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为什么当代手机电池还是这么不经用

This is why your phone doesn't last all day

– Today’s phones are miracles of modern technology.
手机是现代科技的奇迹
They can stream Netflix, play incredible video games,
你可以用手机看视频 玩好玩的游戏
and connect us with people around the world at anytime,
可以随时联系世界各地的人们
all in the palm of our hands.
一切尽在掌中
So,how come the battery life sucks so much?
那为什么电池会这么不经用呢?
You remember your old phone?
记得以前用的旧手机吗?
The one that just played Snake and made calls?
只能玩贪吃蛇和打电话的那个旧手机?
Those things had batteries a fraction
旧手机的电池比
of the size our modern smartphones
现在的智能手机小很多
but somehow they lasted a week.
但电池能用一周
So with all the leaps and bounds we’ve made in modern technology
经过现代科技的飞速发展
why can’t our current phones just last until the end of the day?
为什么我们现在的手机还撑不了一天呢?
(upbeat music)
(背景乐)
To find out why our batteries are so bad,
为了弄清电池不经用的原因
I talked to Dr. Venkat Srinivasan,
我请教了电池技术的专家
an expert in battery technology.
Venkat Srinivasan博士
– So I mean, part of this
那么很明显
is obviously as you know very very well,
其中一个原因你非常清楚
the demands of the apps coming of
各类手机软件所需的电量
the mobile devices increased dramatically, right?
也在急剧增加 不是吗?
I mean that was pre-touchscreens,
现在的手机是前触摸屏
pre all of us on Twitter and Instagram
我们要用推特和Instagram
and taking pictures and getting on these high resolution screens.
拍照片然后显示到高分辨率的屏幕上
So,much of it is just the fact
所以大部分原因是
that the draw has become dramatically more.
抽取的电量显著地变高了
– Okay. So, phones have gotten way better
好的 那么 手机已经更好了
and they need more power because of that.
也因此需要更多的电量
An original Nokia 3310 had 100 MHz,
一部原装的诺基亚3310配有100MHz的网络频段
single core processor, and a 4,000 pixel display.
单核处理器和4000像素的显示屏
The Galaxy S10 plus from 2019 on the other hand,
而2019年生产的三星Galaxy S10 plus
has a 2.4GHz, eight-core processor
配有2.4GHz的网络频段
that pushes 4,377,600 pixels.
带动437.76万像素显示屏的八核处理器
So,yeah. Things have come a long way.
所以 没错 技术有了很大的发展
For processor speed, we even have a rule for this
甚至有一个关于处理器发展速度的定律
called Moore’s Law, which says that roughly every two years,
那就是摩尔定律 这个定律指的是大约每隔两年
the number of transistors that we can fit
单个微处理芯片上可集成的
on a single microchip will double,
晶体管数量就会翻一倍
which means proportionately more powerful computers and phones.
这也意味着电脑和手机的性能会成比例的提高
– [Venkat] We all talk about Moore’s Law for electronics.
我们讨论的是电子行业的摩尔定律
Unfortunately battery energy density don’t scale at the same rate
但电池能量密度增长的速率却不像
as Moore’s Law is scaling.
摩尔定律那样
Also,batteries have been evolving.
当然 电池也在发展
It’s just at a different pace in which things happen.
只是发展速度和现在的科技不一样
– So our batteries don’t improve as fast
所以电池的发展速度没有
at the rate of the rest of our phones.
手机其他部件的发展速度那么快
They have been improving, to a point.
某种程度上来说 它们是在发展
We’ve been squeezing out more and more power
我们一直在现有的电池材料中
from materials in the technology that we have now,
压榨越来越多的能量
but there are limits to how far we can go.
但这样还是会有极限
– A lot of what has been happening
长期以来我们做的大量工作
for a long time is being sort of shrinking all the devices
就是把所有芯片内部的电子器件
that are inside of the chip
尺寸不断缩小
to make things better and better and better.
使手机变得越来越好
In a battery equal to that would be removing you know,
在电池中相当于去除一些
unwanted stuff from the battery.
不必要的东西
So that I add more and more and more dense,
以便增加更多更多的密度
energy dense materials so that I can ultimately pack
加入能量密度材料 这样就能
in a lot more energy into the system.
