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风头鸠的翅膀内置报警装置 – 译学馆
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风头鸠的翅膀内置报警装置

These Pigeons Have Built-In Warning Alarms

在随便一个林子里待上5分钟你就能听到鸟儿啁啾声
Spend five minutes in any forest and you’ll probably hear birds chirping.
这种口头交流
The kind of vocal communication
听起来像动物用嘴或是喉咙的部分
which are sounds animals make with their mouth or
发出的吼声 或是喵喵叫声
throat parts like talking roaring or meowing
成吨的论文摆在那
and there’re tons of papers out
来研究鸟鸣及其涵义
there about birdsong and how it can mean anything from
从“看劳资羽毛多漂亮!”到“快跑!”
“Look how cool my feathers are!” to “Run away!”
但是一百五十年前达尔文的一个观点
But about 150 years ago Charles Darwin had a thought
如果那些不是靠嘴发出的声音 比如振翅
what if the non vocal sounds that birds make like by
是不是也意味着什么?
flapping their wings mean something too.
科学家们对这个问题有过一段时间的研究
Scientists have been looking into this question for a while
这周 澳大利亚国立大学的一项研究看上去
and this week a study from the Australian National University seems to
有了更多证据证明达尔文是对的
give more evidence that Darwin was right.
如果你在澳大利亚大陆待过
If you’ve spent any time on mainland Australia
你可能听到过澳洲凤头鸠的啭鸣
you’ll have heard the crested pigeon whistle
但这并不是用嘴发出来的声音
except it isn’t a mouth sound.
它们靠振翅发声 因此得到了这样的昵称
They whistle when they flap their wings which got them the nickname
“哨翅鸽” 快速念五次
“Whistle Winged Pigeons” Say that five times fast.
2009年的论文中 研究者们
In the 2009 paper researchers
注意到了一些有价值的东西:
had noticed something important:
其他的凤头鸠看起来对这种声音有反应
Other pigeons seem to react to the whistle.
所以一组生物学家 包括
So a group of biologists including
之前那篇论文的其中一位作者
one of the previous paper’s authors wanted to
想再做一些试验来看看是否振翅声的确能传达些什么
do more tests to see if the noise actually communicated something.
在2009年的研究中
In the 2009 research
他们测量了风头鸠的翅羽 发现了
they measured crested pigeon wing feathers and discovered a
奇特的薄羽 特别是第八初级飞羽
weirdly thin one specifically the eighth primary feather.
两个实验的测量展示了
Measurements in both studies showed that
风头鸠拍动翅膀时产生的两种不同的音调
the pigeons produced two distinct notes as their wings flap
震动羽毛的音调更高
and vibrate the feathers one is much higher than the other.
同样当鸟快速飞走时
Also when the birds were flying away in a hurry
振翅更快 所以声音更大
they flapped faster and the sound was louder.
所以 研究者们小心地剪除了
So the researchers carefully removed the weird feather
一些鸟的那片羽毛——出于科研的名义
from some birds all in the name of science.
没关系 它们会重新长出来的
But it’s okay. They grow back.
没有了那片狭羽 高音消失了
Without the narrow feather the highest note disappeared
风洞试验证实了 那片羽毛单独震动
and wind tunnel experiments confirmed that the feather makes the noise
产生了声音
when it’s vibrating on its own.
更重要的是 研究者们对比了有无特殊羽毛时
Most importantly the researchers compared the reaction of other crested pigeons
其他风头鸠对鸟飞走的录音的反应
to recordings of birds flying away with and without the special feather
区别很明显
and there was a clear difference.
当其他鸟听到尖声时
When the other birds heard the high-pitched sound
它们更有可能迅速逃离
they were more likely to get out of there in a hurry
就像是听到了警铃大作
as if there were an alarm blaring.
不过当它们听到了没有警报的录音
But if they heard the recordings without that alarm
它们更倾向于呆在原地 或是悠哉悠哉地起飞
they were more likely to stick around or take off more leisurely.
这给了达尔文的非语言沟通观点一些更有力的证据
This gives some solid evidence for Darwin’s nonverbal communication idea
告诉我们声音是如何发出
showing how the sound is produced
以及同类是如何回应的
and how other birds respond to it.
同时 研究者提出这也有助于进化
And the researchers say it makes sense evolutionarily too.
这些小鸟们在附近有危险时
These pigeons are always going to make a sound
总能发出些声响
if there’s danger nearby
因此更多的鸟得以逃离活命
so more birds know to escape and stay alive.
除非科学家出现 剪掉了它们的羽毛
Unless a scientist comes along and takes away some of their feathers.
不过谈够了鸟 我们来聊聊人
But enough about birds. Let’s talk about humans.
因为无论是学生 家长或是任何人
Because if you’re a student a parent or really anyone
你都可能被剥夺过睡眠
you’ve probably been sleep-deprived before.
你感到反应迟钝 要做决定时感觉
You feel sluggish like your mind is swimming through fog
大脑如行云雾中 一切都变的艰难
to make decisions and everything just seems harder.
