The whole world,
nay, the whole universe is made of matter.
所有事物！你 我 披萨 黑洞 小狗 暗物质
Everything! You, me, pizza, black holes, puppies, dark matter.
But there’s also this little thing out there called antimatter.
Around the turn of the last century, Einstein was working on the theory of relativity and
other physicists were trying to figure out how the tiniest parts of our universe worked
— this is called quantum theory.
This was all done with math.
Lots and lots of math.
At one point a physicist named Paul Dirac realized…
X-squared equals 4 has two answers.
AND Negative two.
This means, if say matter is the two,
there must be some kind of opposite to fit into the negative two.
Physicists called this opposite antimatter.
The reason you don’t see antimatter around, is because if it were to pop into existence
and hit regular matter — the twos would cancel each other out
and disappear in a spectacular burst of energy called an annihilation.
You probably know that all matter is made of protons and electrons… well antimatter
the opposite is called antiproton and a positron.
A proton is a positive heavy particle
an antiproton is a negative heavy particle.
Electrons are light and negative,
positrons are light and positive.
再说一次 由于它们的对立性 一旦相接触 轰！
Again, because of their opposite-ness, if they get touch, BOOM.
But we’ll come back to that.
Even though they have these opposite charges…
in theory, antimatter should be exactly the same as matter.
After The Big Bang, the universe should have created
equal amounts of matter and antimatter, according to physicists.
But there’s not really any antimatter around.
Because, in the first second after the Big Bang, all the matter and antimatter in the
所有物质和反物质相遇了 然后 嘣！
newborn universe found each other and BAM!
All the antimatter disappeared in bursts of energy, leaving behind just… matter.
No one knows exactly why the Big Bang made more matter than antimatter.
But these scientists are making antimatter in their lab to find out more about it…
this facility creates antimatter using the particle beams at CERN
we convert protons into antiprotons.
CERN is the Center for European Nuclear Research,
we went there last year, and it’s where the Large Hadron Collider lives.
This Antimatter Factory takes protons shooting along the LHC
and converts those to antihydrogen
— the antimatter version of hydrogen.
Then Dr. Bertsche and his team trap the antihydrogen to study it.
We know a lot about hydrogen, so we wanna see
how antihydrogen might be different.
但务必牢记 决不能让反物质接触到物质 千万！
But remember, you can’t let antimatter touch matter, ever.
No air, no fancy containers… nothing that’s made of matter.
So, the scientists use magnetic fields to hold the antihydrogen
inside this trap — they use energy.
They behave like little tiny refrigerator magnets and consequently we basically have
to arrange a magnetic field geometry that looks kind of like a bathtub.
So, the antihydrogen atoms basically sit in a magnetic bathtub or magnetic bottle.
But it’s really actually physically shaped like a bathtub.
it’s about the size of sort of a two liter coke bottle.
The magnetic bathtub is called a Penning-Malmberg trap.
The magnetic field keeps the antihydrogen from hitting the walls of the trap and annihilating
因为 牢记 决不能碰到物质
— because remember, no touch matter.
Powerful magnets and lasers force the antihydrogen to get stuck inside the magnetic field sort of like
a piece of candy in a bowl.
Once they’ve trapped the antimatter, the scientists at the Factory can learn things
about this mysterious mirror of our universe’s matter.
Disappointingly, antimatter isn’t some kind of miracle form of matter.
它没有反重力性 也不会……好吧 没有任何不同
It doesn’t have anti-gravity properties, it doesn’t do… well, anything different at all.
If you could somehow find a way
to build a table out of antimatter,
it would just… be a table.
That is weird, right?
What if — in those few hot moments after the Big Bang —
the universe was completely made of antimatter?
Would it feel exactly the same to us?
I mean, think about it.
If antimatter and matter are exactly the same,
then what is the difference?
If the whole universe was made of antimatter we’d just call that matter.
And what we think of as matter would actually be antimatter.
All the things we call positive are just relative to our experience.
All the charges are relative with our universe arbitrarily being made of matter.
Physics get’s really weird when you get right down to it.
最后 一个反物质宇宙——基于我们目前所知 它将看起来
In the end, an antimatter universe — based on everything we know,
would look and feel exactly the same as our own.
But more research is needed.
Scientists trapped antimatter for the first time in 2010.
现在 不过短短几年之后 他们已经能
Now, just a few short years later, they’ve learned to trap more than a dozen antiatoms
at a time over and over and over again!
Antimatter has been held by experiments here for many many months
and indeed one of the experiments has a collection of antiprotons
that they grabbed onto some time early last year
and they’ve actually still have the same antiprotons that they’ve had the whole time.
But even still after a bit
they have to let the antimatter go.
Then it annihilates and disappears.
But even though annihilation dose sounds like a big, violent, terrible, thing…
it’s actually kind of like a …
The scientists do see some gamma radiation, and that’s all she wrote.
Practically speaking, CERN has only made 10 nanograms of antimatter.
All the energy from annihilating it, could only power one light bulb for say 4 hours.
And to make that antimatter takes a billion times more energy than
what we get back from annihilating it.
There’s not a lot of practical applications for this antimatter research yet… but…
Antimatter is actually commonly used in a lot of medical techniques
such as a positron emission tomography.
It’s also also called a PET scan and it’s used for cancer diagnosis.
Look, Star Trek famously traveled the universe using engines that ran on matter-antimatter reactions,
there’s a lot of potential here.
But, based on what we know of antihydrogen,
whether we could do that in the future is a big old shrug.
At the moment, almost a century after it was first theorized,
antimatter research is still in its infancy,
but thanks to Dr. Bertsche and dozens of grad students and scientists
也许 在未来 我们能了解更多
around the world, maybe someday we’ll know more.
The antimatter factory make their antiprotons using the Large Hadron Collider.
But do you even know what the Large Hadron Collider is?
We went there.
Check it out here, it’s going to blow your mind.
How do you guys feel about physics with no practical application?
Boring or incredible?
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