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超大黑洞的喷射速度达光速的99%

This Massive Black Hole Is Blasting a Jet at 99% the Speed of Light

In April of 2019, astronomers revealed
2019年4月 天文学家透露
they had successfully taken the first picture ever of a black hole.
他们第一次成功拍摄到黑洞的照片
Well, you know, the black hole’s silhouette at least,
你懂的 至少拍到了黑洞的轮廓
since it’s impossible to take a photo of a black hole itself
因为给黑洞本身拍照是不可能的
without crossing the event horizon and getting spaghetti-fied.
除非穿过事件视界 被引力拉成意大利面
Now, astronomers have announced that the same black hole has been observed
如今 天文学家声称 观测到同一黑洞
shooting jets of physical material out into space at insane speeds,
正以不可思议的速度向太空喷射物质
and at first glance,
一眼看上去
it looks like that material is traveling
似乎这种物质的运动速度
even faster than the speed of light.
甚至超过了光速
Wait what? That can’t be right.
等一下 那是不可能的
The black hole in question is M87*,
上述讨论中的黑洞是M87星系黑洞
the supermassive black hole
一个超大质量黑洞
in the center of the enormous elliptical galaxy Messier 87.
位于超巨椭圆星系梅西耶87的中心
M87* is roughly 55 million light-years away
M87离我们约有5,500万光年
and absolutely
它完全
dwarfs our own galaxy’s supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*.
让银河系的超大黑洞人马座A相形见绌
While Sagittarius A* is about 4 million solar masses,
人马座A重约400万个太阳质量
M87* is in the neighborhood of 6.5 billion solar masses.
而M87重达大约65亿个太阳质量
And from where we stand it looks like it’s getting bigger.
而且 以我们的视角看 M87还在变大
That glowing orange halo in the famous photo represents superheated gas and dust
照片中的橙色光环是过热的气体和尘埃
that’s orbiting and feeding the black hole.
它们在黑洞轨道上运行 并为其提供能量
This is what’s known as an accretion disk.
这就是所谓的的吸积盘
Some of that matter will fall into the black hole,
吸积盘中的部分物质会落入黑洞
but some of it gets shot off into space
还有一些会被喷射到宇宙中
in the form of jets spewing from the poles of the spinning black hole.
它们以喷流的形式 从黑洞的两极喷出
We’ve known for some time that M87* has these jets streaming from its poles.
我们很早就发现M87的两极存在这些喷流
It was as far back as 1918 when one astronomer first noted
早在1918年 就有一位天文学家发现
a “curious straight ray” coming from the galaxy.
有一道“奇特的准直射线”从M87星系里产生
More recently, the Hubble Space telescope took multiple images
近日 哈勃太空望远镜在红外线和可见光谱下
in the infrared and visible light spectra.
拍摄了多组图像
The composite photo shows
合成照片显示
a striking blue beam extending as far out as 5,000 light years
一道醒目的蓝色光线绵延5,000光年
against the yellow glow from the combined light of billions of stars.
从亿万恒星发出的黄色光辉中脱颖而出
Knowing M87* is an active black hole with matter falling into it
M87是一个有物质持续落入的活跃黑洞
is actually one of the reasons astronomers picked it as their target to photograph,
这是天文学家将它作为拍摄对象的原因之一
unlike Sagittarius A* which is closer,
不像离我们更近的人马座A黑洞
but obscured by the stars and dust in our own galaxy.
我们星系中的星体和尘埃让它模糊不清
So yes, we’ve taken pictures of M87*’s jet of matter before,
对 我们以前拍到过M87的喷流
but this is the first time
但这是第一次
scientists have observed it in the X-ray spectrum in such fine detail.
科学家们能在X射线谱图中观察到这么微小的细节
X-ray light confirms that what’s moving at extreme velocities in the jet is actually physical material,
X射线证明喷流中高度运动的是物质
as opposed to something else, like shock waves.
而不是其他形态 比如冲击波
How fast was the material moving?
这种物质的速度有多快?
Well, the material isn’t shot off in one continuous beam,
这种物质的发射形式不是一个连续的光束
but rather in clumps…like bubble tea through a straw.
而是成簇发射的 就像吸管中的珍珠奶茶
