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世界上最实用的铁路模型

The world's most useful model railway

If you want to learn to drive a train, there are simulators.
如果你想学开火车 可以用模拟器
A screen, a set of controls, it’s pretty realistic.
它有一个屏幕和一组控制器 非常逼真
But that’s not the only safety-critical job on the railway that needs training.
但这并非铁路上唯一需要培训的事关安全大事的工作岗位
The signalers who decide where trains go are just as important,
决定火车往哪里开的信号员同等重要
making sure that every train goes down the right track
他们要确保每辆列车都在正确的轨道上运行
and dealing with disruption when it happens
并及时处理突发的意外
so that passengers can still get where they’re going.
以确保乘客仍能到达他们要去的地方
You could simulate that in a computer, sure,
当然 你可以在电脑中进行模拟练习
but there is a more physical approach.
但有一个更现实的方法
Here in Darmstadt, Germany,
这儿是德国的达姆施塔特
there is the world’s most useful model railway.
这里有着世界上最实用的铁路模型
– In this place, we started in 2006 at the Technical University in Darmstadt.
在这个地方 我们于2006年在达姆施塔特技术大学开始了项目
We had a similar facility since 1936.
1936年以来 我们一直保存着类似的设施
We have about 500 square metres of space available for the trainings,
我们大约有500平方米的空间可供培训
and a track laid out.
并且铺设了一条轨道
It’s a fictional layout, 1.2 kilometres.
这是一个1.2公里的模拟沙盘
We have some fictional names.
我们给取了一些虚构的名字
Some of the stations are named after persons that helped developing this facility.
一些车站以那些帮助开发这个设施的人命名
We are training actual signalmen here.
我们在这里培训真正的信号员
They are taking exams here.
他们会在这里接受考试
– So these are the oldest systems on the Deutsche Bahn network?
这是德国最古老的铁路系统吗?
– Okay, yeah, it’s right.
是的 没错
It’s mechanical interlocking.
这是机械联锁
Everything is worked manually.
一切都是手动操作的
The blue levers are for the points, the red levers are for signals.
蓝色的杠杆代表道岔 红色的杠杆代表信号
– And that’s our train? – Yeah, that’s our train.
– 那是我们的火车吗? – 是的 那是
– And it’s going that way. – This way, right track.
– 它走这边 – 这条右侧轨道
– Not into that tiny train.
不会撞到那辆小火车
– That’s right. – Okay.
– 是的 – 好吧
– So I have to know which points have to be turned.
因此我得知道需要扳动哪些道岔
It’s point number one and two. So if you want to try it.
这是一号道岔和二号道岔 如果你想试试
– So, yep. – You have to take it and turn it around.
– 嗯 好的 – 你得握住并转动它
– All the way down. – Just to lower position, yep.
– 一直往下 – 要放到更低的位置 是的
– And, oh!
并且 噢
– It’s turning over there.
那边道岔变化了
– Okay.
好的
– So we have also point number 7, 8, 9, and 10.
我们还有第7 8 9和10号道岔
– Okay, so every time I do this…
每次我这么做…
– One point will turn.
其中一个道岔会发生改变
– Just a simulation. – Yes.
– 只是一次模拟 – 是的
– But it’s an accurate one. – But it works like a real signal box.
– 但它很准确 – 它就像一个真正的信号箱
– ‘Cause in the real world, I would be pulling that
因为在现实中 我要拉动那个
and that will be pulling through pulleys and levers
实际上是借助滑轮和杠杆的拉动
and actually physically switching the point.
物理地转换道闸
– Yeah. – All right.
-是这样 – 好的
– So here we just have a computer
而这里我们只是通过电脑
who is turning the model points.
来旋转模型道岔
– Right, so you lock that into place,
是的 你把它固定好
it detects that I’ve done that,
它检测到我已经这样做了
and the computer goes “pht”.
然后计算机“噗 ”地一下
– Yeah, that’s it. – Okay.
– 就这样 – 好的
So we’ve set the points, the next is safety interlock.
我们设置好了道岔 接下来是安全联锁
And that’s a German thing?
这是德国人的东西吗?
– This is a German thing. Well, it’s just common in German.
这是德国人的东西 嗯 这在德国很常见
We have what we call a route locking.
我们称之为进路锁闭
So we want to open a special signal,
因此我们想要打开一个特殊的信号灯
so we have to take the right route lever,
就必须使用正确的路径操纵杆
which is called 1,2.
也就是1 2
