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草莓的视幻觉 – 译学馆
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草莓的视幻觉

These Strawberries Aren't Red!

起初是一件礼服 一年后 是一件阿迪达斯夹克
First it was the Dress, then a year later it was that Adidas jacket.
但是最近红遍网络的视错觉是一张红色草莓照片
But the latest optical illusion to sweep the internet is a photo of strawberries that appear
但是那张图片不包含任何红色的像素
red, even though the picture doesn’t contain any red pixels.
它是由一名叫Akiyoshi Kitaoka 研究视觉错觉的
It was created by a Japanese psychology professor named Akiyoshi Kitaoka, who studies visual
日本心理学专家创作的
illusions.
并且他以制作这些令人难以置信的图片为一种爱好
And he’s made a hobby out of producing these mind-boggling images.
这一次 Kitaoka是以一张果馅饼上覆盖着草莓的照片开始的
For this one, Kitaoka started with a photo of a tart topped with strawberries.
接着 他移除了图像上的红色 只留下了蓝灰色调
Then, he digitally removed the color red from the image, so only blue-gray tones were left.
但当你看着它的时候 你看到可能是微红的草莓
When you look at it, though, you probably see reddish strawberries.
这和那张令人恼火的裙子图片出自同样的
And that’s because of the same psychological phenomenon that made that Dress picture so
心理现象
dang maddening.
这与大脑处理我们的视觉方式有关  人们称之为色彩的持续性
It has to do with the way your brain processes everything you see, called color constancy.
你的大脑擅长根据你对这个世界的了解
Your brain is really good at interpreting the colors of images and objects based on
来诠释你看到的图像和物体的颜色
what you know about the world.
比如 无论你是在室内的白织灯光下还是在室外的自然光下
Like, a piece of printer paper looks white, whether you’re inside with incandescent
观察一张打印纸 它看起来都是白色的
lights or outside with natural sunlight.
无论是泛黄的灯光或者蓝光被反射到这张纸上进入你的眼球
No matter what yellowish or blueish light is being reflected off the paper into your
你的大脑仍会认为那张纸是白色的
eyeballs, your brain can perceive that the paper is still inherently white.
这就可以帮助你去认清现实世界 因为事物不可能一直在改变颜色
And that helps you make sense of reality, because objects aren’t changing color all
改变颜色的只不过是它们周围的光罢了
the time – just the light around them is.
科学家们认为这种颜色的矫正过程可能与你初级视觉大脑皮层里
Scientists think this color correction process could involve specialized neurons in your
一种专有的神经元有关 它被称作视网膜中的双敌色细胞 它会去查明不同颜色之间的
primary visual cortex called double-opponent cells, which detect patterns and boundaries
模式和分界线
between colors.
当你看着Kitaoka的错觉图片时 你的大脑就在运用那些颜色来确定
When you look at Kitaoka’s illusion, your brain is using those colors to decide that
你看到的必然是一个被奇怪蓝色光源照着的红色草莓 而非
you must be looking at red strawberries lit by a funky blue light source, not strawberries
蓝灰色的草莓
that are blue-gray.
所以即使你的大脑在领会这个世界的时候大体上做的很好
So even though your brain is generally good at understanding the world, sometimes it can
但有时候它也会误导你 尤其是当涉及到视觉上的幻觉时
lead you astray, especially when it comes to optical illusions.
谈到被误导这个问题 有一个科学家们争论了很久的话题就是
Speaking of being led astray, scientists have been debating for a long time whether humans
人类是否会排出一种充当着化学信号作用的名为信息素的物质
excrete chemical signals called pheromones.
许多植物和动物用这种信息素去传递各种信息
Many plants and animals use pheromones to carry all sorts of messages, spreading alarms
散播危险的警告或者是美味食物的位置信息
about danger or tips about the tastiest food sources.
不过 还有一种最重要的用途 那就是宣告一种动物
One of their most important uses, though, is broadcasting an animal’s sexual availability
有跟潜在配偶交配的能力
to potential mates.
总的说来就像你鼻子里的春药饮剂
Basically like a love potion in your nose.
所以 自然而然的 科学家们就会想到人类是否也有这种性信息素
So, naturally, scientists have wondered whether humans have sex pheromones too… but there’s
但是的确没有什么好的证据可以证明它们的存在
not any really good evidence that they exist.
事实上 这周英国皇家协会期刊上新发布的一个研究
In fact, a new study published this week in Royal Society Open Science casts even more
对性信息素是否存在投入了更多怀疑的目光
doubt that they are a thing.
很多人都说性伴侣的体香会影响他们的兴趣程度
Many people have said that a partner’s body odor can affect how interested they are.
所以狐臭可以作为寻找潜在性信息素的一个成熟的范围
So B.O. is a ripe area to look for potential sex pheromones.
在过去的研究中 两种前景可观的候选物是在人体体液中发现的类固醇物质
In past studies, two of the most promising candidates are steroids found in bodily fluids.
即使类固醇物质可能会让你想到体育和兴奋剂,这个词确实指的是
Even though steroids might make you think of doping and sports, the word actually refers
一种可溶脂的有机化合物的集合 就连胆固醇也是类固醇
to a whole group of fat-soluble organic compounds – even cholesterol is a steroid.
而且在这里这两种不确定的化学物质就是烯酮和雌四烯醇
