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世界上第一所大学是什么样的 – 译学馆
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世界上第一所大学是什么样的

The World's First University?

关于古雅典人的生活
One of the most striking things
最让人印象深刻的事情是
about ancient Athenian life, is the availability of
他们能接触到哲学话题的演讲和谈话
lectures and talks on Philosophy
即使普通人也能接触
even to quite ordinary people.
作为雅典的一个特殊场所 亚里士多德大讲堂
One particular site in Athens, Aristotle’s Lyceum
让我们得以了解古代大学是什么样的
gives us the opportunity to visit an ancient university
正如我们知道的 在四世纪中后期
where not only did specialist students study but we know
在那里学习的不止有专门研究这个领域的学生
that ordinary Athenians were invited along in the afternoons to
下午时 普通的雅典人也会被邀请来
listen to the great man Aristotle, the incomparable philosopher
去听这个伟大 无与伦比的哲学家的讲学
of the mid to late 4th century.
亚里士多德学堂
Aristotle’s Lyceum
正如古籍中所描述的那样
is exactly as it’s described in ancient sources
是一个美丽的带有柱廊的花园
as a beautiful garden and it has got a colonnade with pillars
这样可以使得哲学家们在下雨的时候也能边散步边说话
that allowed the philosophers to walk as they talked, even in the rain.
古希腊的逍遥学派就有这种柱廊
And the ancient Greek for that sort of colonnade is the Peripatos.
这就是它被称作逍遥派的亚里士多德学校的原因
Which is why it’s called Aristotle’s School of Thought Peripatetic Philosophy.
如今你也能去到那里
You can go there today.
它是个绝对的免费开放场所
It’s an absolutely open free of charge site and
还有那里的鸟鸣声 尽管混杂在整个希腊中心的交通声中
the birdsong, despite all the traffic
鸟叫依然震耳欲聋
in the centre of Athens, is deafening.
我喜欢想起亚里士多德在那里散步的情景
And I love to think of Aristotle walking
在早上的时候和他的学生一起
there with his students in the morning and
在下午的时候和希腊民众一起
with the Athenian public in the afternoon.
现在来说说他为什么建立这个讲堂
Now why did Aristotle set up this Lyceum?
他曾经是柏拉图学院的学生
He’d actually been a student at
并且亚里士多德喜欢那里 他在那里度过了整整二十年
Plato’s Academy and Aristotle loved it there, he spent 20 whole
在那里他从本科生成长为研究生 但是
years there he was promoted from undergraduate to graduate student and then
在他三十七岁时发生了很糟糕的危机
But a terrible crisis happened when he was 37.
柏拉图去世使得亚里士多德心都碎了
Plato died, Aristotle was heartbroken
但是绝对可以预想到
but absolutely could have expected
他十分理所当然的被任命为柏拉图的继承人
quite justifiably to be appointed his successor.
到目前为止在所有柏拉图的学生中他是最聪明的
He was by far the most brilliant
那些怀有嫉妒心的 平庸的
of Plato’s students and the envious, mediocre
学院里的其它成员不认可亚里士多德
other members of the Academy did not appoint him.
他不得不离开雅典长达约十二年
He had to leave Athens for about twelve years.
他在他能回到雅典的时候立马回来了
The minute he could get back to Athens he
他开办了自己的大学
did and he opened his own university, he
但是并没有试图回到原来的学院
didn’t try to go back to the academy.
他说他将创建一个更大的
He said I’m going to do one bigger
更好更重要的学校 他要在那里教授自己的哲学
and better and more important and and teach my philosophy there.
这正是他所做的
And that’s exactly what he did.
逍遥派成立的原因是它做了三件以前的学院没做的事
The reason why the Lyceum is it did three things the academy never had.
一件是它同时教授科学
One was it taught science as well
就是我们称作艺术人性和哲学的课程
as what we call Arts and Humanities and Philosophy.
亚里士多德是一位伟大的自然科学家
Aristotle was a magnificent natural scientist,
他是动物学的创始人 这才是真正的大学的样子
the founder of Zoology so this was a really was a’university’
希腊人称为“大学” 的地方 也是它很重要的第二点
what the Greeks called a Panepistímio, a place for Secondly,
他创建了世界历史上
he founded the first great
第一个伟大的学术图书馆
academic library in world history.
他有巨大的私人藏书库 他还开始补充这个书库
He had an enormous private book collection and then he started supplementing it.
当然他自己的本科生在写
And of course his own graduate students were writing
等同于博士水平的书籍 我们从他们那里获取了很多
the equivalent of doctoral theses we’ve got quite a
比如当地历史的知识
lot of them things like local histories,
这些被写在纸草书卷上并且被加到图书馆里
so those were written on papyrus roll and added to the library.
第三个让它如此重要的原因
The third reason why it was so important
是它传授知识的同时还做研究
was it was teaching as well as research.
这种形式不是简单的 专业哲学家间的探讨
This was not just a lot of professional philosophers
亚里士多德教授他的基本的方法
talking to each other, he taught his basic methods,
他同时还教给本科生
He taught them both to undergraduates
也教给那些准备从事
also to people who were going to do sort
那种更偏向于研究生工作以及
of more like postgraduate work and go off and
希望在希腊其他地方建立他们自己的大学的人
found their own universities in other parts of Greece
他还教授大众
and he taught the public.
这就是大学原本的模型的样子
This is the model for
大学教育应该成为公众也能获取知识的地方
what university education should look like is the public dissemination of knowledge.

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亚里士多德在希腊雅典的逍遥派讲堂是世界上第一所大学的原型,他使得普通民众也能接触到哲学课程

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRfw57PO9hM

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