Three months of war have devastated Europe, and with conflict recently spreading to colonial
territory in Africa and the Far East it grew ever larger.
但本周 随着奥匈帝国进入战场 战争规模还将扩大数倍
It would grow many times larger this week though, and open up huge new theaters of battle,
as the Ottoman Empire entered the war.
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
上周 比军为阻击德军 而大批涌入佛兰德斯北部
Last week we saw the Belgians flood the fields of Northern Flanders to stop the Germans,
远南地区 伊普尔阵地激战不止 而德军已做好
further south on the Ypres salient the battle raged on and on with the Germans readying
a new offensive, while the French began to move up to help the British.
东面战场 俄军正在击退北面的德军 以及南面的奥军
In the East, the Russians were driving back the Germans in the north and the Austrians in the south,
while the Russian ports on the black sea had just been bombed
seemingly by the Ottoman Empire.
On November 1st, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire.
在欧洲人眼里 土耳其是落后国家 打败他们并获取油水轻而易举
Now, the thing about Turkey is that it was seen as backward and pretty easy pickings for the Europeans
who had a new found love of Middle Eastern oil.
This was an error.
Enver Pasha, the Turkish Minister of War, now practiced a French Revolutionary model
民族主义:引入新的语言 重新解释历史 以及勾画全新的民族未来
of nationalism: a new language, a new interpretation of history, and a wholly national future.
He was willing to make large sacrifices and use almost any means to achieve his goals,
and Pasha actually tricked his government into going to war.
上周 两艘德军战列舰驶入土耳其水域 巴夏命令船员
Last week, two German battleships were in Turkish waters, and Pasha got the crews to
戴上毡帽 伪装成突厥人 并轰炸了位于黑海的俄罗斯港口
wear fezzes, pretend to be Turks, and bombard the Russian ports on the Black Sea,
hoping the Russians would declare war on Turkey.
This worked and three empires were now fighting against Russia,
不过如果你细看一下 德国 奥匈帝国
but if you look at them- the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire,
奥斯曼帝国 以及鼓吹他们参战的人 冯莫克将军
and the Ottoman Empire, and their respective war agitators Helmuth von Moltke,
康拉德·冯·赫岑多夫 巴夏 他们想象中的
Conrad von Hötzendorf, and Pasha, nothing worked out the way they had dreamed
and millions of their countrymen died as a direct result of their actions.
The first actions taken against the Turks happened immediately.
The Russians sent troops into eastern Turkey in what would become the Bergmann Offensive, and on November 3rd the
British and French bombed the Dardanelles, though neither Britain nor France would declare
war on the Ottomans for another couple of days.
One country with an historic grievance against the Ottoman Empire was Serbia, only independent
since 1878, and she declared war on the Turks November 2nd.
现在 塞尔维亚 尽管
Now, Serbia was at the center of the beginning of the whole war back in July, though we haven’t
heard much from her since she managed to drive the Austrian army from her land in September,
但奥匈帝国还打算再侵略一次 9月6日 奥斯卡 将军
but Austria-Hungary was about to try again. On November 6th, General Oskar Potiorek launched
an offensive on three fronts with 500,000 troops against half that number of Serbs.
Potiorek had failed disastrously earlier in the war, mainly through conceit and incompetence,
and the confidence of his troops was low in spite of their numerical advantage,
but off they went.
It’s really no surprise that the Austrian army was demoralized when you see what was
感到惊讶了 几周前 奥军突破普热梅斯包围圈后
going on on the Russian front. After breaking out of the siege at the fortress of Przemysl
weeks ago, the Austrians had mounted a big offensive against Russia, only to be driven
损失惨重 9月初 由于俄军缓慢收紧包围圈
back with terrible losses. In early November they were once again pulling back from the
River San to the fortress, with the Russians slowly tightening the noose.
I say slowly, but that’s a bit of a surprise at this point, actually.
Both the Austrians and the Germans had been astonished by how well and especially how quickly the Russians
had redeployed along the Vistula the last two weeks of October
to win the battles of Ivangorod and Warsaw.
The Russian follow up plan was pretty straightforward; continue
to drive toward Berlin with their new reinforcements from Siberia and Central Asia, and attack
the Austrians further south between Krakow and Przemysl.
One problem with this attack, though, was railways. The Russians had been great at using
the railways in central and southern Poland in late October, but there were few railways
却几乎没有铁路 西部少有铁路是为防守考虑的 但德军在撤退时
in western Poland. This was a deliberate defensive maneuver, but the Germans had destroyed what
few there were while retreating.
But in the end it was mainly because of the unpreparedness of their rear that the Russians
pursued their enemies too slowly, and as a result the German armies managed to escape
destruction and by November 8th, the Russian advance was forced to halt when the rear was
150 km behind the front lines, which disrupted the supply of both food and ammunition.
西线战场 没有任何两支部队可以相距150公里 实际上
On the Western Front there was nothing like 150 km between anything. In fact, the distance
between the two enemies was often less than 150 meters, and the fighting was fierce and
it would continue all week long.
German Chief of Staff Falkenhayn began a new offensive along the line in Flanders. One
他的主要目标之一是夺下 10月31日上午 英军
of his main goals was Geluveld, and on the morning of October 31st the British were driven
out of it and there was suddenly a real threat of a German breakthrough, but amazingly, British
英军增援部队在下午成功扭转局势 重夺 并控制了
reinforcements managed to turn the tide in the afternoon and retake the town and secure
梅宁大道 这天快要结束时 德军的进攻很明显
the Menin Road. By the end of the day, it was plain that the German advance had been
停止了 令英军恐惧的向大海进军也停止了 当晚
stopped and the feared breakthrough to the sea halted. The British spent that night digging
英军挖掘战壕 抵抗德军进攻 第二天 法军接替了
in and fighting off German attacks, and the next day, the right flank of the British lines
was taken over and strengthened by French troops.
