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为何我们无法拥有美好的东西

This is why we can't have nice things

– This is a video about things like cars,
本视频与汽车
phones, and light bulbs
手机和灯泡等物品相关
and an actual conspiracy that made them worse.
且讲述了一场让它们变得更差的阴谋
This video was sponsored by NordVPN,
本视频由NordVPN赞助
more about them at the end of the video
更多关于他们的信息可在视频结尾处了解
I am outside Livermore Fire Station, number six.
我现在正在利弗莫尔6号消防站外
And in here, they have the longest,
在这里 他们有世界上寿命最长
continuously on light bulb in the world.
且持续亮着的灯泡
It has been on for 120 years since 1901.
它从1901年到现在 亮了120年
There it is.
它在这
– [Host] Yeah, that’s it.
对 就是这个
– It’s not even connected to a light switch
它甚至没有连接电灯开关
but it does have a backup battery and generator.
但它有备用电池和发电机
So the big question is,
最大的问题是
how has this light bulb lasted so long?
这个灯泡怎么能亮这么长时间呢?
It was manufactured by hand not long
它是在商用灯泡发明不久后
after commercial light bulbs were first invented,
手工制造的
And yet, it has been running for over a million hours,
然而 它已经运行了100多万个小时
way longer than any light bulb today is meant to last.
比现在任何一个灯泡的寿命都要长
A while back, a friend of mine told me this story,
不久前 我的朋友告诉了我这个故事
that someone had invented a light bulb
在多年前
that would last forever years ago,
就有人发明了这种持续发亮的灯泡
but they never sold it
但是他们没有出售
because an everlasting light bulb makes
因为持续不断发亮的灯泡
for a terrible business model.
会导致一种糟糕的商业模式
I mean, you would never have any repeat customers
我的意思是 你不会有回头客
and eventually you would run out
最终没有人
of people to sell light bulbs to,
会买你的灯泡
I thought this story sounded ridiculous.
我认为这事儿听起来十分荒谬
If you could make an everlasting light bulb,
如果你能制造持续发亮的灯泡
then everyone would buy your light bulb over the competitors.
那么所有人都会买你的灯泡 而不是竞争对手的
And so you could charge really high prices,
那么即使需求最后中断
make a lot of money, even if demand would eventually dry up.
你也可以收取高价 赚许多的钱
I just couldn’t imagine that we had better light bulbs
我不敢想象我们曾有如此好的灯泡
in the past and then intentionally made them worse,
然后故意使其更糟
but it turns out I was wrong.
但事实证明我是错的
At least sort of.
至少有点错
Inventing a viable electric light was hard,
发明一种切实可行的电灯很难
I mean, this is the typical incandescent design,
我是说 这是典型的白炽灯设计
which just involves passing electric current
它只需要将电流通过一种材料
through a material making it so hot that it glows,
使其过热至发光
less than 5% of the electrical energy comes out as light.
只有不到5%的电能以光的形式输出
The other 95% is released as heat.
其余95%以热能的形式输出
So these are really heat bulbs,
所以这些其实是热灯泡
which give off a little bit of light as a by-product.
它发出的一点点光只是副产物
The temperature of the filament can get up to 2,800 Kelvin.
灯丝的温度可达2800K
That is half as hot as the surface of the sun.
是太阳表面温度的一半
At temperatures like those, most materials melt.
在这种温度下 大多数材料都会融化
– That’s so cool. – And if they don’t melt,
-太酷了 -如果它们不融化
they burn,
它们就会燃烧
which is why in the 1840s, Warren De la Rue came
这就是为什么在19世纪40年代
up with the idea of putting the filament in a vacuum bulb,
沃伦•德拉鲁提出了将灯丝放入真空灯泡的想法
so there’s no oxygen to react with.
这样就没有氧气与其发生反应了
By 1879, Thomas Edison had made a bulb
到1879年 托马斯•爱迪生用棉线灯丝
with a cotton thread filament
制作了一个灯泡
that lasted 14 hours.
