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关于新冠病毒您所需要了解的

This Is What You Need to Know About the Novel Coronavirus

It’s March 2020 and the world has been battling a new coronavirus outbreak for months.
至2020年3月 世界已与新型冠状病毒的爆发斗争了数月
Since the first case originated in late 2019 in the city of Wuhan, China,
自2019年年底 在中国武汉爆发第一例以来
the virus has made its way across the globe,
新型冠状病毒已经席卷全球
causing economic decline, quarantines, and death.
引发了经济衰退 隔离 和死亡
The World Health Organization has officially raised the global alert to the highest possible level.
世界卫生组织已正式将全球警戒级别提至最高
This novel coronavirus is a cause for concern because of how little we know about it
该新冠病毒引人担忧 因为我们对它了解甚少
and how quickly it’s spreading.
而同时它又有着飞快的传播速度
What is different with this virus, which is both good and bad,
这种病毒与SARS相比 不同之处在于引起的症状较轻
is that it’s much less severe than SARS.
这既有好的一面又有坏的一面
But it also means that a lot of people remain undetected
但症状轻也意味着许多人仍未被发现
because it looks a bit like a normal common cold.
因为它看起来有点像普通感冒
They don’t develop very severe symptoms,
他们不会出现非常严重的症状
and by the looks of it,
而且就目前情况来看
people are already shedding the virus while they’re still quite healthy.
人们在还很健康时就已经在传播病毒了
Now, firstly, the novel coronavirus has been named SARS-CoV2,
现在这种新型冠状病毒被命名为SARS-CoV2
while the disease it causes is called COVID-19—short for coronavirus disease 2019.
由它引起的2019年冠状病毒病被简称为COVID -19
In just a few months, this coronavirus has caused over 97,000 cases of confirmed infection
短短数月 这种冠状病毒已经造成超过97000例确诊感染病例
and has claimed over 3,000 lives, globally.
并夺去了全球3000多条生命
These numbers continue to increase as it makes its way across the world
随着它在世界各地的传播 以及我们识别力的提高
and as we get better at identifying it.
这些数字还在继续增加
Now, as of March 3rd 2020,
目前 截止到2020年3月3日
the WHO estimates that the death rate from COVID-19
世界卫生组织初步估计COVID-19的病死率
is around a preliminary 3.4%, which is higher than the flu.
约为3.4% 要高于流感
But SARS-CoV2 has so far infected less than the flu has at its highest season,
虽说到目前为止 SARS-CoV2感染的人数还没有流感高峰期的感染人数多
and estimations between the two will most likely continue to change as time moves on.
但随着时间的推移 估计两者的数值很可能会继续变化
No matter the comparison though, it’s still evident that lives are at stake from COVID-19.
无论怎样对比 很明显COVID-19也会危及生命
Which is why scientists are working rigorously on understanding its transmission, behavior,
这也是科学家们努力研究它的传播 行为
and how they can stop it.
以及如何阻断其传播的原因
Since this viruses global debut, what have we learned about it
自这种病毒首次在全球出现以来 我们对它了解多少?
and how fearful should we be?
我们应该感到担忧吗?
Coronaviruses are named for their structural elements,
冠状病毒以其结构元素命名
so they have this very prominent protein on their surface
它们的表面有这种非常突出的蛋白质
which is called a spike protein.
这叫做突刺蛋白
We see them very prominently on the outer ring—and that looks a bit like a crown,
在病毒外圈我们可以很明显地看到它们——看起来有点像皇冠
or like the sun’s corona when we have a solar eclipse.
或者像日食时太阳的日冕
And that gives them their name.
该病毒就因此得名
In most cases, coronaviruses are respiratory RNA viruses that infect animals,
大多数情况下 冠状病毒是感染某些动物的呼吸道的RNA病毒
such as bats, cats, and birds.
例如在蝙蝠 猫和鸟的呼吸道中
But when they make the jump to humans, these viruses are known as zoonotic.
但当它们转移到人类身上时就被称为动物传染病毒
There are seven known coronaviruses that will infect humans,
已知有七种冠状病毒会感染人类
causing diseases like the ones we’re familiar with: COVID-19, SARS, and MERS.
会导致一些我们所熟知的疾病如COVID-19 SARS和MERS
SARS and MERS are previous outbreaks from the last few decades.
在过去几十年中曾爆发过SARS和MERS疾病
In 2002, there was SARS, meaning Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome.
