This is not a pine tree.
Neither is this.
most of the images that pop up in a Google Image search for pine trees
aren’t pine trees.
Now, it’s not surprising that many people call all of these trees pines,
because they are related to pines,
but calling them pines is like calling this a dog. And this a dog. And this a dog.
但把它们当成松树就好比是把狼 狐狸 豺都称作狗一样
They’re related to dogs, but they’re not dogs.
So to set things straight, scientifically: pines and the trees they get confused with
differ in the shape and size of their needles and cones,
as well as their overall shape.
true pines have needles bunches of 2, 3 or 5,
真正的松树有2 3 5枚针叶组成针叶束
and seeds that are released from
scaly downward-hanging cones that take 2 years to mature,
which is what gives their scales those two distinctive parts
the first year’s growth,
and the 2nd year’s growth.
And most pines don’t actually
have that stereotypical Christmas-tree shape,
unless they’re pruned that way.
Pines, on their own, have irregular rounded or tiered canopies,
like this or this
As much as people want to call THIS a pine,
it isn’t. It is a cousin, though: a spruce.
You can tell spruces from pines
by their squarish individual needles held in a bottle brush shape
and their cones’ scales that take only one year to grow.
And the fact that they look like christmas trees,
no pruning required !
Here’s another closely-related pine-imposter – the fir tree!
Its distinguishing features are cones that stand upright
and whose scales come off with the seeds attached,
rather than opening to let the seeds fall out.
Firs also have flat needles coming off their branches in a flatter horizontal pattern than spruces.
And they also look like christmas trees!
Then there’s the Douglas-fir, which also isn’t a pine, but it isn’t a fir, either.
这是黄杉 它不是松树 但也不是冷杉
Its cones hang down, not up,
have scales that open rather than fall off,
and have little extra scales that look like mouse butts.
Douglas-fir’s closest cousin is actually the larch,
the only member of the family with leaves that fall off in the winter.
The family goes on and on,
and with such diversity of features,
it’s no surprise that keeping them all straight can be a tall order!
So just start with this:
a pine is a non-deciduous irregularly-canopied coniferous tree
with 2-colored-scales on its downward-hanging cones
and needles in bunches of 2, 3 or 5.
All these others are not pines,
but they are members of the grand and tree-mendous house of Pinaceae.
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This is not a pine tree.