可以持续发亮14个小时
Other inventors created bulbs with platinum filaments
其他发明家用铂或其它碳化材料
or other carbonized materials.
作为灯泡的灯丝
And gradually, the lifespan of bulbs increased.
逐渐地 灯泡的寿命延长了
The filaments changed from carbon to tungsten,
灯丝从碳变成了钨
which has a very high melting point.
钨有很高的熔点
And by the early 1920s, average bulb lifetimes
到了20世纪20年代初 灯泡的平均寿命
were approaching 2,000 hours with some lasting 2,500 hours.
接近2000小时 有些灯泡寿命长达2500小时
But this is when lifetimes stopped getting longer
但从此之后灯泡的使用周期停止延长
and started getting shorter.
并开始缩短
In Geneva, Switzerland just before Christmas, 1924,
1924年圣诞节前夕
there was a secret meeting of top executives
在瑞士日内瓦举办了一场秘密会议
from the world’s leading light bulb companies,
参会人员均来自世界顶级电灯公司的高管
Phillips, International General Electric,
例如 飞利浦 国际通用电气
Tokyo Electric, OSRAM from Germany,
东京电气 德国欧司朗
and the UK’s Associated Electric among others.
以及英国联合电力公司
They formed what became known
他们成立了一个集团
as the Phoebus Cartel named after Phoebus,
被称为太阳神卡特尔
the Greek God of light.
以希腊光之神阿波罗命名
There, all these companies agreed
在这个集团 所有公司都同意
to work together to help each other by controlling the
控制全世界灯泡的供给
world supply of light bulbs.
协作共赢
In the early days of the electrical industry,
在电器行业的早期
there had been lots of different
有许多不同的
small light bulb manufacturers,
小灯泡制造商
but by now they had largely been consolidated
但到现在 他们大部分都已被
into these big corporations,
大企业吞并
each dominant in a particular part of the world.
这些大企业都在世界特定地区占据主导地位
The biggest threat they all faced was
他们面临的最大威胁
from longer lasting light bulbs.
都来自寿命更长的灯泡
For example, in 1923, OSRAM sold 63 million light bulbs,
例如 1923年欧司朗售卖了6300万只灯泡
but the following year they sold only 28 million.
但第二年仅售出2800万只
Light bulbs were lasting too long, eating into sales.
灯泡的长寿影响了销售额
So all the companies in the cartel agreed
因此卡特尔集团的所有公司都同意
to reduce the lifespan of their bulbs
将灯泡的使用寿命缩短至1000小时
to 1,000 hours cutting the existing average almost in half.
将现有的平均寿命缩短近一半
But how could each company ensure
但每家公司如何确保
that the other companies would actually follow the rules
其他公司真正遵守规则
and make shorter lasting light bulb.
生产寿命更短的灯泡呢
After all, it would be in each of their individual interests to make
毕竟 制造出更好的产品来战胜其他公司
a better product to outsell the others?
符合每个公司的利益
Well, to enforce the 1,000 hour limit,
因此 为了执行1000小时寿命的限制
each of the manufacturers have to send in sample bulbs
每家制造商必须从工厂寄去灯泡样品
from their factories and they were tested on big test stands
并在大型试验架上测试
like this one.
就像这样
If a bulb lasted
如果一家公司的灯泡寿命
significantly longer than 1,000 hours,
明显超过1000小时
then the company was fined.
那这家公司会被罚款
If a bulb lasted longer than 3000 hours,
如果灯泡寿命超过3000小时
well the fine was 200 Swiss Francs
那么每售出1000个灯泡
for every 1,000 bulbs sold.
罚款200瑞士法郎
And there are records
有公司被罚款的案例
of these fines being issued to companies.
被记录在册
But how do you make a worst light bulb in the first place?
但是首先 你如何制造差劲的灯泡呢?
Well, the same engineers who had previously been tasked with extending the lifespan
那就是 以前负责延长灯泡寿命的工程师
now had to find ways to decrease it.
