ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

这个AI不需要人类的任何帮助 – 译学馆
未登陆,请登陆后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

这个AI不需要人类的任何帮助

This AI Doesn’t Need Any Help from Humans

本周 谷歌旗下的英国公司
This week, a UK-based startup owned by Google
DeepMind发布了阿尔法狗的
called DeepMind unveiled the latest version
最新版本
of AlphaGo,
它是一个关于棋牌游戏的人工智能程序
its board-game-playing artificial intelligence program.
每一个与它对弈的人
And if any human has to face it,
都不得不投降
they’re better off throwing in the towel.
因为它超越了所有的
Because this AI has defeated everything
人工智能产品
that came before it.
你应该已经听说过阿尔法狗
You might’ve heard about AlphaGo before.
它因为两年前打败了专业围棋手
The first iteration made headlines two years ago
而首次获得关注
when it beat a professional Go player.
六个月后
Then, six months later,
它以4胜1败的成绩打败了
it bested one of the top players in the world,
顶尖棋手李世石
Lee Sedol, 4 games to 1.
更让人惊奇的是这个版本的阿尔法狗
But this version has done something even more amazing,
可以自我学习
it’s learned to be the best all on its own,
不需要人类的监督
with no human supervision.
先介绍一下古老的中国围棋
In case you’re not up on ancient Chinese board games,
双方各执黑子和白子
Go is played with black and white stones.
你需要想办法吃掉对方的子
You try to capture the other person’s stones
尽可能占领地盘 获得得分
and grab as much territory as possible to earn points.
规则很简单 但玩起来很复杂
The rules are simple, but the game is complex
因为它在19×19的棋盘上进行
because it’s played on a 19 by 19 board,
所以每局比赛有很多种走法
so there are a lot of ways each match can play out.
实际上 它的走法
In fact, there are more possibilities than
比宇宙中已知的原子还多
the number of atoms in the known universe.
所以 从众多的可能性中
So it’s pretty hard to calculate
找到下一步的最佳走法
what the next best move will be
是极其困难的
from all those options.
所以围棋成为了
And that’s why Go has become the game
考核人工智能的比赛
to beat among the AI crowd.
如果一台电脑能处理好如此复杂的游戏
If a computer can master such a challenging game,
就说明它的学习算法
that’s a sign that its learning algorithms
可以用来处理别的复杂问题
could be put to use on other complex problems.
所以这个被称为AlphaGo Zero的新版本
So this new version, called AlphaGo Zero,
真是很了不起
is a pretty big deal.
它通过强化学习来工作
It works because of reinforcement learning.
简单地说 它和自己下棋
Basically, it plays games against itself,
并从中学习
learning more each time.
先前版本的阿尔法狗
Previous versions of Alpha Go
也可以强化学习
used reinforcement learning too.
但是工程师先得训练它们
But first, engineers trained them ahead of time
为它们提供数以千计的
with move combinations from thousands
人类棋谱
of human-played games.
AlphaGo Zero的围棋基础一片空白
AlphaGo Zero starts from scratch.
或者说是零
Or zero
这个程序刚启动时
When the program starts,
用来计算走法和预测胜方的神经网络
the neural network it uses to select moves and predict the winner
完全一片空白
is a blank slate.
这个神经网络的唯一功能就是输出价值
This network is just a function that spits out values,
但是它的名称却很酷炫
but it has a fancy name because
因为它是以人类大脑为模型构建的
it’s modeled after the human brain.
刚开始 神经网络完全是个哑巴
At first, the neural network is really dumb.
但它日复一日 进步神速
But over time, it improves a lot.
实际上 自我博弈的方法
In fact, just sparring against itself
要远远优于人类训练
works way better than training with human data.
通过76小时的自我博弈
Within 76 hours of letting Zero do its thing,
它以百战百胜的战绩击败了
it won 100 out of a 100 against the version
赢过李世石的旧版
of AlphaGo that beat Lee Sedol.
数日之内
In a matter of days,
AlphaGo Zero进行了490万场比赛
AlphaGo Zero played 4.9 million games,
积累了数千年的围棋知识
essentially collected thousands of years of Go knowledge,
创造出了人类尚未想到的
and hit upon new strategies that
新的围棋策略
humans haven’t thought up yet.
而且 与前几代相比 AlphaGo Zero耗费
As a bonus, Zero also takes less computational power
更少的计算能力
than previous iterations,
只需在一台机器上运行
and works off a single machine,
用不着那么多机器
rather than being spread out over many.
对于人工智能爱好者而言
For many AI fanatics,
这版阿尔法狗具有里程碑的意义
this AlphaGo is a real milestone.
因为我们不用给它灌输围棋知识
Since we don’t need to feed it a bunch of Go knowledge
来提高它的棋艺
for it to play games real well,
理论上我们可以使用这个学习算法
theoretically we can use the same learning algorithms
来处理别的事情
to do other things.
比如说 通过蛋白建模发现新药
Like, modeling protein folding to discover new drugs
设计新材料等
and designing new materials.
科学家已开始关注阿尔法狗的应用问题
So stayed tuned as scientists start using AlphaGo
比如通过它来超越人类局限
like superhuman programs to fly past old limits
解决难题的超越人类计划
and solve some of our trickiest problems.
希望机器人不要起义
With hopefully no robot uprising.
其实 火山爆发除了带来灾难
That is, unless volcanoes get us first.