本周 来自加大洛杉矶分校的研究者们
And this week researchers from UCLA
开始了更为深入的研究探讨这种感觉背后的生物学意义
took a deep look into the biology behind this feeling.
当你疲惫时 你的神经细胞也昏昏欲睡
When you’re tired your neurons sort of go to sleep too.
《自然医学》发表的一片文章中
In a paper published in the journal Nature Medicine
这群神经科学家展示了
this team of neuroscientists monitored
12位患者大脑电活动
the brain activity of 12 patients who had electrodes in their heads.
但在你觉得奇怪前
But before you get too weirded out by that
这些病人已经在医院进行癫痫的治疗
the patients were already in the hospital to get treatment for epilepsy.
癫痫是个相当宽泛的名称
Epilepsy is a super broad term
由大脑的异常活动引发
for abnormal brain activity that causes seizures.
病因及症状多种多样
There’s a lot of variation in causes and symptoms
意味着治疗也因人而异
which means treatments can vary a lot too.
有时很难精确定位受侵袭的脑区
Sometimes it’s hard to pinpoint the exact brain region
所以医生植入电极 以保持电信号
that’s affected so doctors can implant electrodes to keep
在疾病发作时也能大脑内正常传导
track of the electrical signals throughout the brain when a seizure happens.
同时这也能帮助医生决断是否值得
And this can help doctors decide if brain surgery is worth
冒风险进行摘除手术
the risk to remove something
因为手术可能形成瘢痕组织
that might be causing the seizures like scar tissue.
当医生想要在医疗环境中
And when doctors want to cause a seizure
人为引起癫痫发作
in a controlled hospital setting.
睡眠剥夺是关键
Sleep deprivation is key.
当你睡眠或是清醒时 脑内电活动也会变化
Electrical activity in the brain changes when you’re asleep or awake.
所以打乱昼夜循环可以影响癫痫发作
So messing with that cycle can influence seizures.
这也被这群研究者们完美的解决了
This worked out well for these researchers too.
他们安排了一组有些无聊的剥夺睡眠的实验人群
They had a group of probably bored sleep-deprived people
并检测他们的脑信号活动
with their brain signals being monitored.
这样他们可以看到强迫清醒状态下
So they can see what happens to neurons
脑信号发生了什么
when we force ourselves to stay awake.
在不同时刻 展示给病人一组图像
At different times the patients were given a set of
让其尽可能快地将它们分类
images to categorize as quickly as they could
同时研究者们监控大脑
while the researchers monitored brain activity
颞叶区的活动
in a region called the temporal lobe.
其中 颞叶将知觉信息转化成意识活动
Among other things the temporal lobe translates sensory information into conscious thoughts.
基本过程就比如 我看到了一个
Basically information processing like if I see a roundish red thing
顶上带棕色柄茎的红色圆物
with a brown stem on top.
我的颞叶帮助我认出它是个苹果
My temporal lobe helps me recognize that it’s an apple.
科学家注意到当患者
The scientists noticed that the neurons in the temporal lobe
在长时间保持清醒后做这个测试时
actually fired more slowly and passed along weaker signals
事实上 神经元激动较慢 且传导信号更弱
as the patients did this task after staying awake longer.
同时研究者测量了脑电波
The researchers also measured brain waves
在同样的部位 脑电波以及
the repeating cycles of many neurons firing
许多神经元 重复的循环激动都减慢了
and these brain waves slowed down in certain regions too.
呈出的类似睡眠状态
so they kind of looked like the ones linked with sleep.
我们很早就知道
We’ve known for a long time that
剥夺睡眠会搅乱人的行为活动
sleep deprivation can mess with how you act.
但这只是在人身上进行的第一个实验
But this is the first study
或许从能生物学角度解释发生了什么
in humans that might explain what’s going on biologically.
研究者们说这些基本睡着了的神经元
The researchers say the effects of these basically sleeping neurons
和醉酒的影响有异曲同工之妙
are similar to being drunk
比如说在驾驶中 会带来巨大的隐患
which has huge implications for things like driving.
你的大脑会花费更多的时间
Like it’s going to take longer for your brain to process
应对一个马路上意外出现的行人并作出反应
an unexpected pedestrian on the road and react.
那可能是下次节目考虑的内容了
So that’s maybe something to think about next time
你在收看凌晨三点结束的Netflix
you’re watching Netflix until 3 a.m.
谢谢观看本次科学秀短片
Thanks for watching this episode of scishow news
特别鸣谢所有赞助
and thanks especially to all of our patrons on patreon
让本次节目得以呈现
who make this show possible.
如果你想帮助我们制作像这样的短片
If you wanna help us keep making episodes like this,
进入patreon.com/scishow网站
go to patreon.com/scishow.
还有 别忘了上油管给我们点赞~
And don’t forget to go to youtube.com/scishow and subscribe.
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视频来源

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