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一个碳平衡乃至碳负性的美丽国度 – 译学馆
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一个碳平衡乃至碳负性的美丽国度

This country isn't just carbon neutral — it's carbon negative | Tshering Tobgay

假如各位在猜我穿的是什么
In case you are wondering,
不 我穿的不是裙子
no, I’m not wearing a dress,
但我也不会告诉各位 我里面穿什么
and no, I’m not saying what I’m wearing underneath.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
这是“帼”
This is a gho.
这是我们国家的传统服饰
This is my national dress.
不丹的男性都是这样穿
This is how all men dress in Bhutan.
我们的女性也是这样穿
That is how our women dress.
与女性类似
Like our women,
我们男性的服饰都相当靓丽
we men get to wear pretty bright colors,
但我们跟女性不同的地方是
but unlike our women,
我们可以炫耀一下美腿
we get to show off our legs.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我们国家的传统服饰相当独特
Our national dress is unique,
但这不是我们国家唯一的特点
but this is not the only thing that’s unique about my country.
我们对维持碳平衡的承诺 也相当独特
Our promise to remain carbon neutral is also unique,
而这就是我今天要谈的事:
and this is what I’d like to speak about today,
我们国家对维持碳平衡的承诺
our promise to remain carbon neutral.
但在往下解释之前 我必须先跟各位介绍一下我国
But before I proceed, I should set you the context.
我想先说我们的故事
I should tell you our story.
不丹是喜马拉雅山上的一个小国家
Bhutan is a small country in the Himalayas.
我们曾被称为“香格里拉”
We’ve been called Shangri-La,
甚至是世界上最后一个香格里拉
even the last Shangri-La.
但我要先说清楚 我们不是香格里拉
But let me tell you right off the bat, we are not Shangri-La.
我们的国家不是一个大寺庙
My country is not one big monastery
里面开心和尚满街跑
populated with happy monks.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
真实的情况是 我们国家不到 70 万的人口
The reality is that there are barely 700,000 of us
被夹在全球人口最多的两个国家
sandwiched between two of the most populated countries on earth,
中国和印度之间
China and India.
真实的情况是 我们是一个低度开发小国
The reality is that we are a small, underdeveloped country
尽我们所能维持生存
doing our best to survive.
但我们做的还不错 我们存活下来了
But we are doing OK. We are surviving.
实际上 我们是兴盛的
In fact, we are thriving,
我们兴盛的原因是
and the reason we are thriving is because we’ve been blessed
有伟大的国王保佑着我们
with extraordinary kings.
我们英明的君王孜孜不倦地
Our enlightened monarchs have worked tirelessly
建设我们的国家
to develop our country,
小心翼翼地将经济增长
balancing economic growth carefully
与社会发展、环境可持续性
with social development, environmental sustainability
以及文化的保存三者维持平衡
and cultural preservation,
全部都有一个很好的管理架构
all within the framework of good governance.
我们把这个整体发展的成就
We call this holistic approach to development
叫做“国民幸福总值” 简称GNH
“Gross National Happiness,” or GNH.
回到20世纪70年代
Back in the 1970s,
我们的第四任国王 提出了一个著名观点
our fourth king famously pronounced that for Bhutan,
对于不丹王国 国民幸福总值比国民生产总值重要
Gross National Happiness is more important than Gross National Product.
[掌声]
(Applause)
自此之后
Ever since,
不丹的一切发展都以GNH为基础
all development in Bhutan is driven by GNH,
这个极具前瞻性的愿景
a pioneering vision that aims to improve the happiness
就是要促进我们国家 人民的幸福与福利
and well-being of our people.
但说比做容易
But that’s easier said than done,
对于全世界最小的经济体之一 则更是如此
especially when you are one of the smallest economies in the world.
我们全国的国民生产总值 不到20亿美金
Our entire GDP is less than two billion dollars.
我知道在座有些人的财产比这多很多
I know that some of you here are worth more —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
个人的身价
individually
甚至比我国加总起来还要多
than the entire economy of my country.
所以 我们的经济体很小
So our economy is small,
但这也是有趣的地方
but here is where it gets interesting.
我们的教育完全免费
Education is completely free.
全体公民享有免费的学校教育
All citizens are guaranteed free school education,
努力工作的人享有免费的大学教育
and those that work hard are given free college education.
卫生保健也是完全免费
Healthcare is also completely free.
诊断、医疗、药品:
Medical consultation, medical treatment, medicines:
全部由政府提供
they are all provided by the state.