– Because it says 1, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10,
因为它说1 2 7 8 9 10
– which is what I’ve just moved. – Yep, that’s it.
– 也就是我刚挪动的地方 -对 是的
– So do I pull up, down? – Down, down please.
-我是向上还是向下? -往下 扳下来
– So this lever checks if all the points are set correct,
这个操纵杆会检查所有道岔是否设置正确
and second thing, he will lock all the points.
之后 它会锁定所有的道岔
So we can’t move them back.
如此我们就不能把它们再扳回来
– What happens if I were to pull the wrong lever?
如果我拉错了杆会怎么样?
– Just try it. – Right, okay.
– 试试吧 – 嗯 好啊
– Try it, it won’t work.
试试吧 没用的
– Oh! – It’s closed.
– 哦 – 它被锁住了
– It’s a physical lock. – Yep.
– 这是物理锁 – 是的
– I kind of assumed that was just going to beep at me or complain
我以为它会向我发出哔哔声或吱吱作响
but that’s an actual physical interlock.
但这是一个真实的物理连锁
– This is real, physical.
这是真实的 物理的
– Right, so now I can’t even- – Yeah, try it.
– 对 所以现在我甚至不能… – 是啊 试试看
It’s not possible to pull them back. – You can’t even close the lever.
– 不可能把它们拉回来了 – 你根本关不上控制杆
– Yep. – Wow, okay. So that’s-
– 是的 – 好吧 这就…
– So this is an old computer.
这是台老式电脑
It checks if everything is set at the right position.
它会检查所有东西是否被设置在正确的地方
– Wow, okay.
好吧
So we have put the points in position,
我们设置好了这些道岔
interlocked everything to make sure it’s safe.
并锁住了所有东西以确保安全
– That’s right.
是的
– And then we just-
然后我们就要…
– Last step is put the signal to an off position.
最后一步是把信号调到关闭位置
It’s P2. – Which is going to be…
– 这是P2 – 这将是…
– The P2. – P2, all right.
– P2 – P2 好的
– Just like point levers to an off position.
就像把操纵杆指向关闭的位置
[machine beeping]
[机器哔哔声]
And now the train driver sees a green signal,
现在火车司机看到了绿色信号
and he can move on.
他可以继续前进了
– But it takes a few seconds and the computer kind of simulates…
但这需要几秒钟 电脑会模拟…
– It’s a simulation, because he has to release his brakes before he can start.
这是模拟 因为他必须先松开刹车才能启动
– So what’s the last thing we need to do?
我们最后要做什么?
– So now we have to lock the line so another train can’t follow.
现在我们得锁住线路 别让其他火车跟过来
So we have to tell us and the next signal box
我们必须告诉我们的人和下一个信号箱
there’s a train on the line.
有一列火车在铁路线上
So we have to put down the button and to produce some electricity.
因此我们要按下按钮来发电
– Oh! – Just put it down.
– 哦 -把它按下去
– Pull it down. – And 10 times, please.
– 按下按钮 – 转十圈
[box whirring]
[机箱转动]
– So that would have sent a bell ringing or something in another signal box
这样另一个信号箱里就会发出一种铃声之类的声音
saying we’ve got a train coming.
告诉我们有一辆火车来了
– Yep, that’s it.
– 是的 就是这样
– So that’s the manual ones. What came next?
这是手动部分 接下来是什么
– Interlocking, which is called electromechanical.
接下来是联锁 叫做机电联锁
That’s the next thing, which was about 50 years later.
这是下一个器件 它大约出现在50年后
– All right, let’s do that.
好 我们来试一下
– We’ve got the next station, which is an all-electric interlocking from the 1950s.
我们到了下一站 这是20世纪50年代的全电动连锁车站
Our train is coming, we see the red arrow.
我们的火车来了 我们看到红色的箭头
It’s a train intersection marker.
这是火车交叉路口的标志
Train will stop at the entry signal of the station.
火车将在车站的进站信号处停车
– Because that’s a red and green light, and there’s a red light there.
因为那有个红绿灯 那里是红灯
And this is the station. These are all the tracks, okay.
这是车站 这些是所有的轨道
– So we can see all the tracks.
我们可以看到所有轨道
You can see in the direction of the points.
你可以看到这些光点的方向
And now we want this train to enter into track number two.
现在我们想让这列火车进入二号轨道
So, now if you want to operate a point, we have to do a two button operation,
现在 如果想要操作一个道闸 我们必须做两个按键操作
which means you have to push the button of the…
首先你要按下这个按钮
– Yep.

