未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

宇宙终结的过程

This Is What Will Happen in The Next 5,000,000,000 years

[音乐]
[music]
宇宙的历史将如何终结?
How will the history of our universe end?
最重要的是 何时终结?
And most importantly, when will it be?
所有的一切都不是永恒的
It’s all this not eternal.
宇宙形成近140亿年了
The universe is almost 14 billion years old
它看起来可以永远稳定地存在
and would seem that it can safely continue to exit forever.
但事实上并非如此
But, actually no.
任何事物都会终结 任何事物 甚至恒星和星系
Everything comes to an end, everything, even stars and galaxies.
任何事物都会趋向于最低能量状态
Everything tends towards a state of minimal energy
正因如此 三大可能的浩劫在等着我们
and because of this, three possible apocalypses are waiting for us.
为了弄懂将发生在我们身上的事
To understand what will happen to us,
首先必须知道是什么决定了宇宙的命运
we must first know what decides the fate of the universe?
了解暗能量
Meet dark energy.
1998年 科学家观测到一颗新超新星
In 1998, scientists observed a new supernova, a type 1A supernova
1A型超新星 因作为宇宙学中测量远距离的标准烛光而为人所知
was known as a standard candela in cosmology used to measure great distances.
这种恒星爆炸的亮度几乎总是相同的
The brightness of the explosion of such stars is almost always the same,
所以测量从地球上看到其爆炸的亮度
so measuring the brightness of the explosion as seen from earth,
人们可以确定地球到爆炸发生地的距离
one can determine the distance to the place where it occured.
还有另一种方法来测量远距离 使用红移理论
There is another way to determine huge distances using something called the redshift method.
细节有点难以解释
The details are a little hard to explain,
简单来说 随着来自遥远天体的光照到地球上
but briefly as the light from a distant object flights towards the earth,
它会逐渐移向光谱的红色波长
it gradually shifts to the red part of the spectrum.
所以测量遥远星系中的红光
So measuring the redness of light from distant galaxies
可以确定它们离我们有多远
one can determine how far they are from us.
根据第一种方法 超新星有70亿光年远
According to the first method, the new supernova was 7 billion light years away
根据第二种方法 是120亿光年
and according to the second method 12 billion light years away.
呃 解释多出来的50亿光年的唯一方法是
Hum, the only way to explain where the additional 5 billion years came from
假设我们的宇宙正在膨胀 且是不断快速膨胀
was to assume that our universe is expanding and that expansion is constantly accelerating.
这是个大问题
This is a big deal.
准确来说是暗能量
It is precisely dark energy
在理论上对宇宙的膨胀负责
that is theorized to be responsible for the expansion of the universe.
某种程度上 它就像反重力 不合理的存在于地球甚至银河系
In a way, it’s almost like anti-gravity inconsequential here on our earth and even within our galaxy,
但却超出了相距遥远的星系团之间的引力作用
but exceeding the power of gravity at the mega distances between clusters of galaxies.
这意味着 除非比光还快的旅行工具被发明出来
This means that unless a faster-than-light mode of travel is invented,
我们不可能拜访宇宙的绝大多数(地方)
we will never be able to visit most of the universe.
我们将被限制在本星系群 该星系群包含银河系
We’ll be limited to our local group of galaxies which incudes the Milky Way,
仙女座星系和几十个矮星系 比如麦哲伦云
the Andromeda galaxy and several tens of dwarf galaxies such as the Magellanic Clouds.
即使你立刻坐上
Even if you sat down right now,
一艘接近光速前进的飞船
in a ship that can travel at close to the speed of light,
也不可能离开本星系群
you could never leave the local group.
所有其他的星系和星系团将以
All the other galaxies and clusters will fly away from you
比你飞近它们的速度还快的速度飞离你
faster than you can approach them.
可以相信 暗能量均匀分布在整个宇宙中
It’s believed that dark energy is evenly distributed throughout all of the universe