现在必须找到缩短寿命的方法
So they tried different materials,
因此他们尝试了不同的材质
different shaped filaments, and thinner connections.
不同形状的灯丝和更薄的接头
And if you look at the data, they were successful.
你看看数据就会知道 他们成功了
Ever since the formation of the cartel.
自从卡特尔成立以来
the lifespan of light bulbs steadily decreased.
灯泡的寿命持续缩短
So that by 1934, the average lifespan was just 1,205 hours.
因此到1934年 灯泡平均寿命只有1205个小时
And just as they had planned, sales increased
正如他们所计划的 1926年后的四年内
for cartel members by 25% in the four years after 1926.
卡特尔成员的销售额增加了25%
And even though the cost of components came down,
虽然制造成本下降
the cartel kept prices virtually unchanged,
但卡特尔的价格相当稳定
so they increased their profit margins.
因此利润率更高
So did people know that the light bulb companies were conspiring together
那么人们知道灯泡公司共同密谋
to make their products worse?
使产品更糟吗?
No, the Phoebus Cartel claimed that its purpose was
不 太阳神卡特尔宣称这样做的目的是为了
to increase standardization and efficiency of light bulbs.
提高灯泡的标准规范和效率
I mean, they did establish this screw thread is standard.
我的意思是 他们确实建立了这个螺纹的标准
You can find it on virtually all light bulbs
你现在几乎能在全球
around the world now.
所有灯泡上找到它
But all evidence points to the cartels being motivated
但是所有证据都表明卡特尔的动机是
by profits and increased sales,
提高利润和销售额
not by what was best for consumers.
而不是有利于消费者
So one of the reasons this light bulb has lasted so long is
所以这个灯泡能持续这么长时间的理由之一
because it was made before the cartel era.
是因为它是在卡特尔时代之前被制造的
Another reason is because the filament has always been run
另一个原因是灯丝一直以低功率运行
at low power, just four or five watts.
只有四五瓦
It was meant to be a nightlight for the fire station
它作为消防站的夜灯
to provide just enough light
提供刚好能防止
so that firemen wouldn’t run into things at night.
消防员在夜间撞到东西的亮度
And the fact that it was always on
它始终处于开启状态
reduced the thermal cycling
这一事实减少了
of the filament and components, limiting the stress caused
灯丝和部件的热循环
by thermal expansion and contraction.
限制了热胀冷缩引起的压力
The Phoebus Cartel was initially planned to last at least until 1955,
太阳神卡特尔最初计划至少持续到1955年
but it fell apart in the 1930s.
但它却在20世纪30年代解体
It was already struggling due to outside competition
由于外部竞争和一些成员不遵守规定
and non-compliance amongst some of its members,
集团已陷入困境
but the outbreak of World War II is
但第二次世界大战的爆发
really what finished it off.
才真正地使其分崩离析
So this cartel was dead,
由此卡特尔灭亡
but its methods survived to this day.
但是它的方法却延续至今
There are lots of companies out there
有很多公司
that intentionally shortened the lifespan of their products
有意缩短产品的寿命
it’s a tactic known now as planned obsolescence.
这是一种被称为计划性淘汰的策略
This was actually the subject of Casey Neistat’s
这实际上是凯西•奈斯特
first viral video all the way back in 2003.
2003年第一部病毒式视频的主题
– [Support] Thank you for calling Apple, my name is Ryan.
谢谢致电到苹果公司 我是Ryan
May I have your first name please?
请告诉我你的名字好吗?
– [Casey] Casey.
凯西
– [Support] ] All right, and what seems
好的
to be the issue today?
您今天遇到什么问题了呢?
– [Casey] I have an iPod that I bought about 18 months ago
我在18个月前买了一台iPod
and the battery is dead on it.
但是电池坏了
– [Support] 18 months, okay, it’s past it year,
18个月 哦 已经过去一年了
which basically means there’ll be a charge
这基本上意味着
of $255 plus a mailing fee to send it to us
将收取255美元的费用 再加上邮寄费
to refurbish, to correct it.