我们能够做到这些
We manage this
是因为我们很小心翼翼地 使用我们有限的资源
because we use our limited resources very carefully,
也因为我们忠于GNH的核心任务
and because we stay faithful to the core mission of GNH,
也就是有价值的发展
which is development with values.
我们的经济体小 而我们必须强化它
Our economy is small, and we must strengthen it.
经济成长很重要
Economic growth is important,
但经济成长不能建立在 破坏我们的独特文化
but that economic growth must not come from undermining our unique culture
或纯净的原始环境之上
or our pristine environment.
今日 我们的文化是繁荣的
Today, our culture is flourishing.
我们会继续歌颂我们的艺术和建筑、
We continue to celebrate our art and architecture,
食物和节日、
food and festivals,
僧侣和寺庙
monks and monasteries.
当然 我们也会歌颂我们国家的服饰
And yes, we celebrate our national dress, too.
这就是为什么我可以 无比自豪地穿着“帼”
This is why I can wear my gho with pride.
这里有一件有趣的事实:
Here’s a fun fact:
你现在看到的是全世界最大的口袋
you’re looking at the world’s biggest pocket.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
口袋从这边开始
It starts here,
一直到后面
goes around the back,
然后 从这里面出来
and comes out from inside here.
在口袋里
In this pocket
我们放进了所有的个人物品
we store all manner of personal goods
从手机和皮夹
from phones and wallets
到iPad、办公文件还有书
to iPads, office files and books.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
[掌声]
(Applause)
但有时候──
But sometimes —
有时候甚至是我们珍贵的宝贝
sometimes even precious cargo.
我们的文化是欣欣向荣的
So our culture is flourishing,
我们的环境也是
but so is our environment.
我的国家72%被森林覆盖
72 percent of my country is under forest cover.
我们的宪法规定
Our constitution demands that a minimum of 60 percent
不丹至少有60%的土地 必须永远
of Bhutan’s total land shall remain under forest cover
维持森林覆盖
for all time.
[掌声]
(Applause)
我们的宪法
Our constitution,
这本宪法
this constitution,
将森林覆盖强加在我们的土地上
imposes forest cover on us.
顺便一提 我们的国王用这本宪法
Incidentally, our king used this constitution
将民主强加在我们身上
to impose democracy on us.
你看 我们的人民不想要民主
You see, we the people didn’t want democracy.
我们不要求民主 我们不奢求民主
We didn’t ask for it, we didn’t demand it,
我们更不会为民主而战
and we certainly didn’t fight for it.
反而是我们的国王坚持
Instead, our king imposed democracy on us
要在宪法里面强加民主给我们
by insisting that he include it in the constitution.
但他更进一步
But he went further.
他在宪法里面规定
He included provisions in the constitution
授权给人民可以弹劾他们的国王
that empower the people to impeach their kings,
更在宪法中规定
and included provisions in here that require all our kings to retire
我们的国王必须在65岁时退休
at the age of 65.
[掌声]
(Applause)
事实上 我们已经有一个退休的国王:
Fact is, we already have a king in retirement:
我们的前国王 伟大的四世
our previous king, the Great Fourth,
在10年前他最受拥戴
retired 10 years ago
的时候退休了
at the peak of his popularity.
他那时候只有51岁
He was all of 51 years at that time.
所以 就如我所说的
So as I was saying,
我们国家的森林覆盖率为72%
72 percent of our country is under forest cover,
所有的森林都是原始森林
and all that forest is pristine.
所以我们是世上少数几个
That’s why we are one of the few remaining
仍保持生物多样性的热门景点
global biodiversity hotspots in the world,
而这就是为什么我们 是一个碳平衡国家
and that’s why we are a carbon neutral country.
在全球被气候变化所威胁时
In a world that is threatened with climate change,
我们仍是一个碳平衡国家
we are a carbon neutral country.
事实证明 这件事很不得了
Turns out, it’s a big deal.
当今世界上的200多个国家
Of the 200-odd countries in the world today,
看起来 只有我们是唯一一个
it looks like we are the only one
碳平衡的国家
that’s carbon neutral.
实际上 这样形容不太准确
Actually, that’s not quite accurate.
不丹不是碳平衡国家
Bhutan is not carbon neutral.
不丹是碳负性的国家
Bhutan is carbon negative.
我们整个国家每年产出 220万吨的二氧化碳
Our entire country generates 2.2 million tons of carbon dioxide,
但我们的森林固定的碳元素 达到这个量的三倍以上
but our forests, they sequester more than three times that amount,
所以我们是一个净碳槽
so we are a net carbon sink
每年吸收超过400万吨的二氧化碳
for more than four million tons of carbon dioxide each year.
