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这个国家有所有人都想要的东西 – 译学馆
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这个国家有所有人都想要的东西

This Country Has Something Everyone Else Wants

Hi, this is Alex, from MinuteEarth.
你好 我是《分钟地球》的亚历克斯
Russia is the biggest country in the world,
俄罗斯是世界上面积最大的国家
China is the most populated,
中国是世界上人口最多的国家
and the US is the richest.
美国是世界上最富有的国家
And then there’s Morocco… which isn’t exactly a global superpower.
摩洛哥 它并不是一个超级大国
But it is one of the most important places in the world,
但它是世界上最重要的地方之一
because of phosphorus.
因为其富含磷
The element phosphorus is critical for civilization
磷元素对人类文明至关重要
plants need it to grow, and we need plants to eat.
植物需要它才能生长 而我们需要吃植物
Soil naturally contains some phosphorus that’s available to plants,
土壤中本身就含有一些对植物有用的磷
but every year, some of it leaves our fields through erosion
但每年都有一些磷 因土壤受侵蚀而流失
and some of it leaves when we harvest the plants that absorbed it.
或者因收割农作物而流失
So we need to add more phosphorus
所以我们需要添加更多的磷到土壤中
We add some in the form of poop from plant-munching farm animals,
我们将农场里食草动物的粪便加入土壤
but there’s not enough animal poop to replenish all the phosphorus we need
但是没有足够的动物粪便补充我们所需要的磷
to keep growing food for our growing population.
来为我们不断增长的人口提供食物
Luckily, some rocks are really rich in phosphorus.
幸运的是 一些石头中富含磷
And Morocco is home to most of them,
摩洛哥是大多数磷矿的产地
at least the ones we can reach.
至少是我们能够找到的
The vast majority are actually sitting at the bottom of the ocean.
绝大多数的磷矿坐落在海底
That’s because these so-called phosphate rocks formed
这是因为 这些磷矿
over millions of years as ocean-dwelling microorganisms died
是在数百万年的海洋微生物死亡后
and their phosphorus-rich bodies sank to the seafloor.
它们富含磷的身体沉入海底的过程中形成的
This happened throughout the ocean,
这种情况在整个海洋中都有发生
but the phosphorus only concentrated on the seafloor in a few special places.
但磷只集中在海底的几个特殊的地方
In these places, there were tons of microorganisms,
这些地方有大量的微生物
there were no rivers (which would have diluted the phosphorus with other sediments)
没有河流(河流会用其他沉淀物稀释磷)
and there were occasional ocean currents that carried away any lighter non-phosphorus sediments.
偶尔会有洋流带走较轻的非磷沉积物
This rare combination of conditions allowed the phosphorus-rich sediment
这种罕见的条件组合使得富含磷的沉积物
to concentrate into phosphate rocks,
能够聚集成磷矿
and it just so happened to occur throughout the ancient ocean
在整个古代海洋中都是如此
that covered what is now Morocco.
包括摩洛哥
As a result,
因此
modern Morocco has almost ¾ of the world’s accessible reserves of phosphate rock.
摩洛哥拥有世界上几乎四分之三的可开采磷矿储量
That’s an unheard of concentration of a single major resource in one country.
这是前所未闻的 单一主要资源集中在一个国家
I mean China has more rare earth metals than any other country,
我的意思是中国比其他任何国家拥有更多的稀土金属
but that’s only around a third of the world’s reserves.
但那仅仅是世界储量的三分之一
And Saudi Arabia and Venezuela have more oil than anyone else,
沙特阿拉伯和委内瑞拉拥有世界上最多的石油
but they each have less than 20% of the world’s reserves.
但它们各自拥有的储量不足全球的20%
Morocco has so much of the world’s accessible phosphate rock
摩洛哥拥有世界上这么多可开采的磷矿
that without its reserves
如果没有它的储量
humanity doesn’t even have enough to last 100 years.
人类甚至没有足够的磷来维持100年
But even if Morocco shares nicely with everyone else,
就算摩洛哥与其他国家分享
humanity will only have around 300 years.
人类也仅仅够用三百年左右
Sure, 300 years is a long time from now,
的确 300年距离现在还有很长的一段时间
but we’ve been relying on farming tofeed towns, cities,
但我们依靠农业养活城镇 城市
and civilizations for 10,000 years.
和文明已经有一万年了
Even if we discover another huge supply of phosphate rock
即使我们发现了另一个巨大的磷矿供应源
or figure out how to mine it from the seafloor,
或者找到了从海底开采磷矿的方法
that too will eventually run out.
磷矿也终将耗尽
At that point, we could wait until the phosphorus running off our fields
那时 我们可以等待从我们土地中流失的磷
flows into the ocean reaches one of those special places,
流入海洋到达那些特殊的地方
concentrates again into phosphate rock, and ends up above water.
再次集中形成磷矿 最后露出水面
But that would take a few million years,
但那需要几百万年的时间
and we’d go hungry long before then.
而且 在那之前我们早就挨饿了
So if we plan to be a food-eating civilization into the distant future,
所以 如果我们计划在遥远的未来形成饮食文化
we need to use and recycle phosphorus more effectively.
我们需要更有效地利用和回收磷
In other words, we’ve got a problem to solve– a problem with a capital P.
换句话说 我们有一个问题要解决 —— 一个大写的P
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota,
这个视频由明尼苏达大学赞助
where students, faculty and staff across all fields of study are working
学生、教师和所有研究领域的工作人员都在努力解决
to solve the Grand Challenges facing society.
社会面临的巨大挑战
One of these challenges is feeding the world sustainably,
其中的一个挑战就是以可持续的方式养活世界
and part of the solution is
而解决办法之一
to ensure we have enough phosphorus to grow crops.
就是确保我们有足够的磷来种植农作物
In the Department of Soil, Water, and Climate,
在土壤 水和气候学系
professor Carl Rosen and graduate student Persephone Ma are researching
卡尔·罗森教授和研究生佩尔塞福涅·马正在研究
whether it’s possible to get useful amounts of phosphorus from unexpected places
是否有可能从意想不到的地方获取有用的磷
– like burnt sewage- as a way to reclaim phosphorus
——比如燃烧的污水——
from our own waste and put it back on our fields.
作为从我们的土壤中回收磷的一种方式
Thanks, University of Minnesota!
谢谢 明尼苏达大学!

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摩洛哥因其富含磷,成为世界上最重要的国家之一

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0BooiAxQyY

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