– And second one is this blue one.
第二个按钮是蓝色的这个
Now it starts to blink. The point is turning.
现在它开始闪烁 道岔正在变化
And now it’s on the left.
现在它在左边
– And now it’s on the left.
现在它在左边
So the train is now going the right way.
所以火车现在正朝着正确的方向行驶
So if there’s nothing else in this section,
如果这块儿区域没有其他列车
you can then turn that to green?
你可以把它变成绿色吗?
– Yep. So, we have to make an entry-exit operation.
当然 接下来 我们要做一个进出操作
We are starting at the entry signal
我们从进站信号开始
and we want to move into track number two.
我们想进入第二轨道
There are two buttons.
有两个按钮
– Right. – Try it.
– 是的 – 试一下
– So I have to push that one?
所以我要按这个吗?
– Yep, and same time track number two.
对 同时还有第二号轨道
– These two. – Yep, and nothing happens.
– 这两个 – 是的 什么都没发生
– Okay!
– 好吧
– Because we are missing two another points.
因为我们还要移动另外两个道岔
We have a flank protection, which is missing.
我们还没做侧翼防护
There might be a train waiting here
可能有火车在这儿等着
and he might just start to roll into our train.
它可能就会卷进我们的火车里
– And he’ll, right.
它会的 对吧
So I need to change that one as well.
所以我也需要改变这个
So now there’s no way that a train coming the other way-
现在不可能有火车从另一个方向过来了
– That’s right. – Can come in, okay.
– 是的 – 可以入站 好的
– And second point, we have to operate as point number one,
第二个道岔 我们要像第一个道岔那样操作
which is called the overlap.
这叫做重叠
So if a train won’t stop at an exit signal…
那么如果一列火车在出口信号前不停车…
– Yep, it’ll derail there at the moment, won’t it?
这时就会发生脱轨 对吧?
– Yes, and maybe he could hit another train,
是的 也许它会撞上另一辆火车
so we have to reserve this space also for the train.
所以我们得把这块儿地方也预留给火车
– Okay. So that one? – Yep.
– 好的 这个吗? – 是的
Which is called the overlap.
这叫做重叠
– All right. – So, now try it again.
– 好的 – 现在再试一次
Entry exit operation. – Entry exit.
– 进入退出操作 – 进入退出
– Lights up? Green light. – Lights up green light.
– 点亮 绿色的灯 – 绿灯亮了
Train will enter in the next, I don’t know, one, two minutes.
随后火车会进站 大概一两分钟后
– And somewhere out there on the big model,
在这个大型沙盘的某个地方
a train has started moving.
火车开动了
That’s lovely.
好可爱哦
And this is all electrical circuits.
这些都是电路
This isn’t microcontrollers, this is all physical wiring.
这不是微型控制器 这都是物理布线
– Or relay interlocking.
或继电器联锁
– There is really something in having that view
相较于屏幕和图表中那些模糊的概念
of what you’re doing versus a screenand a vague idea in a diagram.
能直观地看到自己所做的事真的很棒
Like, I can see the train pulling into the station.
我能看到火车进站了
That’s lovely. So that’s the 1950s,
这很可爱 这是20世纪50年代的东西
and there’s still some of this equipment out there.
这里现在还有一些这样的设备
– Of course.
当然了
What’s the most modern version?
最现代的版本是什么?
– That’s the computer interlocking. And now I will show you.
那就是计算机联锁 现在我带你去看
– Lead the way.
带路吧
– All of the interlockings that you used today
你今天用的所有联锁
are still in use in the German rail network.
仍在德国铁路网中使用
The numbers, for example, of the mechanical interlockings
例如机械联锁装置 不过它的数量
are dwindling at the moment.
目前正在减少
In the future, all of them
在未来 所有这些
will be replaced by electronic or computer interlockings.
都将被电子或计算机联锁所取代
The physical railway that you crash
即使这是铁路模型
will always stay in your mind,
你撞毁的实在的轨道
even if it’s a model train!
也将永远使你印象深刻
And you have the ability to get an overview
你要能够对各种突发状况的情况
about the situation during any sort of disruptions,