The astronomers observed a clump farther along in the beam
天文学家观察到 光束中较远一簇物质
traveling at 2.4 times the speed of light,
正以2.4倍光速运动
while another mass of matter closer to M87*
而另一簇靠近M87的物质
appeared to be moving at 6.3 times the speed of light.
看起来是以6.3倍光速在运动
But hold on—something doesn’t add up here.
但稍等一下——这里说不通
We know for a fact that these clumps we’re looking at are solid matter
我们肯定这些团簇是固体物质
thanks to the X-ray imaging,
X射线成像说明了这一点
and we also know that nothing with mass can travel the speed of light
我们也知道 没有固体物质能以光速传播
let alone multiple times faster.
更不用说比光速快几倍了
Well, it turns out those ludicrous speeds are a product of an optical illusion.
结果证明 那些不合理的速度只是一种观测错觉
the angle the jet is being shot towards us and the material’s extreme speed
观测与喷射形成的角度和物质的极限速度
produces what’s called superluminal motion,
是造成所谓“超光速运动”的原因
but really no laws of physics are being broken.
但实际上 它没有打破任何物理定律
Still, the material is really shifting.
不过 那些物质确实在位移
Taking the illusion of superluminal motion into account,
把“超光速运动”的错觉考虑在内
the researchers still estimate sections of the jet of matter
研究人员仍然估计 喷流物质的部分
are traveling at over 99% light speed.
运动速度超过光速的99%
They think that the material gets funneled up
他们认为这些物质以漏斗状
to the poles of the rotating black hole
集中到不停自旋的黑洞的两极
and shot out by following its twisting magnetic field lines.
然后沿着螺旋状的磁力线射出
The blue glow is generated by electrons traveling along the spiral path,
沿着旋转路径行进的电子产生了蓝色光束
a process called synchrotron radiation.
这一过程被称为同步辐射
Now, I’m sure some of you may be disappointed to learn
现在 我知道你们有些人可能会很失望
that the material isn’t actually traveling at over 6 times the speed of light.
因为实际上这种物质并没有以六倍光速运动
There goes our hopes of faster than light travel.
而我们希望比光速更快
But the dreamers and optimists among you may hear that
但你们中的梦想家和乐天派也许听到了
supermassive black holes still accelerate matter to over 99% light speed
超大质量黑洞能将物质加速到光速的99%以上
and think that sounds like a pretty good deal.
觉得它听起来很不错
Maybe you’re thinking we could harness it for space travel one day
你也许认为 它总有一天能被应用于太空旅行
like a Mass Relay in Mass Effect.
就像《质量效应》中的质量中继器那样
Just remember though
不过别忘了
that the material was only shot out at those great speeds
物质以如此高速喷出的条件是
after becoming superheated
需要物质
and turned into plasma by the friction of other matter
和吸积盘周围旋转的其他物质磨擦变得过热
swirling around the accretion disk.
最终变成等离子体才行
So, while M87* and its jet of matter may make for good sci-fi fodder,
因此 尽管M87和它的物质喷射可能是很好的科幻素材
it’s probably best to admire it only in pretty pictures.
但也许最好只是在图片上欣赏一下就行了
Fun fact,
有趣的是
the jet of matter shot out by the black holes
有人相信黑洞造成的物质喷射
are believed to be the source of the fastest moving particles in the universe—
能产生宇宙中运动速度最快的粒子——
Cosmic rays.
宇宙射线
So, a super massive black hole
所以 用一个超大质量黑洞
is a bad option to drive a spaceship.
驱动宇宙飞船不是一个好的选择
But what about a tiny white hole?
那一个小质量白洞怎么样?
Check out my video on that, here.
请观看我在本栏目的相关视频
Thanks for watching, make sure to subscribe.
感谢观看 敬请关注
And if you like this video, I’ll see you next time on Seeker.
如果你喜欢本期视频 我们下期《探索新闻台》再见

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视频概述

粒子喷流似乎是从超大质量黑洞M87中心产生,喷射速度超过了光速。但那怎么可能呢?!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Rian

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GdahCi9c_78

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