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世界的沙子正在缓慢的消失 – 译学馆
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世界的沙子正在缓慢的消失

The World Is Slowly Running Out Of Sand

我在新泽西南部的一个城市 开普梅 美国陆军工兵部队
I’m in Cape May, at the southern tip of New Jersey, where the US Army Corps of Engineers
刚刚完成了这个海滩的重建工作
have just finished rebuilding this beach.
挖泥机正离岸 它就像一台真空吸尘器
A dredge is going offshore, and it’s like a vacuum,
把混合着的沙和水都吸到挖泥机上
and it’s sucking a sand-and-water mix up into the dredge.
再回到岸边
Then it travels back toward the shore
用泵把混合着的沙和水送到海滩上
and pumps that sand-and-water mix onto the beach.
然后推土机和施工设备将塑造海滩
And then bulldozers and construction equipment will shape that beach
建造模板 旨在减少暴风雨造成的沙土流失
and build that template, that’s designed to reduce the damages from storms.
我们使用多斗挖泥机和几英里的管道
We’re using multiple hopper dredges and miles of pipe,
还使用施工设备 推土机 挖掘机
we’re using construction equipment, bulldozers, and excavators,
来完成这整项工作
all to complete this job.
我们正从这里解散
We are demobilising from the site,
所有设备正要前往开普梅的另一块地方
so all this equipment is going to another section in Cape May,
并将在那里挖掘 填补海滩
and we’ll begin dredging and beachfill operations at that location.
美国的迈阿密海滩 澳大利亚的黄金海岸 迪拜的海滩
Miami Beach in America, the Gold Coast in Australia, the beaches of Dubai:
世界各地的工程师们从海里挖掘沙子 用泵输送回海滩
around the world, engineers dredge sand from offshore and pump it back onto beaches.
这不仅是为了满足游客
Not only because the tourists demand it,
更重要的是这些海滩保护着
but more importantly because those beaches protect the folks living next door from the
住在海边的人们
ocean.
随着海平面上升 海滩侵蚀越来越快
And as sea levels rise, beach erosion is happening faster and faster.
在新泽西 有很多基础设施受到暴风雨的威胁
Well, in New Jersey, there’s lots of infrastructure that’s at risk from storms.
栈道 水电 道路 住宅 商业设施等
Boardwalks, utilities, roads, homes, businesses.
所以这是最佳手段 我们必须
And so this process is the best means we have to reduce storm damages
考虑成本效益和环境 在此基础上减少暴风雨造成的损失
in a cost-effective and an environmentally acceptable way.
但是沙子也有其他用途
But there are other uses for sand, too:
世界上每一座混凝土建筑物 每一座摩天大楼
every concrete building in the world, every skyscraper,
基本上是一堆沙子 像这样的沙子 和水泥粘在一起
is basically just a load of sand, like this, stuck together with cement.
世界上的沙子正慢慢消失
And the world is running out of it.
我知道 这听起来很奇怪 但是建筑业每年
I know, that sounds strange, but the construction industry uses billions of tons of sand every
要使用几十亿吨的沙子
year.
所以 答案似乎很明显 用其他地方的沙子 对吗
So the obvious answer would seem to be: use sand from elsewhere, right?
沙漠和海洋底部都充满了沙子
We’ve got whole deserts and ocean floors full of the stuff.
但是这些沙子不能用
But those sands aren’t useful.
沙漠和海洋底部的沙子太精细 太光滑 不能够很好地粘合
Desert and sea sands are too fine, too smooth, they don’t stick together properly,
无论是制造混凝土 还是重建这样的海滩
either for making concrete or for rebuilding a beach like this.
都得用这样的沙子
It has to be this kind of sand:
这些由亿万年流水和波浪打造出来的沙子
sand that’s been created by moving water and waves over aeons.
它们是不可再生资源 不能以任何人的时间尺度衡量
This is not a renewable resource, not on any human timescale.
如果没有它在保护海岸
And if it’s not there to protect the coast:
那么住在海边的人就该开始担心了
then the folks who live nearby should start getting worried.
这项工程第一次竣工是在1990
This project was first completed in 1990,
多年来 我们多次回来施工
and we’ve come back numerous times over the years
用泵输送额外的沙子 填补海滩
to renourish and pump additional sand onto the beach.
如果我们不用泵把沙子输送到这块区域 并建立起一个工程体系
If we didn’t pump this sand into this area and built an engineered system,
那么居民区将面临较高的损害风险
the communities would be at higher risk of damages
这些风险来源于飓风 东北风暴 和其他暴风雨事件
from hurricanes, nor’easters, and other storm events.
现在 沙子的流失并不意味着我们将突然无法建造
Now, running out of sand doesn’t mean that we’re suddenly going to be unable to build
任何东西
anything.
这只是意味着沙子的供应量减少了 建筑价格会上涨
It just means that as supply goes down, the price of construction will go up…
并且会出现一些粗暴的市场力量
and there are going to be some rough market forces.
近期内 没有人会考虑露天开采新泽西海岸
No-one’s considering stripmining the Jersey shore any time soon,
但记者Vince Beiser花了多年时间调查
but journalist Vince Beiser spent years investigating
发展中国家的非法采沙行为 并带回了
illegal sand mining in the developing world, and brought back reports of
海岛消失 生态系统被破坏 黑市黑帮杀人的报道
disappearing islands, devastated ecosystems and murderous black-market sand mafias.
数以百计的人死于沙上
Hundreds of people have been killed over sand.
现在 这里的工程师队正在保护社区安全
Now, here, the Corps of Engineers are keeping a community safe,
保护一些鸟类的安全 并确保今年夏天这里还有一个海滩供游客玩耍
some birds safe, and making sure there’ll still be a beach here for tourists this summer.
但是百年后 谁知道会怎样呢
But in a hundred years, who knows?
也许新泽西的沙子会得到更好的报价
Maybe New Jersey will get a better offer for this sand.

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视频概述

你知道世界上的沙子在缓慢消失吗?为什么呢?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

Sharon

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与光同尘

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMLYLcniXIc

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