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这些可爱的鳞甲动物或许是它们最后的同类了

These Adorably Scaled Creatures are Among the Last of Their Kind

这是查尔斯 一条圣埃斯特万岛黑叩壁蜥
This is Charles, a San Esteban island chuckwalla.
是鬣鳞蜥的一种 也是该科五个物种中最大的
Part of the Iguana family, chuckwallas are the largest of the five species.
由于被猎补和野生动物取食他们的卵他们已经成为濒危物种
They are in danger due to hunting and feral animals preying on their eggs.
查尔斯生活在圣艾斯特万岛
Charles is native to San Esteban island,
这个小岛位于墨西哥的加州湾
a small island in the gulf of California, Mexico.
圣埃斯特万岛黑叩壁蜥只生活在这片区域
It is only in this region where the San Esteban chuckwallas can be found.
他们的颜色有着重要的伪装作用 躲避天敌
Their coloration provides critical camouflage from predators.
他们不需要喝水
They don’t drink water.
而是从所食植物中获取需要的水分
Instead, getting all the water they need from the plants they eat.
圣埃斯特万岛黑叩壁蜥能长到超过2.5英尺
San Esteban chuckwallas can reach over 2.5 feet in size.
他们非常适应沙漠生活
They are very well adapted for desert life,
即使在持续几百华氏度下 也喜欢晒太阳浴
and enjoying bathing in the sun in temperatures consistently in the low hundreds.
这就是圣埃斯特万岛黑叩壁蜥
This is the San Esteban Chuckwalla.
这是一只雄性树穿山甲
This is a male tree pangolin
他六个月大了
He is six months old.
树穿山甲是极危物种且仍在被研究中
Critically endangered and under-researched,
与其他哺乳动物不同
the tree pangolin is a mammalian species like no other.
在亚洲和非洲 它们可追溯至六千六百万年前
Down to at Asia and Africa, pangolins can be traced back 66 million years,
这意味着它们与恐龙生活在同一时期
Meaning they live amongst dinosaurs.
它们是地球上唯一体覆鳞甲的哺乳动物
They’re the only mammals on earth covered in scales,
其鳞甲约占体重两成
which account for about 20% of their body weight.
这些巨大的保护性鳞甲由角蛋白组成
These large protective scales are made of keratin,
和人类指甲和头发成分一样
the same thing human nails and hair are made from.
树穿山甲用长爪在树木枝干上攀爬
Tree pangolins use their long claws to
总是在搜寻着猎物
climb on trees and branches in endless search for prey.
像这只小穿山甲一样
Baby pangolins like the one here,
穿山甲宝宝全靠被妈妈背在尾巴上进行活动
get around by riding their mothers’ tails.
虽然他们视力欠佳 听觉也不敏感
Though they have poor eyesight and hearing,
但发达的嗅觉和可伸缩性的舌头
their strong sense of smell and elastic tongue
依然能确保他们吃上一顿大餐 多为蚂蚁和白蚁
allows them to catch a meal of mostly ants and termites.
当穿山甲感受到危险就会缩成一团
When the pangolin senses danger, it will curl up into a ball,
这使它在野外几乎没有天敌
making it almost invincible in the wild.
当然 人类是他们最恐怖的威胁
Humans, however, are dangerous threat.
穿山甲的鳞甲据信有治愈疗效
The pangolin scales are thought to have healing properties.
虽然没有科学理论支持
Though there is no science to back that up.
因此 穿山甲是世界上被贩卖最严重的哺乳动物
Because of that, pangolins are the most heavily trafficked mammals in the world,
在黑市上一磅就能卖到300美金
worth almost $300 per pound on the black market.
无人知晓穿山甲如今所剩多少
No one knows how many pangolins are left,
但我们确定它们的数量在快速缩小
but we do know that their number is shrinking fast.
这就是树穿山甲
This is the tree pangolin.
这是环颈蜥
This is collared lizard
他们的得名源于脖子周围有两圈黑色环带
The two black bands around their neck give them their name.
实际上环颈蜥奔跑时腿若悬空
Collared lizards can actually run on their hang legs,
并且时速能达到15英里
and reach up to 15 miles per hour.
当它们直立奔跑时尾巴用来平衡身体
Their tails are used for balancing themselves when they are up and sprinting.
它们中等体型
They are medium sized lizard,
体长能达1.5英尺
reaching up to a foot and half in length.
原产于美国的西部和北部
Native to west and north America,
环颈蜥喜欢生活在植物稀少的岩石带
They prefer to live in rocky habitats with sparse vegetation.
如今分布广泛
Today they are wide-spread,
但在几十年前 其种群数量还在下降
but only a few decades ago, their population was declining.
为了防止火灾而进行的土地开垦
Clearing land as a form of fire prevention
导致了其种群数量的回升
has greatly helped its population rebound,
因为要有开阔的岩石环境它们才能生存
as they need open rocky habitats to survive.
这就是环颈蜥
This is the collared lizard.
这是古塞加石龙子
This is guthega skink.
古塞加石龙子个体较小 身披伪装鳞片
Small in size, the guthega skink is covered in camouflaged skin
安家于高山石块间 其颜色与岩石混为一体
to blend in with alpine rocks they call home.
古塞加石龙子土生土长于澳大利亚的维多利亚州