And the two chemicals in question here are androstadienone and estratetraenol.
烯酮或者是AND 更多的和男性而不是女性联系在一起
Androstadienone or AND, is more associated with men than women, and it’s mostly been
而且大多在精液和汗液中被发现
found in semen and sweat.
孕妇到了妊娠的最后三个月时就会把AND转化为一种不同的化学物质就叫做雌四烯酮
Pregnant women in the third trimester turn AND into a different chemical called estratetraenol
或者EST 这种物质可以在她们的尿液中被发现
or EST, which can be found in their urine.
因为认为孕妇才有EST 就这一点来说 EST或者AND成为
Since only pregnant women make EST, the idea that it – or AND, for that matter – could
性信息素的想法备受争议
be a sex pheromone is controversial.
但是过去的研究提供了一些支持
But past studies have provided a little support.
一个研究表明接触AND或者是EST会对这96个参与研究的人产生微妙的影响
One study showed that exposure to AND or EST slightly affected whether its 96 participants
会使其走路方式看起来是更加男子气概或者女子气概
– a mix of straight and gay men and women – rated a walking style as more masculine
这些参与研究的人包括了不同的性别以及不同的性取向
or feminine, respectively.
另一个实验让三组女性 每组12-25人 在快速交友之前接触了AND或者是一种被控制了的气味
Another experiment exposed three groups of 12 to 25 women to AND or a control scent before
结果发现这些类固醇物质有时候会增加她们对他们所遇见的男人
speed-dating, and found that the steroid sometimes increased their reported attraction to the
的吸引力
men they met.
但是这项研究测试了94个澳大利亚一所大学的学生 这群学生大约男女各占一半
But this research tested how 94 Australian college students, about half men and half
他们被要求在闻过了AND,EST或者是没有固醇的控制物等物质后对电脑屏幕上
women, reacted to gender-neutral faces on computer screens after smelling AND, EST,
中性的脸孔做出反应
or a steroid-free control.
在第一场任务中 参与者被提问他们自己认为这一张脸
In the first task, participants were asked to decide whether they thought each face was
应该是男性还是女性
male or female.
在第二次测验中 他们评估了每张脸的吸引力并且预测了这个人
In the second, they rated each face’s attractiveness and predicted whether the person would be
是否会是一个忠实的伴侣
a faithful partner.
当所有的数据被搜集起来并经过分析后 结果并没有任何发现
When all the data was collected and analyzed, the results showed…nothing.
两种类固醇物质对于这个研究的参与者对脸孔的识别的研究都没有任何可测量
Neither steroid had any statistically measurable effect on what the study’s participants
的数据影响
thought of the faces.
而且即使当研究者在记录他们的数据的时候 他们也不知道
And even while the researchers were recording their data, they didn’t know which chemical
每个参与者闻到的是哪种什么化学物质
each participant had sniffed.
所以AND和EST可能在你的体内影响着某些行为 因为大多数类固醇物质都有这样的功效
So AND and EST might be signaling something in your body, because lots of steroids do.
但是我们并不明确它到底是什么 而且它很有可能不是跟性有关的感觉
But we don’t know exactly what that is, and it most likely is not sexiness.
现在看来人类的信息素研究似乎从起点就受到了阻碍
Human pheromone research seems to be stuck at square one for now.
所以 你应该知道的一点就是 不要买那些所谓的信息素香水或者没有价值的古龙香水
So, y’know, don’t buy into any of that pheromone perfume or cologne junk.
它只是更多的化学物质罢了
It’s… just more chemicals.
而且根本不值得去买
And totally not worth it.
而且 顺便说一下 很明显我们热爱与你们分享我们对科学的热情
Oh, and also, by the way, we obviously love to share our enthusiasm for science with you
无论是在互联网上还是在现实生活中
both on the internet and in real life.
每年的四月二十二日既是世界地球日 这一天也是科学的游行日
April 22 is Earth Day and it’s also the day of the March for Science.
SxiShow团队会在Montana进行游行 Michael Aranda 将会在
The SciShow Team will be marching here in Montana and Michael Aranda will be representing
华盛顿特区代表我们
us in Washington DC.
为了表示我们对科学家和科学交流的支持 我们制作了 知识等于
To show our support for scientists and science communication, we made these Knowledge = Power
力量的衬衫和海报
shirts and posters.
我们在Patreon上的支持者帮助我们想出了这一口号 DFTBA帮助我们设计了它们
Our Patreon Patrons helped us come up with the slogan and DFTBA helped us design them.
如果你也想表达你对科学和SciShow 的支持 你可以在这个网址上买一件
If you want to show your support for science and SciShow you can get one at dftba.com/scishow.
而且 像往常一样 感谢你对我们Patreon做出的支持 更别忘了进入这个网址
And, as always, thank you to our Patreon patrons and don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow
然后订阅 因为我们会一直制造更多这些东西
and subscribe, because we are always making more of these things!

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视频概述

有改变草莓颜色引发的幻觉提出对大脑控制的信息素的思考

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Sallyzhe

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豆子

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7dEjBs3dgpY

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