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从经济、社会、心理学观点阐述创业理论 – 译学馆
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从经济、社会、心理学观点阐述创业理论

Theories of Entrepreneurship

大家好 我是Let’s Understand Business的Anupam
Hi, I’m Anupam, Let’s Understand Business.
在这个视频中我将介绍一些创业理论
In the presentation, I’ll show you between lines on some of the theories of entrepreneurship.
要说创业
Entrepreneurship,
先让我们了解创业的定义
then let’s first understand what do we mean by entrepreneurship.
创业是成为企业家的行为
Entrepreneurship is defined as the act of being an entrepreneur.
而企业家是指
That is, an entrepreneur,
进行创新 融资 有商业头脑的人
is one who undertakes innovations, finance, and business acumen,
致力于将创新力转化为交易商品
in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods.
接下来 介绍创业理论时
Then, when we come to the theories of entrepreneurship,
我们会讨论经济学理论 社会学理论
Here, we shall be discussing about The Economic Theory, the Sociological Theory,
企业创新理论 心理学理论
the Entrepreneurship Innovation Theory, the Psychological Theory,
还有动机成就理论或成就理论
And, the Theory of Achievement Motivation, or Achivement Theory.
之后我们会讨论卡基纳达实验
Then, we shall be discussing about the Kakinada Experiment.
创业经济学理论认为
Economic Theory of Entrepreneurship proposes that
经济形势向好时 创业增加 经济增长
Entrepreneurship and economic growth take place when economic conditions are favourable.
也就是说经济诱导是主要推动力
That is, economic incentives are the main motivators.
经济诱因包括
Enconomic incentives, then they include,
税收政策 产业政策
the Taxation Policy, Industrial Policy,
资金及原材料来源
Sources of Finance&Raw Material
基础设施可用性 投资与营销机会
Infrastructure Availabilty, Investment &Marketing Opportunities,
以及信息获取 比如市场情况 技术等
And Access to Information, like the market conditions, the technology, etc.
理查德·坎蒂隆建立的经济学理论中
The Economic theory was established by Richard Cantillon,
他认为 企业家可视为中介
who viewed entrepreneurs as an agent,
他们以特定价格购买生产要素
who buys factors of production at certain prices,
再将生产要素加工成产品
in order to combine them into a product,
以不确定的价格在未来售出
with a view to selling it at an uncertain price in future.
就是说 他把农民视为企业家
That is, he illustrated farmer as an entrepreneur,
企业家按合同支付给土地所有者和工人 特定金额的工资
who pays out contractual incomes to the landlords and laborers, which are certain
却以不特定的价格售出农作物
while he sells his crops at a price, which is uncertain
因此他将企业家视为风险承担者
Thus, he views entrepreneur as a risk taker.
社会学理论认为
The sociological theory of entrepreneurship proposes that
某种特定社会文化下 会爆发创业潮
entrepreneurship is likely to get a boost in a particular social culture
个人的社会创业会受这些影响
The entrepreneurial behavior of individuals in a society is influenced by
如社会价值观 宗教信仰 习俗 禁忌等
the society’s values, the religious beliefs, the customs, the taboos, etc.
企业家只扮演了社会期望的角色
The entrepreneur merely performs a role as for the expectations of the society.
按让·巴蒂斯特·萨伊的理论
As for Jean Baptiste Say,
企业家是协同土地
entrepreneur is one who combines the land of one
劳动和资本创造商品的人
the labour of another and the capital of yet another to produce a product.
通过销售产品 企业家支付资本利息
By selling the product in the market, he pays interest on the capital,
土地租金和工人工资
rent on the land and wages to the laborers
剩下的就是企业家的收益
and what remains is his profit.
他首次明确划分了
This was for the first time that a distinction was made
资本家为金融家 企业家为组织者
between the capitalist as the financer and the entrepreneur as the organiser.
所以社会学理论认为企业家为组织者
Thus, this theory is entrepreneur as an organiser
约瑟夫·熊彼特提出企业家创新理论
The Entrepreneurship Innovation Theory was propounded by Joseph Schumpeter.
他提出 创业就是创新
As for this theory, entrepreneurship is innovation.
这个理论却忽视了两种基本能力
This theory ignores the earlier two abilities,
两种后来公认的 企业家的关键能力
which were till then considered key for an entrepreneur.
社会学理论中的组织能力
The organizing abilities as for the sociological theory
和理论经济学中的风险承受能力
and the risk taking abilities as for the economic theory.
约瑟夫·熊彼特认为企业家这类人
According to Joseph Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person
他们愿意并有能力将新点子或发明
who is willing and able to convert a new idea or invention
转化为成功创新
into a successful innovation.
创业促生了新的行业
Entrepreneurship resulted in new industries,
虽然这意味着 重新整合现有投入
even though it entailed combining the existing inputs in a new way.
熊彼特的创新事例举了
Schumpeter’s example of innovation was
蒸汽机与马车的组合
the combination of a steam engine with a wagon-cart,
创造了非马力的汽车
to produce the horseless carriage.
此例中汽车的创新 是转换型创新
In this case the innovation, the car, was transformational.
它不要求新技术的发展
But it did not require the development of a new technology.
仅仅是对现有技术的
Merely the application of existing technologies
正常应用 这就够了
in a normal manner was sufficient.
继续讲之前 我们要将企业家精神理解为创新精神
Before we move on, let’s understand innovation with respect to entrepreneurship.
开发新产品 企业家就在创新
An entrepreneur innovates when he introduces a new product.
比如维珍银河公司向社会兜售
For example, Virgin Galactic is a company which has sold out tickets to the public
未来的太空漫游船票
for the future is odyssey.
其次企业家创新能革新生产技术
