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如果搬往火星 我们将住在哪里

This Map Shows Where We'll Live On Mars

我们现在前所未有地接近登陆火星这一目标
[Narrator] We are closer to landing on Mars now than ever before.
诸如SpaceX等私人企业在火箭科学等
Private companies like SpaceX are achieving new feats
我们从未见过的领域里实现了新突破
in rocket science, the likes of which we’ve never seen.
但火箭目前只能把我们带到这里
But rockets will only take us so far.
还有一些火星独有的问题仍然阻碍着我们前进
There are more problems unique to Mars that still stand in our way.
其中之一就是 我们要住在哪里?
One of them is, where would we live?
无论你在哪里看火星 它都是个荒凉的沙漠
Mars is a desolate desert pretty much no matter where you look.
那里没有任何海洋或者覆盖着白雪的山脉
It’s not like there are any oceans or snow capped mountains
来帮助我们决定在哪里定居下来
to help us decide where to settle down.
但是这并没有阻止这个人 去尝试找出答案
But that hasn’t stopped this guy from trying to figure it out.
我们的主要目标是研究是否可以
Our main goal is to investigate if it is possible
在火星和月球土壤上种植农作物
to grow crops on Mars and moon soil for people
供人们到那里生活
when they go over there and live there.
Wamelink和他的同事Linechug
[Narrator] Wamelink and his colleague Linechug
实际上已制作出一张关于能指出我们在火星的宜居地图
have actually made a map of where we should live on Mars.
地图统计了辐射水平 气候 地面
The map accounts for radiation levels, climate, terrain,
以及可能是最重要的 土壤
and perhaps most importantly, the soil.
我们考虑了土壤里的营养成分总量
We looked at the amount of nutrients in the soil
比如钙 镁
for instance, calcium, magnesium,
以及其他养料像磷酸盐和硝酸盐
and also other nourishments like phosphates and nitrates.
这是在肥料里通常能找到的元素
So what you would normally expect in manure.
我们还考虑了可用的冰量
And we also looked at the amount of ice that is available.
那在火星上并不是处处都一样的
That is not the same everywhere on Mars.
有的地区几乎没有冰雪
There are areas where there’s almost no ice
有的地区又有很多冰雪
and there are areas with a lot of ice.
大部分宜居地已经
[Narrator] The most habitable places are labeled
在地图里标成了深蓝色
in dark blue on the map.
而且我们对其中一些地方相当熟悉
And, we’re pretty familiar with some of these locations.
比如 阿西达里亚平原就在
For example, Acidalia Planitia is just north of where
NASA的维京1号及火星开拓者号登陆地的北边
NASA’s Viking 1 and Mars Pathfinder landed.
不管怎样 看来我们应该避开
However, it looks like we should probably steer clear
火星上一些休眠火山
of some of Mars’ inactive volcanoes,
如奥林匹斯山和西姆山
like Olympus Mons and Elysium Mons.
但Wamelink如何知道农作物
But how does Wamelink know whether crops
是否能在火星上生长?
will grow at all on Mars?
来看看他的火星花园
Take a look at his Mars garden.
这里的土壤环境已尽可能与
The conditions in the soil here are as similar as possible
能够在火星上找到的土壤相似
to what we might find on Mars.
在过去五年里他一直在收获作物
He’s been harvesting it for the last five years,
到目前为止 他已经获得了一些不可思议的成功
and he’s had some amazing success so far.
呃 从一开始很多植物都能在那里生长
Well, it’s been a big surprise from the beginning
这是一个很大的惊喜
that many plants are able to grow on it.
其生长状况和使用地球盆栽土壤的生长状况
The growth is almost the same as if you would use
几乎是一样的
normal potting soil from earth.
它并不是完全一样 但我们正在实现它
It’s not completely the same, but we are getting there.
我们能拥有巨大的青豆产量
We had huge harvest of green beans.
还有西红柿 萝卜长势也不错 马铃薯也一样
Also tomatoes, but carrots are growing fine, even potatoes.
所以很多不同品种的农作物我们现在已经能种植了
So many different types of crops we are now able to grow.
Wamelink希望他的工作能为
[Narrator] Wamelink hopes that his work will help