但不仅如此
But that’s not all.
[掌声]
(Applause)
我们还可以出口大部分
We export most of the renewable electricity
从湍急河流产出的可再生电力
we generate from our fast-flowing rivers.
所以现今 我们出口的绿色能源
So today, the clean energy that we export
为我们的邻居抵销了 大约600万吨的二氧化碳
offsets about six million tons of carbon dioxide in our neighborhood.
在2020年前 我们将出口足够的电力
By 2020, we’ll be exporting enough electricity
来抵销1700万吨的二氧化碳
to offset 17 million tons of carbon dioxide.
如果我们能利用至少 一半的水力发电潜力
And if we were to harness even half our hydropower potential,
那也是我们正在努力的地方
and that’s exactly what we are working at,
我们出口的干净、绿色能源
the clean, green energy that we export
将每年可以抵消将近 5000万吨的二氧化碳
would offset something like 50 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.
这个数字比纽约整个城市 一整年产出的二氧化碳还要多
That is more CO2 than what the entire city of New York generates in one year.
所以 对内 我们国家 本身就是一个净碳槽
So inside our country, we are a net carbon sink.
对外 我们还能帮助其它国家减碳
Outside, we are offsetting carbon.
这是很重要的事情
And this is important stuff.
你看 地球逐渐变暖
You see, the world is getting warmer,
而气候变化也是事实
and climate change is a reality.
气候变化正在影响我的国家
Climate change is affecting my country.
我们的冰川正在融化
Our glaciers are melting,
造成瞬间的洪水与山崩
causing flash floods and landslides,
这些都造成了灾害 而且大范围地重创我们的国家
which in turn are causing disaster and widespread destruction in our country.
我最近到过这湖边
I was at that lake recently.
场景真的令人触目惊心
It’s stunning.
这是它10年前的景色
That’s how it looked 10 years ago,
这是它20年前的景色
and that’s how it looked 20 years ago.
才20年前 那个湖根本不存在啊!
Just 20 years ago, that lake didn’t exist.
它之前是固态的冰川
It was a solid glacier.
几年前 一个类似的湖泊
A few years ago, a similar lake
冲破了堤坝
breached its dams
在下游的山谷造成严重破坏
and wreaked havoc in the valleys below.
这个破坏是由一个冰川湖所造成
That destruction was caused by one glacier lake.
我们有2700个这种湖泊要应付
We have 2,700 of them to contend with.
但重点是:
The point is this:
我的国家跟人民并没有做什么事
my country and my people have done nothing
使得全球变暖更加严重
to contribute to global warming,
但我们却首当其冲地要面对 全球变暖所造成的后果
but we are already bearing the brunt of its consequences.
这对一个贫困、 多山的内陆小国而言
And for a small, poor country, one that is landlocked and mountainous,
是相当艰辛的
it is very difficult.
但我们不会两手一摊什么事都不做
But we are not going to sit on our hands doing nothing.
我们会为气候变化而战
We will fight climate change.
这也是为什么我们承诺 保持碳平衡的原因
That’s why we have promised to remain carbon neutral.
我们早在2009年 就首次宣示这项承诺
We first made this promise in 2009
就在哥本哈根 第15届全球气候变化大会上
during COP 15 in Copenhagen,
但没有人注意到我们
but nobody noticed.
各国忙着彼此争论
Governments were so busy arguing with one another
互相指责对方造成了气候变化
and blaming each other for causing climate change,
所以当我们这种小国家 举手宣誓
that when a small country raised our hands and announced,
“我们承诺永远保持碳平衡”时
“We promise to remain carbon neutral for all time,”
根本没人理睬我们
nobody heard us.
没有人在乎
Nobody cared.
去年12月在巴黎举行的
Last December in Paris,
第21届全球气候变化大会上
at COP 21, we reiterated our promise
我们重申我们的承诺
to remain carbon neutral for all time to come.
未来都会保持碳平衡的立场
This time, we were heard.
这一次 我们的声音被听见了
We were noticed, and everybody cared.
我们被注意到了 每个人都相当关心
What was different in Paris was that governments came round together
巴黎气候变化大会 与之前不同的地方是
to accept the realities of climate change,
各国政府意识到 并接受气候变化的事实
and were willing to come together and act together and work together.
一起行动、一起努力的意愿 非常强烈
All countries, from the very small to the very large,
所有的国家 从小国到大国
committed to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions.
