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仅存的反物质 – 译学馆
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仅存的反物质

This Is The Only Place Antimatter Can Survive In The Universe

整个世界
The whole world,
不对 整个宇宙都是由物质组成的
nay, the whole universe is made of matter.
所有事物!你 我 披萨 黑洞 小狗 暗物质
Everything! You, me, pizza, black holes, puppies, dark matter.
所有的东西
Everything.
但仍有一种名为“反物质”的东西 它不由物质构成
But there’s also this little thing out there called antimatter.
大约在上世纪 爱因斯坦研究着相对论
Around the turn of the last century, Einstein was working on the theory of relativity and
其他科学家则在尽力弄懂宇宙微粒的各种行为
other physicists were trying to figure out how the tiniest parts of our universe worked
——这就是量子论
— this is called quantum theory.
这些都由数学解释
This was all done with math.
这需要极多的数学知识
Lots and lots of math.
一天 一位叫保罗•狄拉克的物理学家意识到
At one point a physicist named Paul Dirac realized…
方程x²=4有两个解
X-squared equals 4 has two answers.
2
Two.
和-2
AND Negative two.
这意味着 如果说物质是2
This means, if say matter is the two,
那么必然有一种相反的东西会成为那个-2
there must be some kind of opposite to fit into the negative two.
物理学家们称之为反物质
Physicists called this opposite antimatter.
你们在身边看不到反物质的原因是 假如它存在
The reason you don’t see antimatter around, is because if it were to pop into existence
并且撞击到了物质——它们将互相抵消
and hit regular matter — the twos would cancel each other out
并于一场称为“湮灭”的能量爆发后消失
and disappear in a spectacular burst of energy called an annihilation.
你应该知道所有物质都由质子和电子组成
You probably know that all matter is made of protons and electrons… well antimatter
对应地 反物质则由反质子和正电子组成
the opposite is called antiproton and a positron.
质子是带正电的重子
A proton is a positive heavy particle
反质子是带负电的重子
an antiproton is a negative heavy particle.
电子是带负电的轻子
Electrons are light and negative,
正电子是带正电的轻子
positrons are light and positive.
再说一次 由于它们的对立性 一旦相接触 轰!
Again, because of their opposite-ness, if they get touch, BOOM.
湮灭了
Gone.
这个待会儿再说
But we’ll come back to that.
尽管有这么多相反的性质
Even though they have these opposite charges…
但理论上 反物质应该与物质极其类似
in theory, antimatter should be exactly the same as matter.
按照物理学家们的推测
After The Big Bang, the universe should have created
大爆炸过后 宇宙应该生成了等量物质和反物质
equal amounts of matter and antimatter, according to physicists.
但是我们周围并不存在反物质
But there’s not really any antimatter around.
因为在大爆炸后的第一秒内 新生宇宙中
Because, in the first second after the Big Bang, all the matter and antimatter in the
所有物质和反物质相遇了 然后 嘣!
newborn universe found each other and BAM!
大湮灭
ANNIHILATIONS GALORE.
所有反物质消失于能量大爆发中 只剩下物质
All the antimatter disappeared in bursts of energy, leaving behind just… matter.
没人知道为何大爆炸创造的物质多于反物质
No one knows exactly why the Big Bang made more matter than antimatter.
但为了了解反物质 科学家在实验室中造出了它
But these scientists are making antimatter in their lab to find out more about it…
我们用CERN制造的粒子流
this facility creates antimatter using the particle beams at CERN
将质子转化为反质子以创造反物质
we convert protons into antiprotons.
CERN是欧洲核子研究中心
CERN is the Center for European Nuclear Research,
去年我们去了那里 那里有大型强子对撞机
we went there last year, and it’s where the Large Hadron Collider lives.
反物质工厂将氢核射入LHC
This Antimatter Factory takes protons shooting along the LHC
使其转化为反氢原子
and converts those to antihydrogen
——氢原子的反物质版本
— the antimatter version of hydrogen.
然后贝尔舍博士的团队捕获并研究该反氢原子
Then Dr. Bertsche and his team trap the antihydrogen to study it.
我们很了解氢原子
We know a lot about hydrogen, so we wanna see
所以我们想看看反氢原子有什么不同
how antihydrogen might be different.
但务必牢记 决不能让反物质接触到物质 千万!
But remember, you can’t let antimatter touch matter, ever.
不能接触空气 不能接触任何容器……不能接触任何由物质组成的东西
No air, no fancy containers… nothing that’s made of matter.
因此 研究者用磁场将反氢原子
So, the scientists use magnetic fields to hold the antihydrogen
限制在一个能量陷阱内
inside this trap — they use energy.
它们就像小冰箱磁铁一样 因此我们首先
They behave like little tiny refrigerator magnets and consequently we basically have
要制造一个浴缸状磁场
to arrange a magnetic field geometry that looks kind of like a bathtub.
最终 反氢原子基本就在磁阱中运动
So, the antihydrogen atoms basically sit in a magnetic bathtub or magnetic bottle.
实际上它的形状就像一个浴缸
But it’s really actually physically shaped like a bathtub.
大概是2升可乐瓶那么大
it’s about the size of sort of a two liter coke bottle.
这个磁场浴缸称作“彭宁•马姆伯格磁阱”
The magnetic bathtub is called a Penning-Malmberg trap.
这片磁场能避免反氢原子因撞击陷阱边缘而湮灭
The magnetic field keeps the antihydrogen from hitting the walls of the trap and annihilating
因为 牢记 决不能碰到物质
— because remember, no touch matter.
强磁场和激光使反氢原子陷在磁光阱中
Powerful magnets and lasers force the antihydrogen to get stuck inside the magnetic field sort of like