Secondly, an entrepreneur innovates, then he introduces a new production method.
如麦当劳开创的食物生产系统链
For example, McDonalds was the first company who started line production system in food.
第三企业家创新能开拓新市场
Thirdly, an entrepreneur innovates, then he opens up a new market.
因为蓝海策略的教授们认为
For example, the Blue Ocean Strategy professors
企业要寻找弱竞争市场
that organization should seek out markets which are less competitive.
接着 企业家创新
Next, an entrepreneur innovates,
会获得新的原料供给源
then he finds out a new source of raw material supply.
如限制型煤炭到非限制能源供给的转变
For example, moving from conditional coal to unconditional energy sources.
最后企业家创新
And lastly, an entrepreneur innovates,
能引进新型行业结构
then he introduces a new organization in the industry.
心理学理论显示
The Psychological Theory suggests that
社会中特定心理人群充足时
Entrepreneurship gets a boost when society has sufficient supply of individuals
创业潮就会爆发
with necessary psychological characteristics.
这些心理特征包括
These psychological characteristics include:
第一 渴求建功立业 有眼界或前瞻力
Need for achievement, A vision or foresight
直面质疑的能力等
Ability to face opposition, etc.
这些特征形成于孩童时期
These characteristics are formed during the individual’s upbringing.
如童年就掌握餐桌礼仪的人
For example, an individual who would have his polite dines during the childhood
创业的可能性更大
is more likely to develop an entrepreneurship.
第二 对于卓越的高标准
Secondly, by high standards of excellence
独立自主和不对父亲言听计从
to self reliance and low father dominance.
第三 那种不愿被长辈意见牵制的人
Then an individual is not habituated of being guided by his elders’ decision
更可能有企业家才能
He is more likely to the garner the entrepreneurship.
最后我们来讲成就动机理论
Lastly, we come to Theory of Achievement Motivation.
戴维麦克利兰在其动机著论中
David McClelland in his famous theory of motivation identified
指出了三种基本人性特征
the three basic characteristics among people.
渴求建功立业 渴望社会认同 渴望权力
Need for achievement, need for affiliation, and need for power.
是创业性格的基础 他解释道
As the basis of entrepreneurial personalities, he emphasized
成功动机意义在于
the importance of achievement motivation
这些特质下 企业家得以实现经济社会的发展
through which, entrepreneur fulfills economic and social development.
实验发现企业家的建功立业欲最高
The need for achievement was found highest among entrepreneurs through an experiment.
印度有名的卡基纳达实验
The Kakinada Experiment, as it is known in India,
由戴维·麦克利兰发起
was conducted by David McClelland
在美国纽约 墨西哥市 墨西哥和
in New York city, America, Mexico city, Mexico
印度卡基纳达同时举行
and Kakinada, India simultaneously.
实验中年轻人被选中
In the experiment, young adults were selected
进行为期三月训练来激发成就动机
and put through a three-month training to induce achievement motivation.
训练内容包括 受训者被要求控制其思想
In the course content, trainees were asked to control their thinking
进行积极自我暗示
and talk about themselves positively.
受训者想象自己 渴望建功立业和成功
Trainees imagined themselves in need of challenges and success
为此他们被要求 列下可实现目标计划
for which they were made to set planned achievable goals.
他们试图效仿自己的偶像
They tried to imitate their role models.
成就动机对参与者表现
The achievement motivation had a positive impact
起了特别大的作用
on the performance of the participants.
实验计算后得出结论
After the computational experiment, it was deduced
传统信仰并不压抑企业家
that traditional beliefs do not inhibit an entrepreneur.
基于实验结果 麦克利兰总结出
On the basis of the experiment, McClelland identified
两个创业特征
two characteristics of entrepreneurship.
有新奇且更好的行事方法
Doing things in a new and better way
不确定环境下的决策
and decision making under uncertainty.
他强调高成就导向型人群
He stressed that people with high achievement orientation
或渴望成功者更易成为企业家
or need to succeed are more likely to become entrepreneurs.
这些人不为金钱与外部奖励所动
People are not influenced by money or external incentives.
盈利只是衡量成功与能力的工具
Also, profits are only a measure of success and competency,
并不是其创业动力
and not a motivator for entrepreneurship.
现在总结一下 我们谈过的众多创业理论
Now, let us sum up the various theories of entrepreneurship as we just discussed.
经济学理论中 企业家被当作风险承担者
The Economic Theory. As for this theory, entrepreneur is seemed as a risk taker.
社会学理论中 企业家是组织者
The Sociological Theory: an entrepreneur is an organizer.
企业家创新理论中 企业家被奉为创新者
The Entrepreneur Innovation Theory sees an entrepreneur as an innovator.
接下来心理学理论认为
Follow by, the Psychological Theory, which is
企业家形成于孩童时期
entrepreneurs are formed during their upbringing.
最后成就动机理论认为
And finally, we had the Achievement Motivation Theory,
企业家精神能被训练出
which said that entrepreneurship can be developed
和传统信仰并不压抑企业家
and traditional beliefs do not inhibit entrepreneurs.
想了解更多创业知识 不如亲自读读
For more on this topic, you may go to any of these books
我提过的那些书
to which I have all talked before.
想了解更多和评论的话 请联系我
For further details and comments, please contact me.
我的邮箱是anupamkr@gmail.com
My email ID is anupamkr@gmail.com,
对就是anupamkr@gmail.com
that is, anupamkr@gmail.com
感谢收看
Thank you.

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视频概述

本视频从经济,社会,心理学等各种角度简述了创业理论

听录译者

Kirstenهادئة

翻译译者

海尔兄弟

审核员

审核团HY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bBydFrDNugI

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