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世界的下一个海洋

The World's Next Ocean

开场音乐
[INTRO ♪]
2005年9月14日
On September 14, 2005,
发生于北埃塞俄比亚的阿法尔偏远地区的
there was an earthquake in a remote part of Afar, a region in northern Ethiopia.
地震虽不强烈 却是一连串的开端
It wasn’t very strong, but it was the firstof many.
接下来十二天里发生了逾百场地震
Over the next 12 days, there were over a hundred more quakes,
大部分也相对轻微
most of them also relatively small. Then,
接着 9月26日 附近的达巴布火山喷发
on September 26, a nearby volcano called Dabbahu erupted.
这是该火山有记录以来首次爆发
This was its first eruption in recorded history,
爆发发生在离火山顶部
and it came from a flat part of the
数公里外的火山平坡上
volcano a few kilometers from the summit.
爆发并未造成大量损害
The eruption didn’t do too much harm—no
没人受重伤 至多导致了
people were seriously hurt, and at most it
上百头山羊和骆驼的死亡
killed a couple hundred goats and camels.
然而爆发在地表打开了一条大裂谷
But it opened up a gigantic crack in the earth,
并在短短十天里
which grew to 60 kilometers long and as much
发展到60千米长 8米宽
as eight meters wide—in only ten days.
正如你想象的那样
And as you can probably imagine,
这引起了全世界地理学家的关注
this caught the attention of geologists around the world.
结果是虽然这很戏剧化 这条裂缝
It turns out that as dramatic as it was, the crack
正是地震后渐进性重组的最新症状之一
was just one of the latest symptoms of an ongoing seismic shake-up
在非洲 它最终把大陆一分为二
in Africa that’s eventually going rip the continent in two,
导致一片崭新大洋的诞生
leading to the creation of a brand-new ocean.
目前 东非正在经历张裂的过程
Right now, eastern Africa is going through a process called rifting,
在那里 组成地壳和上地幔的
where the tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s
构造板块彼此分离
crust and upper mantle pull apart from each other.
一股巨大的岩浆从地幔深处升起
A giant plume of magma rising from deep inside the mantle
推动美洲和阿拉伯板块相互远离
is forcing the African and Arabian plates away from one another,
在地表形成断裂
forming a rupture in the Earth’s surface.
结果成了东非大裂谷
The result is the Great Rift Valley,
它在大陆东部延伸了超过3千米
which stretches more than 3000 kilometers through the eastern part of the continent.
自从英国科学家约翰·格雷戈里
Scientists have been studying the Great Rift Valley since around the
在20世纪之交首次发现大裂谷
turn of the 20th century, when an English geologist named
科学家对它持续研究至今
John Gregory encountered it for the first time.
即使下个五十年里 板块构造理论
Even though the theory of plate tectonics wouldn’t
将不会被全盘接受 他仍然
be fully accepted for another 50 years or so,
意识到该理论的重要性
he realized how important it might be.
大裂谷是由众多不同时形成的
The valley is a system of several fractures that
小断裂组成的系统
began forming at different times, and it ’
也是众多地震的源头
s home to lots of seismic activity.
成吨岩浆涌出的压力是地震和火山
The pressure from tons of magma bubbling up is what
爆发的成因 正如2005年发生的那样
leads to earthquakes and volcanic eruptions like what happened in 2005.
2018年公布的研究中
For a study published in 2018,
科学家在埃塞俄比亚和厄立特里亚安装
scientists installed two seismic networks in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
地动仪网 这些地动仪网在两年间记录了
And these networks of seismographs recorded almost 5,000 earthquakes
约五千场大于等于2.0级的地震
of at least magnitude 2.0 in two years.
这些地震活动也造成其他火山喷发 其中
All that activity has spawned other volcanoes, too—one, called Nyamuragira,
尼亚穆拉吉拉火山从1894到1979 共喷发了15次
erupted fifteen times between 1894 and 1979.
东非发生的事
What’s happening in eastern Africa is actually more
其实在海底更常见 在那里
common at the bottom of the ocean, where magma
喷出地壳裂缝的岩浆形成了海岭
bubbling up into tectonic rifts forms features called seafloor ridges
并推动了大陆板块的运动 但是
and helps drive the movement of continental plates.
非洲的地壳活动为科学家提供了
But the activity in Africa is giving geologists
近距离研究该过程的机会 而无需潜艇辅助
a chance to study the process up close—no submarines needed.
事实证明 2005年
As it turns out, what happened in 2005
一条相当长的裂谷迅速开裂
was that a huge length of the rift cracked
始于火山喷发
open all at once, beginning with the volcanic
并从那里向两侧延伸
eruption and spreading in both directions from there.
这对科学家来说是一个惊喜
This was a bit of a surprise to scientists, who
他们先前认为 无论在海上还是陆地
previously thought that such cracks—on the ocean floor as well as
这样的裂谷只能一点点地开裂
on land—only broke open a little bit at a time. Eventually,
最终非洲之角将从
the Horn of Africa is going
剩余的大陆板块
to split off from the rest of the
之间裂开 任自延展
continental plate and go its own way.
东非大裂谷的大片地区低于海平面
Large areas of the Great Rift valley are below sea level,
唯独厄立特里亚的
cut off from the ocean only by a
小片高地露出洋面
small piece of higher land in Eritrea.
所以当断裂最终发生 海水将倒灌入裂谷
So when the split finally happens, seawater is going to
把非洲之角变成一个岛屿
come flooding into the rift, turning the Horn of Africa
并创造一片新的大洋
into an island and creating a new ocean.
大约我们当中没人能看到新大洋 毕竟
Odds are none of us will actually get to see the new ocean.
此过程已缓慢发生了约三千万年
The process has been happening slowly for about 30 million years,
这条裂谷只是以
and the rift is only widening at an
年均几厘米的速度扩大 所以
average rate of a couple of centimeters a year. So,
要等上数千万年
it will probably be tens of millions of years
从苏丹去到索马里才会需要乘船
before traveling from Sudan to Somalia requires a boat.
但同时 我们也得以看着地球自我重塑
But in the meantime, we get to watch our planet
这给出了个难题:
reshape itself, giving us a teaser
在我们长逝后 世界将变成何样
for what the world would look like long after we’re gone.
感谢您收看本集科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow,
特别鸣谢我们的空间长马修·勃兰特
and a special thanks to our President of Space, Matthew Brant! Thanks,
感谢马修的支持
Matthew, for your support!
如果您愿意支持我们 或者
And if you want to help support us or
想得到不错的奖励 比如获得每月
just get some cool rewards like access to our
Livesteam使用权 请前往patreon.com/scishow
monthly livestream, head on over to patreon.com/scishow.
结尾音乐
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

关于东非大裂谷的成因及如何在千万年后成为世界下一个大洋的假想

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V2L1LfAx4ik

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