寄到我们这里来翻新和修复
But at that price, you might as well go get a new one.
但按照这个价格 你最好去买一台新的
– [Narrator] This video got millions of views
这段视频在油管或社交媒体出现前
in a time before YouTube or social media.
获得了数百万的浏览量
And it spawned a class action lawsuit,
这引发了一场集体诉讼
which Apple settled out of court,
苹果公司在庭外和解了
but it didn’t stop the company
但这并没有阻止苹果公司
from practicing planned obsolescence.
实施计划性淘汰
After an iOS update in 2017,
2017年iOS系统更新后
users of older iPhones found apps loading
旧版苹果用户发现应用程序加载速度
significantly slower or the device shutting down altogether.
明显减慢或者设备完全关闭
Apple said they throttled performance to protect the battery of older devices
苹果公司表示 他们限制性能是为了保护旧版的电池设备
and increase their longevity.
并延长其使用寿命
Of course, that wouldn’t be an issue
当然 如果电池是可更换的
if the battery were replaceable.
那就不是问题了
In a series of lawsuits that concluded in 2020,
在2020年结束的一系列诉讼中
Apple was fined or reached settlements
苹果公司被罚款或达成和解
to pay hundreds of millions of dollars,
支付了数亿美元
undoubtedly, this amount pales in comparison
毫无疑问 与他们通过限制产品寿命
to the extra revenue they generate
而产生的额外收入相比
by limiting the lifespan of their products.
这一数额相形见绌
But some would argue that planned obsolescence isn’t just about greed,
但有些人会争辩说 计划性淘汰不仅是有关贪婪
but that it’s also good for everyone.
它其实对每个人都有好处
During the great depression in the 1930s
在20世纪30年代大萧条期间
when as much as 1/4 of Americans were out of work,
多达四分之一的美国人失业
an American real estate broker Bernard London
房地产经纪人Bernard London
proposed mandatory planned obsolescence
提出强制计划性淘汰
as a way to get people back to work
是作为让人们重返工作岗位
and lift America out of the depression.
让美国走出大萧条的一种方式
He wrote, “I would have the government assign a lease of life to shoes,
他写道 我会让政府在鞋子 房屋和机器
and homes, and machines
首次被制造出来的时候
when they are first created
给它们标记失效日期
and they would be sold and used within the term
并让消费者明确知道
of their existence, definitely known by the consumer.
物品需在有效期限内被售卖和使用
After the allotted time had expired,
到达使用期限后
these things would be legally dead
这些物品在法律上已失效
and would be controlled by
如果依然有大规模失业
the duly appointed governmental agency and destroyed
它们将及时由指定的政府机构控制
if there is widespread unemployment.”
并被摧毁
Now, this might sound like a wild fringe idea,
现在听来这像是一个不着边际的想法
but people were clearly afraid of being put out of work
但那时的人们显然害怕
by technological progress and products that were too good.
因进步的科技和太优秀的产品失去工作
There was even a popular Oscar nominated film about it.
甚至有一部奥斯卡提名的热门电影也提到了这点
“This is the man in the white suit from 1951.”
这是1951年的电影《白衣男子》
It’s about a scientist who invents the perfect fiber.
这部电影讲述的是一位科学家发明了完美的纤维
It won’t stain or break, or fray.
它不会染色 断裂或磨损
– I think I’ve succeeded
我想我已经成功地实现了
in the copolymerization of amino acid residues and carbohydrate molecules,
氨基酸残基和碳水化合物的共聚
both containing ionic groups.
两者都含有离子基团
It’s really perfectly simple.
它的原理非常简单
– [Narrator] The Academy award nomination was for best screenplay,
它被奥斯卡提名为最佳剧本
I kid you not.
我没骗你
Anyway, everyone is initially excited
无论如何 起初所有人都对
about our hero’s scientific discovery.