第一个火星农场建立基础
lay the foundations for the first Marian farms.
总之 将普通的食物用运载火箭送到火星
After all, it’s not like we can send
是不太可能的
regular food payloads to Mars.
那要花费大约10个月的时间到达那里
It takes about 10 months to even get there.
而且实际的发射时窗只在每两年开启一次
And practical launch windows only open once every two years.
宇航员只能随身携带
On top of that, astronauts can only bring so much
冷冻的脱水食物
freeze dried food with them.
所以他们必须学习在火星室内种植食物
So they’ll have to learn to grown their own food indoors on Mars
如果要在那里生活很长一段时间的话
if we are ever going to live there for long periods of time.
Wamelink不仅只是在种植植物
But Wamelink hasn’t just been growing plants.
他也指出如何让生长过程尽可能地
He’s also figured out how to make the process
既高效又成功
as efficient and successful as possible.
秘诀是 蚯蚓
The secret, earthworms.
对的 蚯蚓可能是火星上
That’s right, earthworms might be some of the first
仅次于人类的第一批生物
living things on Mars next to humans.
当在火星上时 你想要一个封闭的系统
When you’re on Mars, you want to have a closed system.
所以每样都要再利用 蚯蚓会帮助实现这一需求
So everything has to be reused and worms help with that.
蚯蚓吃掉植物枯萎的部分
[Narrator] Earthworms feed on the dead decaying
那是我们不会吃的
parts of plants that we won’t eat,
但腐败的植物依旧是系统一个重要的部分
but that’s still an essential part of the system.
蚯蚓在消化的过程中分解植物
They break the plant matter down during digestion
这样当它们回到土里时 它实际上
so that when they return it to the soil it actually
让土壤更肥沃
makes the soil more fertile.
但最让惊奇的事情是它们能在
But the most surprising thing was that they could survive
Wamelink的火星土壤里存活
in Wamelink’s Martian soil in the first place.
首先 最大的惊喜是它们存活的原因
The biggest surprise was first of all, that they survived
因为我们知道火星的泥土是十分锋利的
because we know that the Martian soil is rather sharp.
它们的边缘十分尖锐
They have really sharp edges.
当你在显微镜下观察这些沙土时 就能看到
When you look under the microscope to the soil, you see that.
一旦蚯蚓吃掉这些泥土
And well, since the worms eat the soil,
进入它们的肠道
they get it into their gut.
可能会像我们人类吃玻璃一样
And it would be the same as we, as humans,
肠道会受伤
would eat a glass that’s broken.
我以为这些虫子也许也会受伤
And I expected that the worms may get hurt from it.
但显然 它们能处理这些沙子并活了下来
But apparently, they are able to cope with it and they survived.
而且它们不仅仅只是活了下来 还有了一些后代
And they didn’t even survive, they had some offspring.
那对我们而言是一个巨大的惊喜
And that was a big surprise for us.
Wamelink下一个大实验之一是
[Narrator] One of Wamelink’s next big experiments
完善火星土豆
is to perfect the Martian potato.
土豆在Wamelink的花园里长势极其良好
Turns out, potatoes grow extremely well in Wamelink’s garden.
但它们长得不是很大
But they just don’t grow to be very large.
那就是我们必须要解决的问题 因为
And that’s something we have to solve because then
土豆太小而且味道不是很好吃
you get potatoes that are very small and not very tasty.
所以那就是我们今年将试图解决的问题
So that is what we’re going to try to solve this year
种植在温室里的特殊土豆
in the greenhouse with a special variety of potatoes.
随着更多看似不可能的困难被我们甩在身后
[Narrator] With one more seemingly impossible hurdle behind us,
火星似乎比以往任何时候都要近
Mars seems closer than ever.

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视频概述

在火星居住,需要解决的最大问题之一是食物。火星上种植食物真的有像我们想象中的那么难吗?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小葵酱

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F48kjtsptfo

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