都愿意承诺降低温室气体的排放
The UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
联合国气候变化纲要公约说明
says that if these so-called intended commitments are kept,
如果这些所谓的“承诺”能维持
we’d be closer to containing global warming
我们的全球变暖温度就可能 维持在两摄氏度以内
by two degrees Celsius.
顺便说一下
By the way,
我已请求TED的筹办单位
I’ve requested the TED organizers here
把室内的空调温度提高两度
to turn up the heat in here by two degrees,
所以 如果各位觉得比平常稍热
so if some of you are feeling warmer than usual,
你知道要怪谁了吧!
you know who to blame.
我们每个人都遵守承诺很重要
It’s crucial that all of us keep our commitments.
就不丹而言
As far as Bhutan is concerned,
我们会继续信守对碳平衡的承诺
we will keep our promise to remain carbon neutral.
我们已经开始执行一些方法
Here are some of the ways we are doing it.
我们提供免费电力给乡村的农夫
We are providing free electricity to our rural farmers.
这个想法就是 有了免费电力
The idea is that, with free electricity, they will no longer have to use firewood
他们就不会用煤炭 来烹煮他们的食物
to cook their food.
我们正对可持续运输进行投资
We are investing in sustainable transport
并补助人民购买电动车
and subsidizing the purchase of electric vehicles.
同样地 我们也补助 LED 灯的费用
Similarly, we are subsidizing the cost of LED lights,
我们所有政府单位正尝试 往无纸作业方向努力
and our entire government is trying to go paperless.
我们实行国策“洁净不丹” 来让国家更加干净
We are cleaning up our entire country through Clean Bhutan, a national program,
并实行另一个国策“绿色不丹”
and we are planting trees throughout our country
在全国上下栽种
through Green Bhutan,
更多的植物
another national program.
但是 我们所要保护的区域
But it is our protected areas
才是我们碳平衡策略的核心
that are at the core of our carbon neutral strategy.
我们保护的区域就是我们的净碳槽
Our protected areas are our carbon sink.
它们是我们呼吸的肺
They are our lungs.
现在 我们有 超过一半的国土是保护区
Today, more than half our country is protected,
像是国家公园、自然保护区
as national parks, nature reserves
和野生动物保护区
and wildlife sanctuaries.
但美妙之处在于
But the beauty is that we’ve connected them all with one another
我们通过生态网络走廊将它们彼此连接起来
through a network of biological corridors.
意思就是
Now, what this means
我们的动物可以自由地 漫步在整个国家
is that our animals are free to roam throughout our country.
拿这只老虎为例
Take this tiger, for example.
它曾经在炎热的亚热带丛林中
It was spotted at 250 meters above sea level
海平面以上250米处被发现
in the hot, subtropical jungles.
两年后 同样的老虎
Two years later, that same tiger
在将近4000米海拔的寒冷高山区
was spotted near 4,000 meters
也被发现了
in our cold alpine mountains.
是不是很了不起?
Isn’t that awesome?
[掌声]
(Applause)
我们必须继续保持下去
We must keep it that way.
我们的保护区必须继续给人惊喜
We must keep our parks awesome.
因此每年 我们都会预留资源 来预防偷猎、打猎、
So every year, we set aside resources to prevent poaching, hunting,
开垦、污染我们的保护区
mining and pollution in our parks,
并协助住在这些保护区的社区居民
and resources to help communities who live in those parks
管理他们的森林、
manage their forests,
适应气候变化、
adapt to climate change,
在提高生活质量的同时 与大自然母亲和谐相处
and lead better lives while continuing to live in harmony with Mother Nature.
但这是需要付出昂贵代价的
But that is expensive.
接下来的几年 我们这个小经济体
Over the next few years, our small economy won’t have the resources
将不会有足够的资金 来保护我们的环境
to cover all the costs that are required to protect our environment.
事实上 我们进行财务评估时
In fact, when we run the numbers,
我们发觉至少得花15年的时间
it looks like it’ll take us at least 15 years
才够支付我们所有的保护工作
before we can fully finance all our conservation efforts.
但不仅是不丹
But neither Bhutan,
全世界也无法
nor the world
承受得起花15年时间 使发展水平倒退
can afford to spend 15 years going backwards.
这就是为什么我们的国王陛下
This is why His Majesty the King
要实行“不丹永存”的国策
started Bhutan For Life.
“不丹永存”国策给我们足够的时间
Bhutan For Life gives us the time we need.
它给予我们喘息的余地
It gives us breathing room.
它本质上是一种募集资金机制
It is essentially a funding mechanism
用以照顾我们的公园、
to look after our parks,
保护我们的公园
to protect our parks,
直到我们的政府 有能力可以完全接手
until our government can take over on our own fully.