就像一直存在并将永远存在的恒定的密度
and most likely always had, has and always will have a constant density.
暗能量的密度有三种值
The density of dark energy can have three values,
小于-1 大于-1 等于-1
less than -1, greater than -1 and equal to -1.
第一种理论 “大撕裂说”
The first theory, the big rip.
我们来分析第一种情况
Let’s analyze the first case.
如果暗能量的密度小于-1
If the density of dark energy is less than -1,
那么宇宙将会以大撕裂的方式终结
then the universe will end in something called the big rip.
根据现代的观测
According to modern observations
暗能量密度最低值可能是-1.08
the lowest possible value of the density of dark energy is -1.08.
在这种情况下 宇宙中的任何事物都会终结
Everything in our universe will end in this case
至少在800亿年内
in a minimum of 80 billion years.
所有可观测的物体 除了本星系群
All observable objects except for our galaxies the local group
将会一直加速远离我们
will fly away from us all the while accelerating
直到它自身膨胀的速度达到光速
until the speed of this expansion itself reaches the speed of light,
此后 除了本星系团 我们将什么都看不见
after which we won’t be able to see anything beyond our cluster.
100亿年内 星系中的最远星系群将开始消失
The first most distant group of galaxies will begin to disappear in about 10 billion years.
约600亿年后 最近的星系群也会消失
The nearest will cease to be visible after about 60 billion years.
大撕裂前的2亿年 我们的本星系群将开始瓦解
200 million years before the rip, our local group will begin to disintegrate.
有一点要说明的是 那时 将出现一个全新的 更大的组合星系
As a side note, at that time there will be a new lager combo galaxy here
这是仙女座和银河系碰撞 合并的结果
the result of the collision and meger of our milky way and Andromeda
差不多有12个其他的小星系试图避免被合并
and about a dozen other small galaxies that managed not to get merged
但会在新星系的轨道内绕行
but are in orbit around it.
大撕裂前的6000万年
60 million years before the big rip,
科学家打算命名为银河仙女座的新星系
this new galaxy which scientists proposed calling Milkomed
将从其边缘开始失去恒星
will begin to lose stars from its periphery
之后再过4000万年 它就完全瓦解了
and will completely disintegrate in another 40 million years.
在一切终结前的几个月 太阳系将开始瓦解
Solar systems will begin to disintegrate a few months before the end.
太阳系的剩余部分会停止围绕太阳主体转动
The remnants of our solar system will stop spinning around the corps of the sun,
也就是现在的白矮星
now a white dwarf,
一切终结前三个月左右 它会飞入快速膨胀的宇宙
and will fly into the rapidly expanding universe about 3 months before the end.
行星大约会在宇宙终结前的最后一小时内崩塌
The planets will be broken about an hour before the end
世界的基础 其包含的内核
and the basis of our world, the very atoms it consists of,
都会在最后的破裂前十亿分之一秒内被摧毁
will be destroyed in a nanosecond just before the final tear.
只有非复合粒子
Only noncomposite particle points,
比如电子 夸克和胶子等基本粒子
elementary particle such as electrons, quarks and gluons
将会从荒凉又难以想象的 曾是宇宙的多样性中保留下来
will remain from the wild and unimaginable diversity of what was once the universe.
它们永远不会碰撞 也不会产生新粒子
They will never collide again and will form nothing new.
每个基本粒子都会远离其他粒子
Each elementary particle will move away from every other one,
比光速还快
faster than the speed of light.
不会再发生什么 永远不会
Nothing more will happen, never, ever.
第二种理论 “大坍塌说”
The second theory, the big crunch.
如果暗能量的密度大于-1
If the density of dark energy is more than -1,
那么从现在开始的几百亿年后 万有引力会赢
then tens of billions of years from now the force of gravity will win
宇宙的历史会以更有趣的形式终结
and the history of universe will end with little more fun.
顺便说一下 这个理论是最不可能的
By the way, this theory is the least likely.
但我们还不完全了解暗能量是如何运用的