2002年 爆发了SARS 即严重急性呼吸综合征
And in 2012, there was MERS, meaning Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.
2012年 爆发了MERS 即中东呼吸综合征
They each took less than 1,000 lives.
两种疾病造成的死亡病例都低于1000例
But both are known to cause a severe case of pneumonia and lung injury,
但两者都会导致严重的肺炎和肺损伤
and death rates from these infections are higher than COVID-19:
而且这些病毒感染者的病死率高于COVID-19:
from 11% to more than 30%.
从11%到30%以上
So, what we see with this virus is that it’s definitely much milder
所以 从已知的SARS疫情数据中
than SARS, within the known SARS cases.
我们可以肯定这种病毒远比SARS温和
What contributes to the virus being so much milder than SARS
导致新冠病毒远比SARS温和的因素
are many, many contributing factors
有很多很多
and we definitely don’t know the details of it yet from a virus perspective,
虽然我们还未能了解这一病毒的致病细节
but it appears to be where the virus infects.
但似乎受影响的只是病毒的感染部位
So more lungs alone rather than what we call systemic disease,
当病毒攻击内部器官如肺部 更可能只有肺部症状
when the virus attacks our internal organs—our intestines as well—
攻击肠道时也是如此 可能只有肠道症状 而非全身性疾病
so that makes the virus much milder than what we saw with SARS.
正是这使得新冠病毒比SARS要温和得多
In fact, mortality rates from COVID-19 vary on the age and previous health of the patient.
事实上 COVID-19的病死率因患者年龄和既往健康状况而异
Since it’s usually not the coronavirus itself,
因为致命与否通常不是冠状病毒本身决定
but how your immune system responds.
而是看你的免疫系统如何应对
So, for any virus to cause a human disease, they need to get into human cells.
任何病毒要引起人类疾病 都需要侵入人类细胞
Different viruses like to grow in different cells of the body.
不同的病毒喜欢在身体的不同细胞中生长
This new coronavirus likes to grow in the lung cells.
这种新的冠状病毒喜欢在肺细胞中生长
When they get into a cell, they require a surface receptor.
当它们侵入细胞时 它们需要一个表面受体
So, the spike protein, that very prominent protein that we see,
所以 突刺蛋白 即我们看到的那个突出的蛋白质
is basically the key-lock interaction that tells the cell to take up this virus
基本是以钥匙-锁的相互作用使得细胞接受这种病毒
so that it can eventually hijack the cellular machinery
使它最终可以劫持“细胞工厂”
and use it to make more of itself.
并利用这些“细胞工厂”来自我复制
This virus uses a protein called ACE2, as a receptor.
这种病毒的受体是一种叫做ACE2的蛋白质
The virus has to bind with the receptor to be able to get inside the cells.
病毒必须与受体结合才能进入细胞内部
ACE2 is found throughout the respiratory tract
ACE2存在于整个呼吸道
and SARS-CoV2 seems to have a liking to cells in both the upper and lower part of our respiratory system.
而SARS-CoV2似乎与上下呼吸系统的细胞都有相似之处
The lower respiratory tract includes the trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli.
下呼吸道包括气管 支气管 细支气管和肺泡
The upper respiratory tract includes the nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat, and voice box.
上呼吸道包括鼻孔 鼻腔 口腔 咽喉和喉部
When we have an infection in our lungs,
当肺部感染时
then we have a lot of immune cells that come to help clear that virus,
有很多免疫细胞来帮助清除病毒
but at the same time, that’s liquid and cells
但同时 由此聚集的液体和细胞
which both block that thin layer of cells from taking up oxygen.
都会妨碍薄薄的肺泡壁细胞吸收氧气
And then obviously we want a physical barrier, which is mucus,
在此之后我们会有一个物理屏障 即黏液
to kind of wash out the virus.
来部分清出病毒
And that makes us cough, that brings us respiratory problems.
而该过程会使我们咳嗽 给我们带来呼吸问题
Because of that damage, sometimes there is an accumulation of fluid in that part of the lung,
由于损伤 有时在肺部会有积液
and that is what we call pneumonia.
这就是我们所说的肺炎
Most of the patients that have died because of this coronavirus, have died because of pneumonia.
大多数死于新冠病毒的病人都是死于肺炎
Of course, like we said before, there are other factors that can make this a lethal disease.
当然 如前所述 该病还有其他致命因素