在电池系统中增加更多的能量
Turns out, people have been doing this game for the last 20 years.
事实上 在过去的20年里 人们一直在这么做
And if you do this game for the last 20 years,
而如果你这样做了20年
you start to reach a point where it’s
那就开始到了一个瓶颈
very difficult to squeeze out anymore stuff.
那就很难再挤出更多的东西
Pretty much, most of the battery today, is being used for something.
大致上 现在的电池都有用途
– Our modern batteries basically use up
为了储存能量 现在的电池基本上
all the internal space they have for power
把内部所有的空间都用尽了
and the only way to get more is
储存更多能量的唯一方法
by shrinking down those internal parts,
就是缩小这些像细胞之间的
like the barriers between cells.
细胞膜一样的内部零件
And when those get too thin, that’s where safety issues can happen.
这些零部件变得太薄时 就会有安全隐患
And when things get pushed too far, well,
如果做得太过的话
we get products like the Galaxy Note 7.
就会有像Galaxy Note 7 一样的产品
Basically,in modern lithium ion batteries,
基本上 在现代锂离子电池中
energy transfers between the positive and negative electrodes through a liquid solution.
能量通过电解质溶液在正负两级之间传递
Now,that solution’s flammable.
电解质是易燃的
But,it’s okay because there’s a separator between the electrodes.
但在电极之间加入隔膜就没有问题
In the Note 7, that separator was too thin.
Note 7里的隔膜太薄了
It sparked and then the liquid caught on fire.
隔膜产生火花后电解质着火
– What happened five years ago was that
五年前发生的那件事
it became clear that these limits were getting hit
清楚地说明电池已经到了极限
where we couldn’t remove anymore things.
我们不能再去除任何东西了
But we reached a stage where new improvements
而我们已到了一个新的阶段
in energy density got to come from changing battery materials.
通过更换电池材料来提升能量密度
And new materials are always slower.
寻找新材料的过程比较漫长
– So what does the future look like?
那么未来会是什么样呢?
Well,right now the material we use is called lithium cobalt.
我们现在使用的材料是钴酸锂
A battery technology that we’ve been using since the early 90’s.
从90年代初就一直使用的电池技术
But researchers have already started work on what comes next.
但研究人员早就开始下一步的工作了
– Actually all the batteries have a liquid electrolyte in them.
实际上所有的电池都有电解质溶液
The next big thing and I
我认为下一个
think this is going to be a huge thing
电池领域的大事
is solid state batteries.
就是固态电池
Things that don’t have liquids but a solid
固态电池没有液体而是采用
that can conduct lithium back and forth between them.
能在电极之间来回传导锂离子的固态材料
You can’t predict a breakthrough so you don’t know when that’s going to happen.
因为无法预测技术上的突破 所以也不知道 未来会发生什么
But we think that’s where things are going.
但我们认为那是电池的走向
And if that happens, cellphones and laptops will start getting more energy dense.
而且如果真的运用了 手机和电脑就能 得到更多的能量密度
– There is one slight issue that could come up though.
不过 还有一个小问题可能会出现
By the time better batteries do come around,
等更好的电池出现了之后
our phones might be even more powerful than they are right now.
手机的性能可能会变得比现在更强大
Which might leave us right back where we started,
这样 我们可能又会回到了原点
with less than a day of battery life and external batteries galore.
手机电量撑不到一天 然后到处都是充电宝
Progress always has a price.
进步总是要付出代价的
Thanks so much for watching.
感谢您的观看
For more great videos like this,
想观看更多视频
make sure to like and subscribe to The Verge.
一定要点赞加关注The Verge
And if you wanna learn more about phone batteries,
如果你想了解更多的手机电池
check out this video about over charging them.
那就看看关于电池过充的视频吧

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视频概述

当代手机电池不经用的原因和未来可能采取的解决方案

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

爱睡觉的芝麻糊233

审核员

审核员GS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ee_z1GO1E_E

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