想法是 从个人捐赠、法人机构
The idea is to raise a transition fund
来募集转型基金
from individual donors, corporations and institutions,
但直到预设的条件达到
but the deal is closed only after predetermined conditions are met
及所有资金到位后才会关闭募资
and all funds committed.
所以要多方募资、单方停止:
So multiparty, single closing:
这想法是从华尔街借鉴的
an idea we borrowed from Wall Street.
这表示个人捐赠者可以完全不必担心
This means that individual donors can commit without having to worry
赞助了一个无法完成募资的计划
that they’ll be left supporting an underfunded plan.
这有点像众筹平台 Kickstarter上的项目
It’s something like a Kickstarter project,
只是 这是长达15年的项目
only with a 15-year time horizon
涉及到上百万吨的二氧化碳
and millions of tons of carbon dioxide at stake.
当募资关闭的时候
Once the deal is closed,
我们会利用转换基金 来保护我们的公园、
we use the transition fund to protect our parks,
给我们政府时间
giving our government time to increase our own funding gradually
来慢慢增加我们的自有资金 直到15年结束
until the end of the 15-year period.
之后 我们的政府保证永远全额资助
After that, our government guarantees full funding forever.
我们快要实现了
We are almost there.
我们预计今年底完成募资
We expect to close later this year.
当然 我相当兴奋
Naturally, I’m pretty excited.
[掌声]
(Applause)
世界自然基金会(WWF)是我们这趟旅程中最主要的伙伴
The World Wildlife Fund is our principle partner in this journey,
我要大声地公开感谢
and I want to give them a big shoutout
他们为不丹及全世界
for the excellent work they are doing in Bhutan
所做的一切
and across the world.
[掌声]
(Applause)
呼 现在好像有点热了
Whew, it is getting warm in here.
我要感谢各位聆听我们的故事
I thank you for listening to our story,
一个我们如何信守 对碳平衡承诺的故事
a story of how we are keeping our promise to remain carbon neutral,
一个我们如何保持 国家原始纯洁的故事
a story of how we are keeping our country pristine,
这都是为了我们自己、 我们孩子的将来
for ourselves, our children,
为了你们孩子、 全世界的将来
for your children and for the world.
但我们不是来这里 讲故事的 对吧?
But we are not here to tell stories, are we?
我们在这里一起梦想
We are here to dream together.
所以结束前 我要向各位 分享我的一个梦想
So in closing, I’d like to share one more dream that I have.
要是大家可以一起动员 我们的领袖及我们的资源、
What if we could mobilize our leadership and our resources,
我们的影响力及热情
our influence and our passion,
来复制“不丹永存”的想法给全世界
to replicate the Bhutan For Life idea to other countries
那么他们也可以永远
so that they too
保存自己的保护区
can conserve their protected areas for all time.
毕竟 现在有很多的国家 也面临我们正面临的困境
After all, there are many other countries who face the same issues that we face.
他们也有自然资源
They too have natural resources
可以帮助赢得这场 全球可持续发展的战争
that can help win the world’s fight for sustainability,
只是他们现在没有能力 资助他们自己
only they may not have the ability to invest in them now.
所以 要是我们能设立 “地球永存”全球性融资计划
So what if we set up Earth For Life,
将“不丹永存”模式复制到全世界?
a global fund, to kickstart the Bhutan For Life throughout the world?
我邀请各位帮助我
I invite you to help me,
让我们打破疆界 为了我们地球的未来
to carry this dream beyond our borders
一起来圆这个梦想
to all those who care about our planet’s future.
毕竟 我们在这里就是要一起梦想、
After all, we’re here to dream together,
一起合作、
to work together,
一起对抗气候变迁、一起保护我们的地球
to fight climate change together, to protect our planet together.
因为 现实是
Because the reality is
大家都是同舟共济
we are in it together.
虽然我们穿着的服饰不同
Some of us might dress differently,
但我们都住在同一个地球上
but we are in it together.
非常谢谢各位
Thank you very much,
(不丹语)感恩 谢谢
and kadrin chhe la. Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)
谢谢!谢谢各位 谢谢各位
Thank you, thank you, thank you.

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译制信息
视频概述

在喜马拉雅山脉的深处,位于中国与印度的交界,有一个王国叫不丹,一个承诺要永远保持碳平衡的国家。在这个极具启发性的演讲中,不丹总理策林·托杰(Tshering Tobgay)阐述了他的国家将人民福祉置于经济发展之上的使命,以及设立一个世界级环境保护标准的希望。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Lc_dlVrg5M

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