男主角的科学发现感到兴奋
He makes a suit out of the thread and it has to be white
他用这种线做了一套西装 它只能是白色的
because the fiber is so stain resistant,
因为这种纤维非常耐脏
it can’t even be dyed,
甚至不会被染色
but this is when trouble strikes,
但这时麻烦来临了
the factory owners realize they won’t be able to sell as much of this thread
工厂老板意识到他们无法提高这种线的销量
because it’s so durable.
因为它非常耐用
And the workers worry it’ll put them out of a job.
工人们担心这会使他们失业
– Why can’t you scientists leave things alone?
科学家们能别琢磨这些事吗?
What about my better washing when there’s no washing to do?
当没衣服可洗的时候 我洗得再好又有什么用?
– This is when you get the climactic scene
这时你会看到电影的高潮
where factory workers and factory owners team up
为了摧毁他和他的发明
to chase down the scientist to destroy him and his invention.
工人和工厂老板联手追捕这名科学家
And believe it or not, this movie may have been
信不信由你 这部电影很有可能
inspired by real events.
受到了真实事件的启发
In the 1940s, the synthetic fiber nylon replaced silk
在20世纪40年代 合成纤维尼龙取代了
in stockings, and it was so durable
长袜中的丝绸 而且它非常耐用
that the products became an overnight sensation.
以至于在一夜之间引起了轰动
There were literal riots when women tried
女性为了得到它
to get their hands on them.
引起了骚动
When the manufacturers realized
当制造商意识到
they had made the product too good,
他们生产的产品太好时
they didn’t destroy the fiber,
他们没有损坏纤维
but they did follow the example of the Phoebus Cartel.
但他们确实效仿了太阳神卡特尔
They instructed their engineers and scientists
他们指示工程师和科学家
to find ways to weaken the product to shorten its lifespan,
找到方法削弱产品并缩短其寿命
so people would have to buy more.
因此人们不得不购买更多
Now, it seems like consumers are finally fighting back
现在 似乎消费者终于开始
against planned obsolescence.
反击计划性淘汰策略
In the European union and in over 25 states in the US,
在欧盟和美国25个州
there’s proposed legislation
有一项拟议的立法
to enshrine the right to repair.
规定了维修权
And these laws would force manufacturers
这些法律将迫使制造商
to make it easier to repair their products.
将产品维修简单化
They would have to provide information and access to parts.
他们必须提供零件的信息和获取途径
So you could replace a battery or fix a cracked screen
因此 你可以在产品的保修期内
at a third-party repair shop without voiding your warranty.
去第三方维修店更换电池或修复破碎的屏幕
So if right to repair does become law,
那么如果维修权成为法律的一部分
does that mean
是否意味着
artificial obsolescence will be gone for good?
人为淘汰策略将会永远消失?
Sadly, no,
遗憾的是 不会
because there is one last thing manufacturers can use to make their products obsolescence,
因为还有一件事可以让制造商生产的产品过时
which is you.
那就是你
(instrumental music)
[器乐]
Henry Ford released the first mass market car,
亨利•福特在1908年
the model T in 1908.
发布了第一款大众市场车型——T型车
And he envisioned it like a workhorse,
他把它想象成一匹老黄牛
an affordable tool that wouldn’t wear out,
一种实惠且不会磨损的工具
a bit like the everlasting light bulb.
有点像永恒的灯泡
In 1922 Ford said, “We want the man who buys one of our cars
1922年 福特说 我们希望买了我们车的人
never to have to buy another,
永远不必再买另一辆
we never make an improvement that renders any previous model obsolete.”
我们永远不会做出让以前的任何车型过时的改进
But by 1920, 55% of American families already owned a car.
但到1920年 55%的美国家庭已经拥有了第一辆汽车
Nearly everyone that could afford one had one.
几乎所有买得起的人都有一辆车
And that same year,
同年
there was a small economic downturn
一场小规模的经济衰退
driving down sales for both Ford and General Motors.