But we still don’t fully understand how dark energy works,
由于暗能量的属性还不完全为人所知
so the big crunch still remains possible
所以 大坍塌依然有可能发生
due to the fact that the properties of dark energy are not fully known.
即便是大体估计一下
It’s impossible to name even approximately
宇宙终结的一幕来临前 我们还剩多少时间 也是不可能的
how much time we have left in this scenario for the end of the universe.
你只能在结束时描述宇宙终结的一幕
You can only describe the events that come before the end
这些已经与时间无关了
without being exactly tied to time.
首先 应当注意的是
First of all, it should be noted that not only
所有的星系 超星系团和其他所有的物质都会汇集一起
all of the galaxies, superclusters and all that other fun staff will converge,
但宇宙本身的规模却在缩小
but that the size of the universe itself will shrink.
当它从当前直径200亿光年的状态
When it decreases 5 times from its current state
减小到五分之一大小时
to a diameter of 20 billion light years,
所有汇集一处的天体会形成一个超星系团
all the aggregate star stuff will merge into one supercluster.
银河系也变成了这个星系团的组成部分
With the galaxies being the constituent elements of the cluster,
它们会留下来 继续相互旋转 彼此碰撞
they will remain, they will still spine around each other and collide
但也不会相距太远
but they will not be seperated by overwhelming distances.
不像之前宇宙诞生的版本
Unlike the previous version of the development of the universe,
依这种观点 只要移动的速度接近光速
in this one, you can reach any place, anywhere you want to go,
你就可以去任何想去的地方
if moving at near light speed.
当宇宙的直径收缩到10亿光年
When the universe shrinks to one billion light years across,
超星系团会汇集成一个巨大的星系
the superclusters merge into one giant galaxy
宇宙微波背景温度会达到32华氏度
and the cosmic microwave background temperature will reach 32 degrees fahrenheit,
也就是0摄氏度
that’s 0 degree Celsius
宇宙中所有的石质行星将适于生存
and all the stony planets in the universe will be suitable for life
只要它们上面有水
if there’s a water on them.
所以 让宇宙快速缩小吧
So, let the universe shrink rapidly
宇宙微波背景温度将达到舒适的温暖 生命也会孕育
and the CMB temperature will create a comfortable warmth and life can be born.
但是 唉 背景温度会继续升高
But, alas, a background temperature will continue to warm up
并会持续几百万甚至几十亿年
for millions and even billions of years.
温度会升高 空间也变得越来越小
The temperature will grow higher, space will become smaller and smaller
直到最后连原子都会分裂解体
until finally even atoms will split and disintegrate.
一切将回到宇宙大爆炸之前的状态
Everything will return to a state like that before the big bang.
最后 宇宙会
In the end the universe will finally
由无限温度和密度的一个微型奇点构成
consist of one micro singular mass of infinite temperature and density.
接下来会发生什么无法预测
What happens next cannot be predicted.
现代物理法则在那种情况下并不适用
Modern physical laws don’t apply in such a place
但宇宙大爆炸很可能再次发生
but it is possible that the big bang will happen again,
创造一个新的宇宙
creating a new universe.
第三种理论 “热寂说”
The third theory, heat death.
如果暗能量的密度恰好是1
If the density of dark energy is precisely 1,
宇宙会按照固定的速度缓慢但无限的膨胀
the universe will slowly but infinitely expand at a constant rate.
星系团会永远分离
Clusters of galaxies will forever fly apart
但星系团中的物体会永远被万有引力束缚
but objects within the clusters will forever remain gravitationally bound.
几百亿年后
After a few tens of billions of years,
星系将耗尽 由恒星形成的尘埃和气体
the galaxies will exhaust their supplies of dust and gas from which stars form.
生命的主要来源变成长寿的红矮星
The main sources of life will be long-lived red dwarfs,
小而黯淡的恒星往往只有太阳亮度的十分之一
small dull stars often only one-tenth as light as our sun.