像是一颗在碗里的糖
a piece of candy in a bowl.
一旦成功捕获反物质 研究者就能了解
Once they’ve trapped the antimatter, the scientists at the Factory can learn things
物质宇宙的神秘镜像的信息
about this mysterious mirror of our universe’s matter.
可惜 反物质并不是物质的某种神秘形式
Disappointingly, antimatter isn’t some kind of miracle form of matter.
它没有反重力性 也不会……好吧 没有任何不同
It doesn’t have anti-gravity properties, it doesn’t do… well, anything different at all.
假如你能找到
If you could somehow find a way
某种用反物质做桌子的方法
to build a table out of antimatter,
你就能……做出一张桌子
it would just… be a table.
这很奇怪 不是吗?
That is weird, right?
假如 在大爆炸后的那段时间
What if — in those few hot moments after the Big Bang —
宇宙完全由反物质组成会如何?
the universe was completely made of antimatter?
对我们是否完全一样?
Would it feel exactly the same to us?
我是说 你想
I mean, think about it.
假如反物质和物质性质完全相同
If antimatter and matter are exactly the same,
那为什么是两种东西?
then what is the difference?
也许宇宙由反物质组成 只是我们称之为物质
If the whole universe was made of antimatter we’d just call that matter.
而我们所认为的物质实际上是反物质
And what we think of as matter would actually be antimatter.
所谓正的事物 都是相对于人的主观的
All the things we call positive are just relative to our experience.
我们的宇宙中所有物体 都由物质反复叠加而成
All the charges are relative with our universe arbitrarily being made of matter.
当你真正懂得物理时 它会很奇妙
Physics get’s really weird when you get right down to it.
最后 一个反物质宇宙——基于我们目前所知 它将看起来
In the end, an antimatter universe — based on everything we know,
和我们现在完全一样
would look and feel exactly the same as our own.
但是依然需要更多的探索
But more research is needed.
在2010年 科学家首次捕获反物质
Scientists trapped antimatter for the first time in 2010.
现在 不过短短几年之后 他们已经能
Now, just a few short years later, they’ve learned to trap more than a dozen antiatoms
一次次地捕获多个反粒子了!
at a time over and over and over again!
哇噢!
WoooooooooooOOoOOoo
为了实验 反物质已在此保存了数月之久
Antimatter has been held by experiments here for many many months
事实上 有一个实验中捕获了大量反质子
and indeed one of the experiments has a collection of antiprotons
这个实验是去年早些时候做的
that they grabbed onto some time early last year
如今仍有一些反质子安然无恙地保存在这儿
and they’ve actually still have the same antiprotons that they’ve had the whole time.
既使如此 再过一会儿
But even still after a bit
他们也得把它们放走
they have to let the antimatter go.
然后湮灭 消失
Then it annihilates and disappears.
但即使湮灭听起来很夸张 反应剧烈……
But even though annihilation dose sounds like a big, violent, terrible, thing…
事实上它只是……[嘣]
it’s actually kind of like a …
科学家确实探测到了伽马射线 但也仅此而已
The scientists do see some gamma radiation, and that’s all she wrote.
实际上 CERN至今也只制造出了10纳克反物质
Practically speaking, CERN has only made 10 nanograms of antimatter.
从始至终
Ever.
它湮灭产生的能量也就能让一个灯泡亮4小时
All the energy from annihilating it, could only power one light bulb for say 4 hours.
而制造它所消耗的能量是其湮灭产生能量的
And to make that antimatter takes a billion times more energy than
数十亿倍
what we get back from annihilating it.
反物质的实际应用性仍不明显……但是……
There’s not a lot of practical applications for this antimatter research yet… but…
反物质已在多项医学技术中有所应用
Antimatter is actually commonly used in a lot of medical techniques
如正电子放射断层造影技术
such as a positron emission tomography.
它又称作PET扫描 常用于癌症诊断
It’s also also called a PET scan and it’s used for cancer diagnosis.
星际迷航中的飞船就运用了正反物质间的反应
Look, Star Trek famously traveled the universe using engines that ran on matter-antimatter reactions,
它的应用前景广得很
there’s a lot of potential here.
但基于我们对反氢的了解
But, based on what we know of antihydrogen,
未来这能否成为现实仍是未知数
whether we could do that in the future is a big old shrug.
在它被理论预言后近一个世纪的今天
At the moment, almost a century after it was first theorized,
反物质理论与研究仍处在摇篮期
antimatter research is still in its infancy,
多亏了Bertsche博士与各地的研究者们
but thanks to Dr. Bertsche and dozens of grad students and scientists
也许 在未来 我们能了解更多
around the world, maybe someday we’ll know more.
反物质工厂用大型强子对撞机制造反质子
The antimatter factory make their antiprotons using the Large Hadron Collider.
但是你知道大型强子对撞机究竟是什么吗?
But do you even know what the Large Hadron Collider is?
我们到了那里
We went there.
点击下方链接 让你大吃一惊
Check it out here, it’s going to blow your mind.
大家对纯理论物理研究有何看法?
How do you guys feel about physics with no practical application?
枯燥还是奇妙?
Boring or incredible?
在评论中告诉我你的想法 请订阅我们的频道以获取更多精彩视频 感谢您的收看~
Tell us in the comments, please subscribe for more seeker and thank you so much for watching.

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反物质何以存在?何以如此稀少?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XD8Q3Mb1Q4I

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