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橘子味的鸟儿

These Birds Smell Like Tangerines

Thanks for CuriosityStream for supporting this episode!
感谢CuriosityStream对本期节目的支持!
Go to CuriosityStream.com/SciShow to learn more.
前往CuriosityStream.com/SciShow了解更多
[♪ INTRO]
科学秀
快速科普
On the remote, rocky islands of the North Pacific,
在北太平洋遥远多岩石的岛屿上
you might find a happy-looking little bird.
你可能会发现一种看上去很开心的小鸟
Called the crested auklet,
它们被称为冠毛小海雀
it looks kind of like a cross between a penguin and a quail.
看起来有点像企鹅与鹌鹑的杂交物种
They live in big, dense, noisy colonies
它们生活在巨大 茂密且嘈杂的地方
and go out to the ocean to feed.
会去海里觅食
They also, apparently, smell like tangerines.
它们似乎闻起来还有股橘子味
The smell, which has been described as “distinctive” and “pungent”
这种被人们描述为“独特”且“刺激”的气味
emerges at the beginning of the breeding season.
出现在繁殖季开始时
As for what’s actually causing it,
至于是什么产生的气味
the smell seems to come from a mix of
似乎来自于一种混合的化合物
compounds secreted by a patch of special,
这种化合物由一块特殊区域的
hair like, possibly hollow feathers called
毛发状的 还可能中空的羽毛分泌出
wick feathers found on a particular area
这些羽毛被称作灯芯羽毛
of skin on their back.
它们长在背部特定区域
They just got a little tangerine patch back there.
冠毛小海雀在后背种了一小块橘子
The mix of compounds is dominated by aldehydes,
这种混合的化合物主要是醛类
a kind of chemical that contains a carbon
一类含有醛基碳的化学物质
bonded to a hydrogen and double-bonded to an oxygen.
碳氢之间单键连接 碳氧之间是双键
As for why,there are two hypotheses
至于为什么会有这种气味 有两种假设
One is that the smelly aldehydes might be
一种说法是 这种有味道的醛类物质
a way for the birds to repel parasites like lice
可能是鸟类用来驱除像虱子这样的寄生虫的一种方法
— kind of like a built-in can of bug spray.
就像是身体里自带了一个驱虫喷雾罐
Experiments have shown that some of the compounds
实验表明这种气味中含有的某些化合物
in the smell can repel or paralyze ticks or lice.
可以驱赶或麻痹蜱虫和虱子
The other idea is that it might be
另一种解释是
some kind of sexual display or
这可能是一种求偶行为
some other sort of social signal.
或是其它类型的社交信号
During courtship, crested auklets approach
在求偶期 冠毛小海雀会接近潜在配偶
potential mates and bury their bill in
并将喙埋进对象那片
that patch in what’s known as a “ruff-sniff”.
被称为”气味扑鼻”的羽毛里
And they can definitely smell it.
这样它们肯定能闻到这种气味
Studies have shown the birds can tell
研究发现鸟类可以
the scent apart from other smells and even
从其它味道中分辨出这种独特的气味
appeared to be attracted to it when
甚至面对一只带有这种气味的假鸟的时
presented with a smelly fake bird.
它们似乎也会被吸引
Which is kind of neat,
这是一种非常有趣的观点
because for a long time many experts thought
因为长久以来很多专家认为
birds couldn’t really smell things.
鸟类并没有真正的嗅觉
That idea was debunked by scientists in the 1960’s,
但这个观点在20世纪60年代被科学家推翻了
and that research doesn’t
虽然研究本身
have much of anything to do with crested auklets,
和冠小海雀并没有太大的关系
but as a myth it’s had surprising staying power.
但鸟类没有嗅觉这种谬谈竟能持续这么久
It might seem kind of funny,
这听上去也许有些可笑
but choosing the smelliest mate might have some benefits.
但是如果气味是有驱虫作用的话
If the scent is a parasite repellent,
那么选择气味重的配偶可能会有些好处
for example, a smelly mate is less likely
比方说 一个气味重的配偶
to pass infestations to their mate or offspring.
就不太会把寄生虫病传染给对方或者后代
The smell might also be an indicator
这种气味还可能是一种指标
of how healthy the animal is in general.
用来显示该动物的综合健康状况
Its body has to produce those smelly chemicals, which requires energy
身体产生这些气味化学物质需要耗能
And because all smells eventually fade over time,
并且由于所有气味最终都会消散
an animal that depends on cologne to win a mate
如果一种动物依靠体味来求偶的话
has to keep making new compounds all the time.
那么它必定需要每时每刻产生新的气味化合物
Which means it has the energy to burn to make smelly molecules,
这就意味着它的身体有足够的能量产生这样的气味分子
even though those resources could be used for other,
尽管这些资源本可以用于
more survival-oriented things.
其它与生存更加相关的事情上
This means for crested auklets, a strong scent
这意味着对于冠毛小海雀来说 拥有重体味
might be a way to show that you’re not only healthy,
可能表明你不仅身体健康
but you have the resources to burn.
而且有足够的资源用来消耗
Citrus-scented birds are pretty neat,
带有橘子气味的鸟确实很有意思
but they’re far from the only fascinating animals out there.
但自然界还有很多其他迷人的动物
If you want to learn about more of them,
如果想要了解更多关于它们的知识
you might enjoy the documentaries on CuriosityStream.
你也许会喜欢CuriosityStream的纪录片
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service that offers
CuriosityStream是一家流媒体订阅服务商
over 2,400 documentaries and non­fiction titles
提供超过2400部由世界上最出色的
from some of the world’s best filmmakers
制作人制作的纪录片和非虚幻类作品
including exclusive originals.
其中包括独家原创纪录片
Like Animal Builders, which is all about
比如专门讲述动物王国中令人惊叹的工程师的
the incredible engineers of the animal kingdom.
专题片《动物建筑师》
Do you know beaver homes are self-ventilating?
你知道河狸的家是自通风的吗?
Because I do now…
因为我现在就知道了……
and right now you can get unlimited access
现在你只需要每月支付2.99美元起
to that and more starting at just $2.99 a month.
就能收看和了解更多内容
For SciShow viewers, the first 31 days are
对于《科学秀》的观众
completely free if you sign up at curiositystream.com/SciShow and use the
只要您在curiositystream.com/SciShow上使用优惠码‘SciShow’注册
promo code ‘SciShow’ when you sign up.
您就能享受最初31天免费收看
And checking them out also helps us continue doing what we love,
您的订阅也能支持我们继续制作我们热爱的内容
so thanks.
非常感谢

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视频概述

讲述一种带有橘子味的冠毛小海雀

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZELEjE92D-c

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