大约10万亿年后
Afrer about ten trillion years,
最后的红矮星停止发热 变成黑矮星
the last red dwarfs will cease to glow and turn into black dwarfs,
宇宙将陷入黑暗
the universe will plunge into darkness,
只有零星地方被昔日辉煌的残余
only here and there illuminated by the remnants of its former greatness,
甚至黯淡的中子星和白矮星所照亮
even dimmer neutron stars and white dwarfs.
渐渐地 一切物质都被吸入黑洞
Gradually, all matter will be absorbed by black holes
在数万亿年后 黑洞渐渐变成无法想象的规模
which will grow to unimaginable sizes for trillons of years.
数百万亿 数万万亿年之后
Hundreds of trillions and trillons of years will past
直到黑洞由于霍金辐射而蒸发
until the black holes evaperate due to Hawking radiation.
这一切会发生是因为极少数光子
This happens because photons with a very low probability
会从黑洞的边缘逃逸
can escape beyond the event horizen of a black hole.
经过漫长的时间
Over a long enough period of a time
黑洞蒸发 只留下光子 夸克和电子
black holes evaperate,leaving only photons and quarks and eletrons.
非常偶然的情况下 宇宙
The universe, occasionally,
电子和带正电荷质子将会结合成电子偶素原子
the electrons and positrons will combine into positronium atoms
接着立刻消失
and then immediately annihilate.
热寂来临
Thermal death has come.
如果这一切听起来有点可怕 不用担心
If this all sounds a little frightening, don’t worry.
目前 我们还拥有布满恒星的宇宙
At present, we have an entire universe full of bright stars
我希望世界适合生存
and I hope world’s fit for life.
不管几十亿或者数万亿年后会发生什么
No matter what happens billions or trillions of years from now,
我们应该庆幸自己非常幸运地生活在完美的时代
we should rejoice that we are lucky to live now at this perfect time
当我们知道宇宙如何诞生又如何终结之后
when we can learn how our universe was born and how it will end,
我们就会用宏观的美来观察宇宙
we can observe the universe in all its grandiose beauty
此时 此刻
right here, right now,
非常完美
and it is wonderful.
如果你对未来的节目有任何想法
If you have any ideas for future episodes,
请写在下方评论区
please leave them in the comments below.
最具创意的作者 其名字会出现在视频中
The author of the best idea will have their name presented in the video.
如果我们把你用胶带绑起来会怎么样?
What will be if we wrap you round and round with scotch tape?
扔进微波炉 烤得外焦内酥
Throw the whole package into a microwave oven, roast quite well
沉到海里喂饥饿的鲨鱼
feed that to a tired hungry whale, after that drown you in the ocean
你还活着 然后被送到太空
then burry you alive, send you into space,
让你回到地球上
then let you drop back down to earth
正好落在马里亚纳海沟底部
straight to the bottom of the Mariana Trench,
然后把你捞出来 在闪电风暴中弄干
after that take you out and dry you under a nice one lighting storm,
穿好衣服 梳好头发 把你粘在3万英尺高的飞机上
dress you up, comb you up, stick you onto a plane climb to 30,000 feet
然后 再次向上抛 你保准能背部向下落到平整的地面
an~d toss you up once more where you promise back down to the unyeilding surface,
当然没有降落伞
of course without a parachute,
接下来会发生什么
what will happen then?
我们来问问阿诺德 感觉怎么样 兄弟 你还站得起来吗?
Let’s ask Arnold. How are you feeling, buddy? You still on your feet?
好吧 试试这个
Well, then how about this.
没时间解释了
There’s no time to explain,
点击简介中的链接
just click on the link in the description
观看这个棒棒哒新动画系列第一集
and watch the first episode in this awesomely great new cartoon series,
不久就要在网上爆红
soon to explode across the entire damn internet.
来吧 点击按钮 你不会拒绝订阅这个频道的
Come on, press the button. You can’t resist subscribing to this channel.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

如果你以为宇宙会永恒的存在那就太天真了。事实上宇宙会如何终结,大撕裂、大坍塌还是死寂假说呢?

听录译者

彭彭和丁满

翻译译者

安景明

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0x2hiVynKXg

相关推荐