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饮食习惯与健康

The Worst Diet? || Your Food and Your Death

几乎每个人的饮食都不正常—只是多少的问题
Almost everyone’s diet is out of whack—it’s just a question of how much.
几乎地球上的每个国家
nearly every nation on earth
都无法达到正确的营养平衡 无论是因为
fails to get the right balance of nutrients whether it’s because
人们沉迷于加工过的肉类和大量碳酸饮料
people indulge in processed meats and giant sodas,
还是因他们缺少有营养的豆类和谷物的基本摄入
or because they lack basic access to nutritious legumes and grains.
根据《2017年全球疾病负担研究》
And according to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017,
这些糟糕的饮食导致了全球1100万人死亡
these bad diets are responsible for 11 million deaths worldwide.
这超过了任何一种风险因素 包括吸烟在内
That’s more than any other individual riskfactor, including smoking.
这份报告使用了来自195个国家的饮食数据
The report used dietary data from 195 countries
以调查哪些食物或营养物
to try to probe which foods or nutrients
导致了最多的死亡
were responsible for the most deaths.
过多的钠和不足的全谷物
Too much sodium and not enough whole grains
被证明是最大的杀手
turned out to be some of the biggest killers,
在2017年 这两个因素各造成300万人死亡
claiming 3 million lives apiece in 2017,
紧接着是水果匮乏导致200万人死亡
with insufficient fruit following upwith 2 million deaths. Combined,
这三种因素导致了半数以上与饮食相关的死亡
those three factors accounted for more than half of all diet-related deaths.
但这并不是说这个结论在任何地方都是正确的
But that’s not to say that was true everywhere.
受地理因素影响 最具影响的饮食因素多种多样
The dietary factors with the most influence varied considerably by geography,
死亡率也是如此
as did the rate of deaths.
那么 这些数字是从哪儿来的呢?
So where do these numbers come from?
估计与某一特定风险因素相关的死亡人数是非常困难的
Estimating how many deaths are due to any particular risk factor is inherently challenging,
尤其是在全球范围内
especially on a global scale.
事实上 研究人员无法看见某一个体死亡
In fact, researchers can’t look at an individualdeath
就决定是哪一种生活方式导致了这一结果
and determine which lifestyle choices lead to it.
我们可能知道一个人死于心脏疾病
We may know a person died of heart disease,
甚至有可能知道
and we may even know almost everything
有关他们饮食和生活方式的几乎一切信息
about their diet and lifestyle choices.
但是不是糖分过多或缺乏锻炼
But was it all the sugar or the lack of exercise
食用了过多富含脂肪的牛排对他们的心脏健康影响最大呢?
or the fat-laden steak that impacted their heart health the most?
没有人能真正知道
No one can ever really know.
统计学家们使用模型去计算
Instead, statisticians use models to figure out
摄入盐分过多或豆类不足
how much added risk there is to eating
会有多少额外的风险
too much salt or not enough beans,
然后将这些风险应用于可能因为
then apply those risks to the recorded deaths from diseases
那些不良饮食选择而患病的有记录的死亡中
you might get from those poor dietary choices.
这是一个不完美的系统 但却是我们最好的选择
It’s an imperfect system, but it’s the bestwe have—
并且我们要牢记于心 这些数字都是估计数
and it’s worth bearing in mind that these are all estimations.
当然了 死亡率不仅仅只受饮食影响
Mortality rates are, of course, influencedby more than just diet.
那些广泛提供卫生保健的国家可能有同样的癌症率 心脏病率和糖尿病
Countries with widely available healthcare may have similar rates of cancer, heart disease,and diabetes,
只是死于那些原因的人数更少罢了
yet have fewer deaths from all those causes.
但我们的饮食缺乏的方式有很大的不同
But the ways in which our diets come up short vary considerably.
那么 我们来一起探索这些发现……
So, let’s explore the findings…
几乎每种食物和营养物质
For nearly every food group and nutrient,
大部分国家都要么过多要么不足
the vast majority of nations are getting either too much or not enough.
我们饮食上的这些不平衡显然导致了过早的死亡
These imbalances in our diets clearly contributeto early deaths,
但是研究也指出
but the study also notes
历史上 改变饮食的干预措施并不是非常成功
that interventions to change diets haven’t historically been very successful.
并没有证据表明什么策略是最有效的
There’s no evidence as to what tactics work best,
即使这些方法的确有用
or even if they work at all,
并且作者还指出
and the authors point out
大多数的努力变成了改变消费者的习惯
that much of the effort has gone into changing consumer habits
而不是驱使全球范围的食品工业作出改变
rather than forcing the food industriesworldwide to shift.
告诉普通人少吃牛肉
Telling ordinary people to eat less beef
或多吃新鲜蔬菜是非常好的
or more fresh veggies is all well and good,
但如果人们没有获得那些选择的途径
but if folks don’t have access to those choices
无论是单纯缺少
whether for pure lack of availability
还是因为那些更健康的选择太昂贵
or because those healthier options are too expensive,
这并没有太多好处
it won’t do much good.
有一点是确定的:全球几乎每种饮食都应设法做出改变
One thing is clear: nearly every global diet needs to change somehow.
尽管在研究营养上还有很多挑战
Despite the many challenges in studying nutrition,
我们早已知晓是什么组成了健康的饮食:
we already know what constitutes a healthy diet:
更少的红肉和加工肉 更多的水果蔬菜和全谷物
less red and processed meat, more fruits and vegetables, and whole grains.
我们解决这个问题的方法
The ways in which we address
将是多种多样的——
this problem are going to vary a lot—
在非洲撒哈拉沙漠以南地区起作用的方法
what works for sub-Saharan Africa
可能不一定在中亚或南美也起作用
may not necessarily work in central Asia or South America.
但是我们必须设法并迅速解决这些问题
But we have to address them somehow and soon.
感谢各位观看本视频
Hey guys, thanks for watching!
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视频概述

介绍了不好的饮食习惯对健康的影响,并介绍了相关的研究发现

听录译者

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翻译译者

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审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oLYpGGmy9pg

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