还给我们的研究
Or rather, we do ourselves in,
提供了一些帮助
with a little help from volcanoes.
就在本周
Earlier this week,
耶鲁大学的历史学家和气候学家
historians and climate scientists at Yale University published a
在研究了几千年的数据后得出一个结论
hypothesis after combing through thousands of years of data.
他们认为火山爆发可能导致了
They think that volcanoes may have led to
古埃及的几次暴力反抗
some of ancient Egypt’s most violent revolts,
并最终导致了最后一个王朝的灭亡
and ultimately, the final dynasty’s downfall.
但并不是因为大量致命的火山熔岩
But it’s not because of a bunch of deadly lava.
而是因为 火山可以改变气候模式
Instead, the idea is that volcanoes can change weather patterns,
特别是埃塞俄比亚高原的降雨量
specifically the amount of rainfall in the Ethiopian highlands,
进一步影响尼罗河在
which affects how much the Nile River will flood
季风季节的洪水量
during the monsoon season.
现在我们通常认为洪水是不好的
Now, we usually think of flooding as a bad thing.
但在尼罗河筑坝之前
But back before the Nile was dammed,
每年的洪水是农民灌溉庄稼的主要方式
annual flooding was the main way farmers watered their crops.
没有洪水意味着饥荒
No flooding meant famine.
火山爆发会影响气候
Now volcanoes disrupt the climate
因为它们喷出的含硫气体
because they spew out sulfurous gasses
会发生反应生成一种叫做气溶胶的物质
which can react to form other compounds called aerosols
这种物质会悬浮于大气中一到两年
that hang out in the atmosphere for as long as a year or two.
折射掉了太阳光
The tiny particles reflect the sun’s light,
致使气温下降
meaning temperatures fall.
低温会导致降雨减少
Those lower temps can lead to less precipitation,
而且会改变风场类型
and can also change wind patterns
从而进一步降低雨量
that will also decrease rainfall,
特别是像埃及这样的北部季风区
especially for northern monsoon regions like Egypt.
研究者提出
The research team noticed that
经历过二十世纪的
rainfall in northern Africa fell
五次火山爆发后 北非的
after five volcanic eruptions
降雨量减少
in the 20th century,
所以 他们怀疑历史上是否发生过类似的事情
so they wondered if that had happened before.
为了找到答案 气候学家去冰川中寻找火山沉积物
To find out, climatologists looked at volcanic deposits in ice cores
推断出火山爆发的时间表
to get a timeline of those events.
再将这些时间节点
Historians then mapped those dates with
与伊斯兰水位计监测的数据比对
measurements from the Islamic Nilometer,
该水位计实际上就是一口井
which was basically a well the Egyptians used
埃及人用它来监测夏季尼罗河水量
to tell how much water they would get from the river each summer
但它只记录了公元五世纪后的数据
The Nilometer got its start in the 600s,
这之前的数据 历史学家
so for earlier than that, historians also scoured
只能去查阅相关书籍
ancient writings for mentions of the floods.
他们发现 在火山爆发的年份
They found that flood heights were much lower
尼罗河水位较低
around the time of eruptions,
表明火山爆发对尼罗河水位存在影响
suggesting volcanoes did have an impact on Nile.
研究者进一步探索
Then the team then looked to see
这是否会对埃及社会造成涟漪效应
whether there were any ripple effects on Egyptian society.
他们发现社会暴乱的次数与火山爆发
And they found a strong correlation between
有很强的相关性
the number of revolts and whether a volcano had recently erupted.
犯罪率也会随之增加
Priestly decrees also went up in years with eruptions,
埃及王朝与塞琉古帝国的
and the Egyptians were more likely
战事可能也会停息
to end war campaigns against their rivals, the Seleucid Empire.
这是因为 随着洪水量降低
The idea is that with less flooding,
粮食减产 国家资源减少 不堪战争重负
there was less food, fewer resources to wage battles,
民众对政府的抱怨增加
and everyday people were more upset with the government.
我们永远无法知道当时发生了什么
We’ll never really know what happened back then,
但是公元前30年 罗马帝国推翻
but by 30 BCE, the last Egyptian dynasty
埃及的最后一个王朝
was overtaken by the Romans.
很多学者认为大量的火山爆发起到了
And these scholars think a series of badly timed volcanoes
推波助澜的作用
may have played a part.
火山对气候的影响
The climate effects of volcanoes
仍在继续
haven’t necessarily ended, either.
今天 70%的人类生存的区域
Today, around 70 percent of people live in areas
粮食收成都受季风影响
where monsoons help grow crops.
所以 除了近在眼前的天灾
So beyond any immediate devastation,
我们还应该记住火山爆发
it’s important to keep in mind that volcanoes could
可以引起影响数十亿人的大干旱
trigger droughts that would impact billions of us.
感谢收看本期的SciShow News
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow News!
如果你想了解更多的电脑工作原理
If you want to learn a lot more about what makes computers tick,
请在我们的Youtube兄弟频道
go check out Course computer science
crashcourse上搜索Course computer science
on our sister channel at youtube.com/crashcourse.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

介绍了阿尔法狗的最新版本和火山爆发与气候之间的关系。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

研究僧

审核员

A

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v36OO-vZTQk

相关推荐