I would also like to emphasize that it seems that most of the people that have died
我也想强调一下 目前来看
because of this new coronavirus, so far, were either elderly,
死于这种新冠病毒的人似乎多数是老年人
or they had an underlying disease condition.
或是有潜在疾病的人
It seems that if your immune system is compromised for any reason,
似乎 如果你的免疫系统因某种原因受到损害
then you have a higher chance of getting a severe infection.
那么你就更有可能受到严重的感染
To understand the origin of SARS-Cov-2 and its transmission,
为了解SARS-CoV-2的起源及其传播
scientists sampled its genomes in 53 individuals back in January 2020.
科学家在2020年1月从53个人体内取回了其基因组样本
They converted the viruses nearly 29,000 nucleotides bases into workable DNA,
他们将该病毒的近29000个核苷酸碱基转换成可处理的DNA
which was shared with labs across the globe.
并与世界各地的实验室共享
Based on that DNA, they were able to distinguish that
基于这一DNA 他们能够识别出
the virus was roughly 96.2% similar to a bat coronavirus
该病毒与蝙蝠冠状病毒的相似度约为96.2%
and about 79.5% was similar to the coronavirus that causes SARS.
与引起SARS的冠状病毒相似度约为79.5%
So SARS-CoV-2 seems to have started in bats,
由此可知SARS-CoV-2似乎源自蝙蝠
but there needs to be a link between how the coronavirus lives in bats
但存于蝙蝠体内的冠状病毒与在人体内发现的有细微差异
and to the slightly different kind of coronavirus found in humans.
要证明其来源于蝙蝠 需找到两者间的联系
And that link is still unknown.
但这种联系仍然未知
Despite early theories that the outbreak originated in a seafood market in Wuhan,
尽管早前有说法称此次疫情起源于武汉的一个海鲜市场
there’s evidence that may not be the case.
但有证据表明情况可能并非如此
So, what happens next?
那么 接下来会发生什么呢
As of February 2020, teams in China and the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
截至2020年2月 中国的团队和美国国家过敏和传染病研究所
are already testing an antiviral drug called Remdesivir to combat the spread.
已经在测试一种叫做Remdesivir的抗病毒药物来阻止病毒的传播
Created by a U.S.-based biotech company named Gilead,
它由美国生物科技公司吉利德研制
the experimental drug was shown to block the activity of a protein
该试验药物可以阻断一种
that helps coronaviruses make copies of themselves.
帮助冠状病毒自我复制的蛋白质的活性
Lab tests showed promise in animal models for SARS and MERS,
实验室测试显示该疗法有望治愈感染SARS和MERS的动物模型
and the treatment was also successful when used on a U.S. patient with COVID-19.
而这种疗法也已经治愈了美国的一位COVID-19患者
While the FDA hasn’t approved this drug,
虽然FDA还没有批准这种药物
clinical trials have started with 270 patients at Beijing’s China-Japan Friendship Hospital,
但北京中日友好医院的270名患者 全亚洲的大约1000名患者
roughly 1,000 patients spread throughout Asia,
已经开始了临床实验
and a clinical trial in the U.S. that administer similar treatment.
美国的一项临床试验也采用了类似的治疗方法
I think a lot of future efforts are going to be focusing on drug development,
我认为未来将集中致力于药物研发
because it’s very clear right now that these viruses might continue to jump from animals to humans,
因为就目前情况 显然这类病毒可能会继续从动物传染给人类
so we should definitely be ready for another outbreak in future,
所以我们定要为下一场疫情做好准备
and antiviral drug development and vaccine development are the way to go.
抗病毒药物的研发和疫苗的研发是未来的方向
There’s so much to discuss when it comes to COVID-19.
当提及COVID-19时 仍有很多东西需要讨论
If there’s another aspect of it that you want to see us cover
如果你还想看我们的报道
please let us know in the comments below, and make sure to subscribe to Seeker
请在下面的评论中告诉我们 而且一定要订阅《探索新闻台》
to see how we follow this news.
来看这条新闻的后续报道
Thanks for watching, go wash those hands, and I’ll see you next time.
感谢观看 去洗手吧 我们下期再见

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视频概述

关于新型冠状病毒的基础知识

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收集自网络

翻译译者

白云深处有人家

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审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LciEApnwYA

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