未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

这个可爱的生物能再生它的所有器官

This Incredible Creature Can Regenerate Its Brain, Heart, And Limbs

The story begins with an Aztec god of death and lightning,
这个故事源于阿兹特克死亡与雷电之神
the Xolotl.
修洛特尔
As legends have it,
传说中
he was a monstrous dog that guarded the Sun God and
他是一只长得像怪兽的狗 每晚守护着太阳运行
ushered souls into the underworld every night.
并引导人的灵魂去往冥界
One day, as the gods began sacrificing each other
有一天 众神为了向新创造的太阳献祭
for the newly created Sun.
而相互杀害
Xolotl, master transformer, managed to escape death
为了逃过死劫 身为变化大师的修洛特尔
by turning himself…
把自己变成了……
into a salamander.
一只蝾螈
And that creature became known as the Axolotl.
然后这种生物就变成了著名的美西螈
In ancient Aztec tongue the name”Axolotl” translates to
在古阿兹特克语言中 “Axolotl”被译为
“water monster.”
水怪
And just as the name suggests these creatures live their entire lives underwater
就像它的名字所指 这种生物一辈子生活在水下
using these adorable feather gills to breathe.
并用这些可爱的羽鳃呼吸
After being driven to near extinction
在其唯一的位于墨西哥中部的自然栖息地
from their only natural habitats in Central Mexico,
美西螈自从被发现濒临灭绝后
these creatures are now found in more labs than anywhere else.
它们在实验室的数量比其他任何地方都要多
This is because the Axolotl is one of nature’s scrappiest creatures
这是因为美西螈是自然界生命力最强大的生物之一
with a unique ability that has baffled the scientific community for decades.
它的一种独特的能力困扰了科学界几十年
They are pretty amazing actually.
它们真的很神奇
So, I mean obviously, they’re famous for their ability
所以 我觉得很明显的是 它们因为
to regenerate extreme structures like limbs
能再生末端结构而著名 比如四肢
and we all know that it’s the only
而且我们都知道美西螈是
terrestrial animal that can regrow a limb.
唯一可以再生肢体的陆生动物
This is Dr. James Godwin,
这是James Godwin博士
he studies Axolotls for their unique regenerative abilities.
他在研究美西螈独特的再生能力
So, if you amputate at the level of the wrist, you regenerate the hand.
所以如果你在手腕处截断 它就能重新长出手
If you imitated the upper arm, you can regenerate a full up.
如果你在上臂处截断 它就能重新长出整条前臂
But the Axolotl special ability doesn’t stop there.
但美西螈的特殊能力不止于此
There’s a whole laundry list of structures that they can regenerate.
它们可以重生各种各样的组织结构
They can regenerate the front portion of their brain, called the telencephalon.
它们可以再生其大脑的前部 即端脑
You can crush their spinal cord or sever the spinal cord.
你可以压坏或切断它们的脊髓
In about three weeks,
大概三周内
all of the spinal cord machinery will reconnect
所有的脊髓构件都会重新接合
and the tail and the legs will work again.
让它们的尾巴和腿再次活动
They can regenerate impressively the testes.
令人印象深刻的是 它们还能再生睾丸
Most importantly, they can regenerate like 1/3 of the heart ventricles,
最重要的是 它们可以再生约1/3的心脏心室
so if you amputate or injure 1/3 of the heart,
所以如果你切除或损伤心脏的1/3
it’ll regrow that in the course of about 30 days to 60 days.
它会在30天到60天的时间内再生
Comparative to human,
与人类相比
we’re a tiny little blockage in a heart, vessel
只要我们的心脏 血管中有一点堵塞
will lead to extreme damage and eventually death.
就会导致极其严重的损伤甚至死亡
These guys are pretty amazing.
这些小家伙真的很厉害
Axolotls are able to achieve this sort of regeneration
美西螈之所以能实现这种再生
because they react to injuries
是因为它们对于伤口的反应
in an entirely different way than humans.
完全不同于人类
When we’re injured, a wound from a severed limb simply
当我们受伤的时候 断肢上的伤口只是简单地
gets covered with skin tissue.
被表皮组织所覆盖
We don’t do it as adults, really,
成年人的伤口不是这样复原的
we scar, we seal up the wound.
我们会留下伤疤 我们会使伤口愈合
We don’t really replace damaged tissue.
我们没有真正恢复受损的组织
But not Axolotls. They transform nearby cells,
但美西螈不一样 它们会将附近的细胞
into stem cells, forming bone, skin,
转变成干细胞 然后形成骨质 皮肤
and veins in their exact original state.
还有静脉 就像最初的那样
Scientists are still unable to explain
科学家还不能解释
why we react to injuries so differently.
为什么我们对伤口的反应如此迥异
When humans or mice get injured,
如果人类或是老鼠受伤了
certain parts of the immune system participate
免疫系统的某些部分就会以一种完全不同的方式
in a different way that may lead to a scarring outcome,
参与进来 而这就会导致疤痕的出现
or it may block the ability to activate
或者也可能是免疫系统屏蔽了我们
or awaken that regeneration process.
激活或唤醒这个再生过程的能力
The other thing is that there may be some
另一件事就是 在人类细胞与蝾螈细胞之间
intrinsic difference
可能有一些
in the salamander cell. Right?
本质上的区别
The salamanders may have cells that are poised,
蝾螈的一部分细胞
ready to take place in a reaction of regeneration
可能会随时发生再生反应
and that human cells
但人类的细胞
could be somewhat locked down in their potential.
可能由于某些原因被锁住了这种潜能
Recently, researchers gained access to the full genome sequence of an Axolotl.
最近 研究者把一只美西螈的基因组序列 完整地排列了出来
Allowing them to identify specific genes and proteins
使得他们能识别特定的基因和蛋白质
that could hold the key to regeneration.
这样就能掌握再生的秘密了
Now that we have a sequence genome
现在我们得到了一组基因序列
and we have all the molecular tools.
而且我们拥有所有的分子工具
I think that is going to be a very exciting future.
我认为未来将是非常振奋人心的
If we can learn from these regenerative organisms,
如果我们能从这些再生生物中学到点什么
and use them as a template,
并以它们为模板
we might be able to sort of unlock
我们也许能在某种程度上
the natural way to regenerate.
解锁自然的再生方式

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

一个来自于神话中的生物有着神话一般的能力

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

钉子酷咸鱼

审核员

审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uUw4NJmAUNI

相关推荐