13英里的惊人高度飞行
roughly 13 miles above Earth’s surface.
“这些相机据说
“ These cameras are described as capable
能够在40000英尺(12公里)外的轻击区
of spotting a golf ball on a putting-green
发现高尔夫球”
from 40,000 feet.”
1961年 艾森豪威尔授权建立一个新的中央情报局监视部门
In 1961, Eisenhower authorized the creationof a new surveillance arm of the CIA: the
国家照相判读中心(NPIC)
National Photographic Interpretation Center,or NPIC.
这个相片判读小组接受训练 学习摄影测量学
This small team of photo interpreters wastrained in photogrammetry…
即一门从照片中测量尺寸的科学
…the science of determining measurementsfrom photographs.
通过这种方法
Using this method,
一名专业的照片译者可以识别隐藏在照片细枝末节中的特定设备
an expert photo interpreter could identify specific equipment hidden in
然后确定核导弹基地建设的标志
the tiny details of photographs…… and recognize signs of nuclear missile site construction.
那么这一切与古巴又有什么关系呢?
So what’s all this got to do with Cuba?
1961年美国试图推翻古巴共产党政府
After the failed Bay of Pigs invasion in 1961,
入侵猪湾失败后
where the US attempted to overthrow Cuba’s
苏联和古巴之间的关系更加紧密
communist government, ties between the SovietUnion and Cuba strengthened.
美国担心苏联可能利用古巴作为核导弹基地
The US worried that the Soviets might use Cuba as a nuclear missile base.
一旦这样 他们会突然将西半球
If so, they would suddenly have the Western Hemisphere
置于核武器的范围内
within range of nuclear weapons.
中央情报局开始执行在古巴的U-2任务
The CIA began flying U-2 missions
把这些图片带给国家照相判读中心
over Cuba and bringing the imagery to the NPIC, whose
他们仔细研究了照片的每一个细节
photo interpreters pored over every detail,
寻找苏联在岛上的证据
searching for evidence of Soviet presenceon the island.
一次单独的U2任务
It was like looking
能覆盖大片土地 其产生的胶片及工作量
for a needle in a mile-long haystack – that’s how much film a single
就像是在一英里的草丛里找一根针
U-2 mission yields, covering huge amountsof land.
但是在1962年10月15日
But on October 15th, 1962, Dino Brugioni,
一名高级照片判读者 Dino Brugioni 发现了一些东西
a senior photo interpreter, found something.
这张照片无疑证明了
This photo proved, beyond doubt,
苏联正在古巴建造核导弹基地
that the Soviets were building nuclear missile sites in Cuba
Brugioni认出了按照已知苏联模式排列的军用帐篷 卡车
Brugioni identified military tents and trucks,arranged in known-Soviet patterns.
发射设备 以及最关键的
Launcher equipment. And,
长度为65英尺的导弹运输拖车
most critically, missile transport trailersmeasuring 65 feet in length. Which,
与在莫斯科拍摄的照片相比
when compared to a photo taken in Moscow,
该运输拖车与苏联的SS-4完美匹配
made it a perfect match for the Soviet SS-4… …
它有1100海里的航程
which had a range of 1,100 nautical miles,
这意味着 它可以到达远如华盛顿的美国城市
meaning American cities as far as WashingtonDC would be in reach.
当NPIC向肯尼迪通报他们的发现时
When the NPIC briefed Kennedy on what they’d found,
总统下令扩大U-2任务的规模
the president ordered a scaling up
以便拍摄和分析古巴各地
of U-2 missions to photograph and analyzeall of Cuba.
照片分析师每天向肯尼迪秘密更新其进展
Photo analysts updated Kennedy daily and in secret on their progress,
这给了肯尼迪时间来决定如何对抗苏联
which gave him time to decide how to confront the Soviet Union.
根据这些证据
Given the evidence,
肯尼迪被强烈建议 向导弹发射场发动空袭
Kennedy was strongly advised to launch air strikes against the missile
并入侵古巴
sites and invade Cuba.
但他采取了更谨慎的做法
But he took a more measured approach withhis – KENNEDY:
肯尼迪:“严格隔离所有进攻性军事装备”
“strict quarantine of all offensivemilitary equipment.”
这一做法导致了美国和苏联总理之间
Which kicked off 6 intense days between the US and the Soviet Union,
长达6天的紧张对话
with Soviet Premier
赫鲁晓夫称肯尼迪的行动为
Nikita Krushchev calling Kennedy’s
“把人类推向
move “ an act of aggression that pushes mankind
世界核武器战争深渊的侵略行为”
to the abyss of world nuclear missile war.” ARCHIVE:
档案:照片日夜不停地在处理
Round the clock processing
表明了 导弹发射场的工作
of their film shows that work on the missile sites
正在加速
is being accelerated.
当美国军队迅速动员起来
The damning photos were revealed to allies at the United Nations,
处于高度戒备状态
as the US military
且古巴准备好再次被入侵时
rapidly mobilized and was placed on high alert,
这些该死的照片被泄露了给联合国的其他国家
and Cuba prepared for another invasion.
当苏联货船到达检疫线时
But when Soviet freighters reached the quarantineline…. ARCHIVE:
档案:苏联包租的Amaruchla号船被拦截 登船
A Soviet-chartered vessel Amaruchla is stopped, boarded,
并接受了检查 然后获准前往古巴
and inspected, then cleared to proceed to Cuba.
很明显 装载攻击性武器的苏联货船已经掉头了
Apparently the Soviet vessels loaded withoffensive weapons have turned back.
几天后 肯尼迪收到赫鲁晓夫的消息
A few days later, Kennedy received a messagefrom Kruschev.
苏联同意从古巴撤军
The Soviet Union had agreed to withdraw from Cuba
作为交换 美国要拆除
in exchange for the US removing missiles
它在土耳其和意大利部署的导弹
it had placed in Turkey and Italy. So,
之后 核导弹发射场被拆除 苏联人也离开了
the nuclear missile sites were dismantledand the Soviets left.
他们的核导弹也被运回了铁幕
Transporting their nuclear missiles with themback across the Iron Curtain.
在给NPIC的个人感谢信中
In a personal thank you letter to the NPIC,
肯尼迪强调了
Kennedy emphasized the importance of the “ analysis
“分析和判读古巴照片”
and interpretation of the Cuban photography ”
对美国应对史称古巴导弹危机的重要性
in advising the US’s response in what is now called the Cuban Missile Crisis.
档案:总的来讲
ARCHIVE: In summary:
苏联确实进行了一次大胆的冒险
the Soviet Union did embark upon a bold venture to establish clandestinely
在西半球秘密建立了一个重要的进攻性武器基地
in the Western Hemisphere a major offensiveweapons base.
而他们的这项工作被阻止
That they were deterred in this effort is
很大程度上归因于
in large part attributable to the type
我们刚刚提到的侦察摄影技术
of reconnaissance photography that we havejust reviewed.

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视频概述

本片由一张照片引入,介绍了美苏冷战时期古巴导弹危机的经过

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

阿丁

审核员

审核员_XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5HRU5yonyK8

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