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世界上的首批科学家

The World's First Scientists

The first scientists of Western Asia,
西亚的首批科学家
these Ionians proposed
这些爱奥尼亚人提出
the primary constituents of the Universe when it arose were material substances.
宇宙的本原是物质
The first of them, whose name we know was Thales.
第一位是我们所熟知的泰勒斯
出生于公元前623-626年间
He thought that the first cosmic principle or element,
他认为宇宙的第一原则和首要元素
the one being pushed back by new land was water.
是被新生陆地推回来的水
The argument he seems to have used to support this view was that
他用来支持这一观点的论据似乎是
inanimate things lose water and dry out.
死去的生物会失去水分并干枯
And his student, Anaximander, then drew a map of
他的学生阿克西曼德则画了一幅图
all of the physical world the Milesians knew,
图中涵盖了米利都人所知的物质世界
and he suggested that the world they could percieve both land and sea,
他提出人们能感知到的陆地和海洋世界
which visibly limited each other,
显然是相互制约的
they must be surrounded by something else that was limitless and immeasurable.
他们必然被某种无限且不可估量的事物所包围
Apeiron. Infinite.
即“阿派朗” 也就是无限
And the third Milesian thinker of the time, Anaximenes,
同时期的第三位米利都的思想家 阿那克西美尼
watched land expand and sea shrink
观察到陆地扩张和海洋收缩现象
and argued that all the constituents of the world that man can see
并提出人类所能看到的世界所有成分
fire, wind,cloud, water, earth, stones,
火 风 气 水 土 石
are created out of air by processes of condensation or sublimation
都是由空气通过凝结或升华产生的
The differences between them are to be explained, according to him, in terms of their relative density.
他声称 物质之间的区别是密度差异造成的
And in Ephesus, another city not far from Miletus, just across the bay,
在一座最初与米利都仅隔一道海湾
which also was becoming steadily cut off from the sea.
而如今正在脱离海域的城邦以弗所中
A fourth thinker named Heraclitus, asserted the principle that
第四位思想家 赫拉克利特主张
the physical universe was constantly changing and changing because of the action.
天地万物由于运动而不断变化
He said of a cosmic fire.
他谈到了宇宙之火
Panta Rhei , he said, everything is in flux.
万物皆流 他说 万物皆处于运动之中
So this intellectual revolution in the Maeander estuary in the early sixth century B.C
这场公元前六世纪在迈安德河口发生的知识革命
migrated with men from that part of the Greek world
随着希腊人的迁移逐渐扩展到
first to its colonies in southern Italy
意大利南部的殖民地
and in the fifth century after the exponential rise of the Persian Empire
又在波斯帝国崛起后的第五个世纪
to classical Athens.
发展到古雅典
Thales’ intellectual descendents in Ionia
泰勒斯在爱奥尼亚地区的思想追随者
and then beyond harness this spirit of non-religious inquiry
克服了探究无神论思想的困难
to the investigation of unseen structures and causes of change.
研究了事物的内部结构以及变化原因
Not only in land, sea and sky,
不仅包括陆地 海洋和天空
but also in human experience and activities.
同样也包括人类的经验和活动
The next generations develop rational medicine.
随后的几代继承者创造了理性医学
They asked about the invisible workings of our bodies.
他们探究了人体内无形的运作方式
They probed the relationship between the world we see in our mind’s eye, and those our senses tell us physical present.
研究了我们心中所见与实际感知的关系
How we make decisions about right and wrong, which is ethics.
以及我们判别对错的方式 即伦理学
How we collect information, which is epistemology.
我们如何获取信息 即认识论
Why people speak different languages and worship diverse gods,
为什么人们的语言和宗教信仰各异
which is anthropology.
即人类学
Why we fight one another or come together in cities,
为什么我们或是相斗或是形成聚落
which is political science.
即政治学
And how the past became the present, historiography.
以及过去如何变成现在 即史学
how the world’s empires came into existence.
世界上的帝国是如何形成的
But it was that original move from mythical to matter based explanation of the physical world,
人类的关注点从神话转移到物质为基础的现实世界
which was essential to this entire intellectual revolution that followed.
才是整个知识革命中最重要的一步

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视频概述

科学家对于人们认知世界有着必不可少的帮助,很多学科都是随着科学家的思考而建立。公元前六世纪的科学家们完成了从神话到现实的蜕变。

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翻译译者

惊堂木

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审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tI7ZwZJ5R_8

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