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大脑里的GPS地图 – 译学馆
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大脑里的GPS地图

This Is Your Brain on GPS

很快 确定你的血型
Pretty soon, figuring out your blood type
将会像挤出一滴血在纸上那样容易
might be as simple as squeezing a drop of blood onto a piece of paper.
上周 一个中国研究团队在《科学转化医学》杂志上发布了一篇报道
Last week, a team of Chinese researchers reported in the journal Science Translational Medicine
称他们已经发明了一项新的测试方法
that they’d come up with a new test
来鉴定你的血型是A型B型 AB型还是O型
to see whether you have A, B, AB, or O blood, in
这个测试仅仅需要30秒
in as few as 30 seconds.
因为你几乎不需要任何器材和时间
Because you barely need any equipment or time
这项发明可以用于紧急输血 从而拯救生命
this invention could help with emergency blood transfusions and save lives.
你的血型取决于你红细胞表层的抗原类型
Your blood type is determined by what type of antigens decorate the outside of your red blood cells
抗原是免疫系统可以识别的糖和蛋白质它能够帮助抵御外来入侵
Antigens are sugars and proteins that immune systems can recognize, to help defend against foreign invaders.
如果你有A型抗原 那么你就是A型血
If you have the A antigen, you have A blood
如果你有B型抗原 那么你是B型血
if you have the B antigen, you have B blood
如果两种抗原都有 你是AB型血两种都没有的话 你是O型血
If have both, you’re AB, and have neither, you O
通常 血型测试需要两种不同的方法来确保其准确性
Normally, blood testing involves two methods to make sure it’s right.
因为身体内输入错误的血可能会导致你的免疫系统紊乱
Because picking the wrong blood for a transfusion can make your immune system go haywire
甚至可能要了你的命
and like kill you
正向测试时 需要把血液样品和A或者B型抗体混合
Forward testing checks for antigens, by mixing a blood sample with either A or B antibodies
如果你有A型抗原 它将会和A型抗体融合
If you have A antigens, it’ll clump with A antibodies
而不会和B型抗体融合
But not with B antibodies.
反向测试 也称后验测试 它的原理恰好相反
Reverse, or back, testing, does the opposite.
反向测试将测试你血液中的液体成分即血浆的抗体
It checks for what antibodies you have in the liquid part of your blood, called plasma
观察它是否能和已知的具有A或B型抗原的红细胞融合
by seeing if it clumps with red blood cells known to have A or B antigens.
因此 反向测试是再次确认你正向测试结果的较好途径
So, reverse testing is a great way to double-check your forward result.
但是 即使在效率最高的实验室里分离血液得到血浆
But even the speediest labs have to centrifuge your blood to get the plasma
也至少需要10分钟
and can’t do the test much faster than 10 minutes.
如果你在战场受了重伤
If you’re seriously hurt on a battlefield
你没有器材或者时间去做那些事
you don’t have the equipment or time for that
现在我们来看看试纸测试
Enter the paper test.
它仍然是依据抗原抗体相融的原理
It still relies on the fact that antibodies and antigens clump together
但是它添加了一种染色剂 试纸接触全部血液和只接触到血浆时 颜色是不同的
but it uses a dye that changes color depending on whether it touches whole blood or just plasma
在正向测试把血液滴到测试条上后
After you drip some blood on a forward test strip,
血液在到达染色剂的两侧之前它会流向试纸上干燥的A或B型抗体
it runs into A and B antibodies that are dried onto the paper, before reaching two patches of dye.
如果你是A型血
If you have type A blood,
红细胞会在A型抗体一侧凝结
red blood cells will clump on the A antibody side
只有血浆会接触到染色剂 从而变成墨绿色
so only the plasma will reach the dye, turning it a teal color
而B型血一侧没有任何东西凝结
Nothing will clump on the B side
整个血样会接触染色剂 从而呈现棕色
so the full sample will reach the dye and turn it brown.
因此 看是哪一侧变成墨绿色或者都变成墨绿色 或者都不变墨绿色
So base on whether one, both, or neither side turns teal
你就可以知道自己的血型了
you can figure out your blood type
至于二次测试是制作一个反向实验的测试条
For double-checking, they made a strip with the reverse test on it too.
它有一个用于过滤血液的薄膜
It has a thin membrane that filters the blood
所以在接触染色剂之前 无论血浆凝结与否 都能检测出其抗体的类型
so the plasma can be checked for antibodies either forming clumps or not before touching the dye
研究人员在测试他们的发明时发现正向测试结果至多需要30秒
When the researchers tested their invention, they got the forward result in 30 seconds
而反向测试至多需要2分钟且具有99.9%的精确度
and the reverse one in 2 minutes, with 99.9% accuracy.
这种试纸测试现在还没被医生应用
These paper tests aren’t being used by doctors yet