使福特和通用汽车的销量都下降了
In 1921, DuPont, the chemical and paint company took
1921年 化学油漆公司杜邦
over the controlling share in General Motors.
接管了通用汽车的控股权
And they started experimenting
他们开始实验
with painting cars different colors,
将汽车喷漆成不同的颜色
up until then, Henry Ford had said,
在那之前 亨利·福特说
you could have whatever color you like
只要车是黑色 你就可以
so long as it’s black.
把车漆成你想要的任何颜色
It took a couple of years of testing, but in 1924,
这需要几年的测试 但在1924年
GM released their first cars in different colors.
通用汽车发售了第一款不同颜色的汽车
And soon after, they introduced a trick
不久之后 他们采用了
that feels very familiar now.
一种非常熟悉的策略
Each new year,
每新的一年
they would introduce cars in different colors.
他们都会推出不同颜色的汽车
The goal wasn’t just to make Ford’s model T lookout dated,
目的不仅仅是让客户感到福特的T型外观过时了
but to make their own cars feel outdated every year
更要让他们感觉自己的汽车每年都过时了
encouraging customers to trade in their old cars
以此鼓励客户用旧车
for shiny new ones.
来换闪亮的新车
Years later, GM’s head of design, Harley Earl,
几年之后 通用汽车的设计主管
candidly discussed his role in creating
哈利·厄尔坦率地讨论了他在创造
what he called dynamic obsolescence.
他所谓的“动态过时”中所扮演的角色
“Our big job is to hasten obsolescence.
我们的主要任务是加速过时
In 1934, the average car ownership span was five years.
在1934年 汽车的平均使用寿命是五年
Now, which was 1955, it is two years.
现在 到了1955年 汽车的平均寿命是两年
When it is one year, we will have a perfect score.
当汽车寿命达到一年时 我们的目的就达到了
By the time he said this,
当他这么说的时候
General Motors was the most valuable company in the world
通用汽车已然成为世界上最有价值的公司
and it’s sold half of all vehicles purchased in the US every year.
每年在美国购买的汽车中 通用汽车占了一半
These days, the world’s most valuable company,Apple,
如今 世界上市值最高的苹果公司
seems to have copied directly out of this playbook.
似乎直接照搬了这个剧本
I mean, new styles every year, check,
我的意思是 每年都有新款式 没错
new special colors every year, check,
每年都有新的特殊颜色 没错
marginal technological improvement, check.
有边缘技术改进 也没错
I mean, is this useful innovation or just a gimmick?
那这是一个有用的创新还是只是一个噱头呢?
The inspiration for General Motors and hence for Apple comes from fashion
通用汽车和苹果公司的灵感来自于时尚
where real innovation is all but impossible.
而真正的创新几乎是不可能的
So the only way to make people feel the urgency
因此 能使人们迫切地感到需要
to get out there and buy is to create styles
外出购买的唯一方法是
that last but one season.
创造只火一季度的新款
The trouble then is you run
那之后的问题是
through these styles too quickly.
太快耗尽这些款式设计
And then what are you supposed to do?
接下来该做什么呢?
Well, just recycle the styles from a few decades ago.
好吧 只要循环几十年前的旧款式就行了
The iPhone also shows this recycling trend.
iPhone也呈现了这种循环趋势
I mean, just look at the way the edges were
我的意思是 只要看看手机的边缘形状
initially rounded and then they were squared off
它最初是圆形的 然后是方形的
and then they were rounded again
然后又是圆形的
and now, they’re squared off.
现在又是方形的
And how much do you want to bet
你想不想打赌
that the iPhone 14 has rounded edges?
iPhone14是否是圆形边缘呢?
I think the point is that with design and styling,
我想关键是设计和造型
there is no best, there’s only different,
没有最好的 只有不同的
which is apparently enough to remind us
这显然足以提醒我们
that we don’t have the latest and greatest,
我们没有最新和最好的
and so we have to rush out and keep buying.