The guthega skink is native to Victoria, Australia.
并且只在博岗高平原这一地区分布
And can only be found in one area, known as the Bogang High Plains.
因为它们栖息地范围很小
Because they are only found in such a small area,
因此面对丛林火灾等自然灾难就无比脆弱
they are vulnerable to natural disasters such as bush fires.
但这并不是石龙子面对的唯一威胁
But this isn’t the only threat facing the skinks.
它们的栖息地由于兴建滑雪场受到影响
Their habitat has also been affected by the construction of ski resorts,
并且要与家畜争夺食物 常常使得它们瑟瑟发抖
and grazing in trembling from farm animals.
但最大的威胁还是气候变化
But their biggest threat is climate change.
气温升高使得原本被寒冷阻隔的捕食者
Warmer temperatures have allowed new predators once kept at bay by the cold
能够进入此前隔离的栖息地
into their previously isolated habitat.
维多利亚的动物园正开展一项繁育计划
Zoos in Victoria have been working on a breeding program,
来确保对该物种的保育
to ensure the preservation of this species,
还有一个拯救恢复项目
and a rescuing and recovery program,
以防野外种群受到突然威胁
if there is an inmediate threat to the wild population.
这就是古塞加石龙子
This is the Guthega skink.
来见见阿涅格斯吧 一条五周岁大的东部靛蓝蛇
Meet Anegs, a five-year old eastern indigo snake.
体长9英尺
At 9 feet in length,
东部靛蓝蛇是美国本土最长的蛇了
eastern indigos are considered to be longest native snakes in the United States.
虽然它们没有毒牙
Even though they lack a venomous bite,
但因与响尾蛇同居一穴
they can fall victims to overzealous rattlesnake hunters,
它们会被热衷于捕捉响尾蛇的捕猎者捕获
as they inhabit the same burrows
它们美丽又光滑的鳞片皮 透着暗沉的乌青色
Their beautiful smooth scale skin is a shade of bluish black.
和其他蛇一样都为食肉动物
Carnivores like all snakes
它可以摄食可以抓捕到的任何小动物
and it feeds on any small animals she can over power,
阿涅格斯惊慌时会嘶嘶作响并摇动尾巴
Anegs may hiss or rattle her tails when alarmed.
但它从不咬人
but she’ll hardly ever bite.
像大多数蛇一样人类是它们最大的威胁
Like most snakes, humans are their biggest threat.
持续的开放化使得它们备受威胁
As continued openization has left them threatened
这一情况在美国的部分地区都有发生
throughout parts of the United States
这就是东部靛蓝蛇
This is the eastern indigo snake.
这是侏响尾蛇
This is Massasauga rattlesnake
是安大略省唯一的有毒蛇
It is Ontario’s only venomous snake.
但它比我们还要害怕人类
But it’s more scared of humans than we are of it.
侏响尾蛇个体不大
Massasauges aren’t very large,
能长到3英尺长
growing up to 3 feet in length.
皮肤介于灰色到暗棕色之间
Their skin is grey to dark brown.
背部长有暗色斑块
dabbled with darkest blotches along its back.
摇动尾巴是一种警示行为
Their tails rattle as a warning.
但是除非迫不得已 否则它们是不会主动攻击的
Yet they won’t strike unless they have no choice.
因为侏响尾蛇很害羞
That’s because massasauges are shy
面对敌人宁愿躲起来而不是撕咬敌人
and preferred to hide than bite their enemies.
不幸的是 它们无法躲避人们侵占土地式的发展
Unfortunately, they can’t hide fromencrouching human development,
由于对其过度夸大的的恐惧人们有意对它们捕杀
which combined with intentional killings from over exaggerated fear,
这些都造成了其加拿大种群数量的大幅度下降
have caused a large decline in its Canadian population.
这就是侏响尾蛇
This is the massasauge rattlesnake.
这是一条古巴鳄宝宝
This is a baby Cuban crocodile.
是世界上最稀少的鳄鱼之一
One of the rarest crocs in the world.
只隐匿在古巴的两个地区
Hidden away in only two parts of Cuba.
它们是鳄鱼里体型最小的
They have the smallest range of any croc species.
古巴鳄鱼是极危物种
The Cuban crocodile is critically endangered.
专家预估野外只有3000条
Experts say it approximately 3000 remain in the wild.
明亮的卵石纹鳞甲使它与其他鳄鱼迥异
Its bright pebbled scales set it apart from other crocodiles.
它们喜欢淡水湖泊和沼泽
They favor fresh water lakes and swamps,
几乎不会去海洋中冒险
rarely venturing into the ocean.
这些游泳健将会用强有力的尾巴将自己冲出水面
These strong swimmers using their powerful tails to thrust out of the water,
捕获藏在悬空树枝上的猎物
catching prey hiding in overhanging branches.
由于聚群密集 和近亲鳄鱼共同捕猎并种间繁殖
Having a tight aggregation, hunting and interbreeding with related crocodile species
这都对它们造成了威胁
all pose threats.
这就是古巴鳄
This is Cuban crocodile.

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视频概述

你知道大自然中还有哪些可爱鳞甲动物么,他们的生存环境又受到了哪些威胁?

听录译者

丁满

翻译译者

丁满

审核员

审核员T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dr6SBqt7MqY

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