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这就是古代的勇猛战士-斯巴达 – 译学馆
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这就是古代的勇猛战士-斯巴达

This is Sparta: Fierce warriors of the ancient world - Craig Zimmer

在古希腊 邻国之间暴力的内部冲突
In ancient Greece, violent internal conflict between bordering neighbors
和与外侵者的战争是家常便饭
and war with foreign invaders was a way of life,
而希腊人被看作是顶尖的战士
and Greeks were considered premier warriors.
大多数希腊城邦在边界筑起严实的城墙
Most Greek city-states surrounded themselves with massive defensive walls
作为附加的保护措施
for added protection.
最健壮的斯巴达勇士则是另一回事在古代
Sparta in its prime was a different story,
当有一只令人恐惧的军队时
finding walls unnecessary
城墙便没有了必要性
when it had an army of the most feared warriors in the ancient world.
那么斯巴达是用什么独特的方式
So what was Sparta doing differently than everyone else
来训练如此矫勇善战的士兵的呢?
to produce such fierce soldiers?
我们可以从当时的文献中寻找答案来解答这个问题
To answer that question, we turn to the written accounts of that time.
斯巴达人没有任何书写的文献留存
There are no surviving written accounts from Spartans themselves,
因为保留记录是被斯巴达人禁止的
as it was forbidden for Spartans to keep records,
所以我们只能依靠非斯巴达的古代历史学家的记录
so we have to rely on those of non-Spartan ancient historians,
比如希罗多德 修昔底德和普鲁塔克
like Herodotus, Thucydides, and Plutarch.
这些故事或许被润色过
These stories may be embellished
描述的是斯巴达在战争中的顶峰状态
and depict Sparta at the apex of its power,
所以我们对这些故事持保留态度
so take them with a grain of salt.
对一斯巴达人来说 他们的存在目的非常简单:
For Spartans, the purpose for their existence was simple:
即服务于斯巴达
to serve Sparta.
在他们出生的那天
On the day of their birth,
年长的斯巴达领导会测试每一个新生儿
elder Spartan leaders examined every newborn.
强壮健康的宝宝会被认为可以训练成斯巴达勇士来保卫城邦
The strong healthy babies were considered capable of fulfilling this purpose,
其他的可能会被遗弃在塔吉图斯山上等死
and the others may have been left on Mount Taygetus to die.
每一个斯巴达人 无论男女 都被期望拥有强健的身躯、
Every Spartan, boy or girl, was expected to be physically strong,
敏锐的头脑、
mentally sharp,
和极强的韧性
and emotionally resilient.
不论付出多大的代价 他们的唯一义务就是保卫和扩大斯巴达
And it was their absolute duty to defend and promote Sparta at all costs.
在他们的幼年
So in the first years of their lives,
孩子就开始被要求理解他们首先需忠于斯巴达
children were raised to understand that their loyalty belonged first to Sparta,
其次忠于家庭
and then to family.
这种认知也许让斯巴达男孩更容易地理解他们的未来
This mindset probably made it easier for the Spartan boys,
满七岁的男孩要被送到“斯巴达教育营”
who upon turning seven, were sent to the agoge,
为了一个目的:
a place with one main purpose:
通过十三年不休的、艰苦的、甚至残酷的训练
to turn a boy into a Spartan warrior
将他们变成一个斯巴达勇士
through thirteen years of relentless, harsh, and often brutal training.
斯巴达人最嘉奖体能的强健
The Spartans prized physical perfection above all else,
所以学生们用大多时间来学习如何战斗
and so the students spent a great deal of their time learning how to fight.
为了确保他们在一场战斗中持久性
To ensure resilience in battle,
男孩们被鼓励打架
boys were encouraged to fight among themselves,
而与今天不同 欺凌是被接受的
and bullying, unlike today, was acceptable.
为了更好地让这些男孩提前适应战场上的情况
In order to better prepare the boys for the conditions of war,
给这些男孩的伙食都非常差
the boys were poorly fed,
有时很多天都不进食
sometimes even going days without eating.
他们常常衣衫褴褛
They also were given little in the way of clothing
为的是让他们去适应不同的温度
so that they could learn to deal with different temperatures.
斯巴达男孩常常被鼓励“为了生存
Spartan boys were encouraged to steal in order to survive,
可以偷窃”但是如果他们被抓了现行
but if they were caught,
就会被惩罚;
they would be disciplined,
惩罚的并非偷窃本身 而是偷窃被人逮到
not because they stole, but because they were caught in the act.
在一场名为“惩戒赛”的
During the annual contest of endurance
一年一度的宗教性忍耐力比赛里
in a religious ritual known as the diamastigosis,
青少年男孩们会在阿尔忒弥斯神庙中
teenage boys were whipped in front of an altar
的圣坛上被鞭挞
at the Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia.
男孩们在圣坛中被鞭挞致死是很常见的事
It was common for boys to die on the altar of the goddess.
幸运的是 还有一些不那么残忍的事
Fortunately, not everything was as brutal as that.
年轻的斯巴达人也会学习阅读、
Young Spartans were also taught how to read,
写作、
write,
舞蹈
and dance,
这些都会教会他们优雅地控制动作
which taught them graceful control of their movements
帮助他们更好的战斗
and helped them in combat.
虽然斯巴达女孩肩负的责任有所不同高标准
While the responsibilities for the girls of Sparta were different,

the high standards of excellence
严要求和一生奉献给斯巴达城的目标是不变的
and expectation to serve Sparta with their lives remained the same.
斯巴达女孩上学时与母亲住在家里
Spartan girls lived at home with their mothers as they attended school.
她们的课程包括艺术、
Their curriculum included the arts,
音乐、
music,
舞蹈、
dance,
阅读和
reading,
写作
and writing.
为了使身体一直处于巅峰状态 她们学习一系列运动
And to stay in peak physical condition, they learned a variety of sports,
比如说铁饼、
such as discus,
标枪与
javelin,
马术
and horseback riding.
在斯巴达 人们相信只有强壮和有能力的女人
In Sparta, it was believed that only strong and capable women
才能孕育出可以成为强壮厉害的士兵的孩子
could bear children that would one day become strong and capable warriors.
对于所有的斯巴达人来说
To all Spartans, men and women,
无论男女学校里教的最重要的一课便是
perhaps the most important lesson from Spartan school
对斯巴达的忠诚
was allegiance to Sparta.
为城邦而亡被看做完成斯巴达人人生的一项重要责任
To die for their city-state was seen as the completion of one’s duty to Sparta.
他们死后
Upon their death,
只有在战场上牺牲的烈士和难产的母亲
only men who died in battle and women who died in childbirth
可以有墓碑
were given tombstones.
因为在人们眼中 他们的牺牲都是为了斯巴达的长盛
In the eyes of their countrymen, both died so that Sparta could live.

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