所以我们必须冲出去 继续消费
The only type of obsolescence
我们唯一应该支持的淘汰
we should support is technological,
是技术的更新换代
which brings us back to the light bulb.
技术给我们带来了灯泡
In the last 20 years, light bulbs have gone
在过去的20年里
from incandescent, which was basically unchanged
灯泡已经从100年来基本不变的白炽灯
for 100 years to compact fluorescent.
变成了紧凑型荧光灯
And now, to LED, these use just a 10th of the energy
到现在的LED灯 这些灯泡只消耗了十分之一的能量
and can last anywhere from 10 to 50 times longer.
因此在任何地方使用时间都可以到10到50倍
Yeah, that’s pretty bright.
是的 它很亮
So you’re more likely to sell your house
所以可能你房子卖了
than to have to replace an LED bulb
安装在房子里的LED灯
that you’ve installed inside it.
还不需要换呢
So we finally reached the point
我们终于回到了这个问题
of what is essentially an everlasting light bulb?
一个持续发光的灯泡本质上意味着什么?
(upbeat music)
[欢乐的音乐]
Hey, this video was sponsored by NordVPN.
嘿 本段视频是由NordVPN赞助的
I am featured in an episode of the British TV program,
我在英国电视节目QI的一集出现过
“QI,” it’s a show I really like,
我非常喜欢这个电视节目
and I’d highly recommend it if you haven’t seen it already.
如果你还没有看过这个节目 我强烈推荐
And it’s on Netflix, but only if you’re in the UK.
Netflix有这个节目 但你只有在英国才能看到
I feel like TV and film are still trapped
我认为电视和电影
in antiquated business models
仍处于过时的商业模式中
where they divide up the world into broadcast territories
世界被划分成不同的广播区域
that doesn’t make a lot of sense
这已经没有多大意义了
now that information can flow freely through the Internet.
现在信息可以在互联网上到处传递
Luckily using NordVPN, anyone can set their location
幸运的是 使用NordVPN 任何人都可以将他们的位置
to the UK and watch whatever they like.
设置到英国 并观看他们喜欢的内容
If you’re interested in seeing what streamers have to offer
如果你有兴趣了解不同国家的流媒体
in different countries, you can get a huge discount
你可以在nordvpn.com/veritasium上
on a two-year plan at nordvpn.com/veritasium.
得到连续两年的大额优惠
Use code Veritasium to get an extra month free
使用折扣码Veritasium能额外获得两个月的免费试用
and using NordVPN, you can also protect your privacy
使用NordVPN你还可以通过屏蔽IP地址
by masking your IP address.
来保护你的隐私
In fact, you can change your IP twice
事实上 你可以改变你的IP两次
to cover your web traffic with an extra layer of security.
用另一个额外的安全层来覆盖你的网络流量
NordVPN has a no logs policy, they don’t track collect
NordVPN没有日志策略 他们不会追踪收集
or share your private data, which is what a lot
或分享你的私人数据
of the world’s biggest companies are trying to do right now.
这是许多大公司目前正尝试做的事
So for privacy,
因此 为了隐私
when browsing and access to all the shows the world has to offer,
当你浏览和访问世界上所有节目时
go to nordvpn.com/veritasium for a huge discount
访问nordvpn.com/veritasium获取两年大额优惠
of a two year plan and use code Veritasium
并使用折扣码 Veritasium
to get one additional month free.
获得额外一个月的免费试用
And this is all risk-free
Nord提供30天退款保证
with Nord’s 30-day money back guarantee.
所以没有任何风险
So I wanna thank NordVPN for sponsoring Veritasium
所以我要感谢NordVPN赞助Veritasium
and I wanna thank you for watching.
感谢你的观看

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视频概述

本视频通过灯泡介绍了太阳神卡特尔集团以及所谓的“计划性淘汰”,如今部分大公司依然在实行这种主动淘汰旧产品的策略。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

LNB

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j5v8D-alAKE

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