但是研究人员预期我们将会在1到2年内看到它们
but the researchers hope we’ll be seeing them in the next year or two
部分科学家在研究血液而另一些在研究大脑中流动的血液
Now, while some scientists are studying blood, others are studying blood flow in the brain.
在这周的《自然通讯》上
Specifically, in a paper this week in Nature Communications
一个神经科学家团队发现了
a team of neuroscientists discovered
在我们导航时 根据是否依靠GPS帮助的情况不同 某些大脑区域的活动方式会有所不同
how certain brain regions act differently when we’re navigating with or without help from GPS.
研究人员通过让24名志愿者进行一场长达2小时的虚拟旅行
The researchers had 24 volunteers take a 2 hour virtual tour through
来了解SOHO区 伦敦西区的一个时尚区域
SOHO, a fashionable district in the West End of London, to learn the area
在第二天 对志愿者进行测试
And the next day, the volunteers were quizzed
即怎样从各种A点到B点
about how to get from various point As to point Bs
所有的都是虚拟的 科学家制作视频视频中有行走路线
在路线交叉点需要暂停行走
Everything was still virtual: the scientists made videos of the walking routes, which paused at intersections.
他们会告知参与者要走哪条路或者让他们自行选择
Then, they told participants which way to go, or asked them to choose
类似于谷歌地图的“选择你自己的冒险之路”
kind of like a Google Maps Choose-Your-Own-Adventure.
与此同时 他们利用FRMI仪器监测志愿者的大脑
While all this was happening, they monitored the volunteers’ brains with an fMRI machine
从而观察大脑的不同区域在不同的路线下是否会更活跃
to see if different regions became more active with different kinds of routes.
研究发现 在以下情况下右海马体的后部是活跃的
The researchers found that the back part of the right hippocampus was active
即人们主动辨认方向通过一个新的街道时
when people who were actively navigating entered new streets,
尤其是在与终点的连接街道的数量发生变化的时候
especially when there was a change in the number of connecting streets.
但是当志愿者不需要选择路线时
But when the volunteers didn’t have to choose where to go next
类似于盲目遵循GPS指示他们的海马体几乎不活动
kind of like blindly following GPS instructions – their hippocampi hardly lit up.
我们都知道海马体对空间记忆是很重要的
We know the hippocampus is important for spatial memory
但我们还未确定它和导航之间的联系
but we haven’t been so sure how it’s involved in navigation.
在这个实验中 科学家们认为
In this experiment, the scientists think
海马体保存着所有可能的行走路线
the hippocampus is keeping track of all the possible walking paths
用于帮助你模拟不同的路线
to help you simulate different ways your journey could go
如果你只是被动的跟随指示而不利用你的海马体的话
And if you’re just passively following instructions, and not using your hippocampus
你就不可能真的学会如何安排路线
you might not actually be learning how to get around
这些结果符合之前针对伦敦出租车司机的一个测试
These results fit with a previous experiment done with London taxi cab drivers
他们需要在10千米半径范围内通过约25000个伦敦的街道
who need to pass a notoriously difficult test covering London’s 25,000 or so streets in a 10 kilometer radius.
研究员绘制出司机们开始测试前的大脑
Researchers imaged the brains of drivers before they started training
三四年之后 会再测试一次
and again three to four years later, after they took the test
通过测试的人比测试失败的人在他们的海马体后部有着更多的大脑组织
And people who passed the test actually gained more brain tissue in the back of their hippocampus than those who failed.
因此 如果你好好锻炼你的大脑
So, if you want to give your brain a good workout
尤其是你的右海马体
especially you know, your right hippocampus
如果不是非GPS不可 就不要依靠它
maybe pass on the GPS if you don’t definitely need it.
感谢观看这期的科学秀新闻
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News
特别感谢这个月的太空部长福克斯利
and thanks especially to this month’s President of Space SR Foxley
如果你也想当太空部长 帮助我们制作类似视频
If you want be President of Space and help us keep making videos like this
可以去众筹网的科学秀频道
you can go to patreon.com/scishow­
不要忘记去油管科学秀订阅
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe!

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视频概述

主要讲述了两个测试,一个是用试纸检验血型,一个是测试人们海马体活跃度与通行路线的关系

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Becca

审核员

豆子

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D0PBMnlcGc8

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