有一个大概的把握
not only the really focused view that you would have during this disruption.
而不仅是局限在在 紧急情况发生时的具体情形
– So this is the future? – Yep, that’s the future.
– 那么这就是未来? – 是的 这就是未来
– So which train are we moving?
我们要开哪列火车?
– We are try moving a train which is called 201.
我们正在尝试移动一列编号201的火车
– 201, okay. Yeah, I see it.
201号 是的 我看到了
– So all you have to do is an entry exit operation, with a mouse.
所以你要做的就是用鼠标开展进出操作
– Oh, so just the single button push from earlier?
就是之前按的那个按钮吗?
Everything else is automatic?
其他一切都是自动的吗?
– Everything else is going automatically.
其他一切都是自动进行的
So first thing is you have to move the mouse pointer
首先你要移动鼠标指针
to the red triangle on the right side, please.
将其移动到右边的红色三角形
It’s the exit signal for the station.
这是车站的出口信号
And now move on to just one mouse click.
现在只需要点击一下鼠标
And now next train, please, on the right.
下一班车 请在右边
– The blue- – The blue one to the right.
-蓝色 -右边那个蓝色的
That’s the exit.
这是出口
– And click that? – Click there.
– 然后点击? – 点击
– I don’t know why I’m being so nervous.
我不知道我为什么这么紧张
It’s a model train set. But in my head, this is serious.
这是一组火车模型 但在我看来 这是很严肃的事情
So it’s just done all the button pushes that I did earlier.
它刚刚完成了我之前所做的所有按钮操作
All the lever pulls. – Yep.
– 所有的杠杆拉动 – 是的
– Two mouse clicks.
鼠标点击两次
– At the moment, nothing has operated.
目前 什么都没有运行
It’s just, “I want to go,” from track number five onto the line.
这只是 “我想去”指令 从第五号轨道到特定线路上
– And it’s doing all the interlocking?
它在进行所有的连锁反应?
– Yeah. – Making sure that
– 是的 – 确保…
– nothing’s in the way. – And now have to tell
– 没什么东西占用着轨道 – 现在我要告诉电脑说
the computer, “Okay, I want to do it.”
“对 我要这么做 ”
There’s a button which is called in German “Verarbeiten” which means OK.
有个按钮德语叫“Verarbeiten”意思是“可以”
And after you push it, all the points are moving.
你按下它后 所有的道岔都在移动
– All at the same time. – Yep.
– 都在同一时间 – 是的
And the signal is going to…
信号会
– And the signal’s gone to green.
信号灯变成绿色了
– Yep. That’s it.
是的 就是这样
– It absolutely makes sense, but also it seems so much easier.
这绝对说得通 但也似乎容易多了
I know it’s not. You’ve got exactly the same checks here.
我知道并没有 这里还是要进行完全相同的检查
– Of course. – That were being done
– 当然 – 这些会由
by the systems, that were being done by the circuits
系统和电路完成
and then being done by the physical interlocks.
之后由物理连锁反应完成
But here it’s code and we can see the train progress.
不过这里有代码 我们可以看到火车的进程
Like, the lights go red when there’s a train in the section.
比如 当该区域有火车时 交通灯就会变红
That’s so clever.
他们如此智能
– Big difference is I do have to operate 2, 3, 4, 5 stations.
最大的不同是 我需要操作第2 3 4 5号站台
[Tom laughs]
[Tom大笑]
So it’s not as simple as it looks like.
所以这并不像看起来那么简单
– Right.
是的
– You know the computer game?
你知道电脑游戏吧
– You have to do the same amount of work,
这和你玩游戏的工作量差不多
just over a much bigger area.
只不过是在更大的区域
– That’s it. – All right.
– 就是这样 – 好的
Thank you so much. – Thank you.
– 非常感谢 – 谢谢

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视频概述

这个视频介绍了德国的实用铁路模型。这不仅可以让你了解铁路的发展史,还可以让你知道一些铁路的运行规则。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Mr.Freedom

审核员

审核员PAN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6TLcaJdsRr0

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