By the evening of November 3rd, much of the German command had abandoned their hopes of
a breakthrough after suffering 17,500 casualties in three days. Interestingly enough, there
were many German officers on the western front, who believed that now would be a good time
to reverse the Schlieffen Plan and instead focus on the eastern front where a decisive
victory might still be possible, but the Kaiser and Falkenhayn still believed in the western
他们能在西线取胜 9月6日 德国皇帝亲自来到西线战场 鼓舞军队士气
victory, and on November 6th, the Kaiser himself came to the region to encourage his troops[al].
不过 德国皇帝犯了一个错误 他用英语与英军战俘亲切地交谈
While there, though, he made a blunder that left a bad impression on many of his soldiers
by chatting amiably in English to British prisoners of war.
Although the fighting on the Ypres Salient would continue to mid November, several of
the battles of the race to the sea were ending this week. Along the line, the fighting was
拉巴西 梅西衲 阿尔芒蒂耶尔的战斗都接近尾声 但所有这些战斗
winding down at La Bassee, Messines, and Armentieres, but all of these battles, all along the line
that had already claimed hundreds of thousands of casualties, were the real end of something
big- they were the final battles of maneuvering along the Western Front until 1918.
不过 纵观整个一战 有一块地方始终战火不断
One arena of battle where there would be constant maneuvering throughout the war, though, was at sea.
This week the war at sea reached South America with the battle of Coronel off the coast of
海上战争来到了北面 一战初期 施佩领导下的德国东亚舰队
Chile. Early on in the war, the German East Asia Squadron under Maximilian von Spee had
abandoned its base in Tsingtao once the Japanese had joined the British. Spee’s ships had
施佩的舰队往东扰乱通商航行 9月1日 英军海军率先
headed east to disrupt commercial shipping. On November 1st, Spee was engaged by a British
向施佩挑衅 尽管英军的船只 船员质量 火炮 以及训练方式
naval squadron, despite the fact that the British were hopelessly outclassed in ships,
都极度的落后 施佩击沉了好望号和蒙茅斯号 1500名
crew, firepower, and training. He sank the ships Good Hope and Monmouth and 1,500 British
英国海军溺水死亡 而施佩的部队里仅有三人受伤 但是施佩
sailors drowned. Spee’s casualties were just three men injured. However, he used half
用掉了一半的军火供给 而这是无可替代的 所以尽管取得了大胜
of his supply of ammunition, and this was irreplaceable, so in spite of a major victory,
Spee was in a bad way.
Tsingtao itself was also in a bad way. It had been under siege by the Japanese and the
快两个月了 不过10月末 日军开始轰炸
British for nearly two months but at the end of October the Japanese had begun shelling
青岛 轰炸持续了一周 知道日本步兵击败了
the city. The bombardment lasted for a week before Japanese infantry could defeat the Germans.
需要特别说明的一点是 贡特·普品肖夫 一战中最有意思的人物之一
A great side note here: Gunther Pluschow, one of the most interesting characters of
当时德军在青岛只有一架飞机 他就是飞行员 据传贡特用手枪
the whole war, as pilot of the only German plane at Tsingtao allegedly shot down a Japanese
plane with his pistol. This was the first aerial victory in aviation history. Pluschow
随后 普品肖夫带着文档和急件 于6日离开青岛 但在中国坠机
then left the colony on the 6th carrying documents and dispatches, but crash-landed in China.
He escaped from China to the west but was arrested by the British in Gibraltar and sent
随后被送往英国战俘营 之后 他成了两次世界大战中唯一一个
to a POW camp in Britain. After that he became the only man in either world war to escape
from Britain and make it back to Germany. True story.
非洲方面 本周坦噶和乞力马扎罗山战役打响 两次战役
In Africa, this week saw the battles of Tanga and Kilimanjaro, which together were an offensive
都是英军和印军发起的 旨在夺取德军占领的东非 但他们两次都遭遇大败
by British and Indian troops to take German East Africa. Both battles failed spectacularly,
尤其在坦噶 输的更惨 即便德军在坦噶的驻军更少 几乎是以一敌八
especially the larger one at Tanga, where the Germans were outnumbered as much as eight
to one, but still won thanks to British incompetence and lack of training, and the brilliance of
有Lettow-Worbeck将军的英明指挥 德军还是赢了 Lettow-Worbeck一直在东非领导德军
German General von Lettow-Vorbeck, who would lead the German troops in East Africa until
直到战争结束 尽管人数总是不占优势 但他从未打过败仗
the end of the war without ever suffering a defeat in spite of always being outnumbered.
Lettow-Worbeck was a master of guerilla warfare and spent much of the war launching raids
他都在发到突袭 以此牵制了成千上万的英军和殖民地部队 并防止他们
that tied down tens of thousands of British and colonial troops, preventing them from
going to Europe to fight.
所以 本周末 德军停在了西面 而俄军留在了
So at the end of the week, the Germans are stalled in the west and the Russians in the
东面 奥军正在逃离俄军 但碰上了塞尔维亚军队
East. The Austrians are running from the Russians but moving against the Serbs and with the
随着奥斯曼帝国加入战争 非洲和远东地区也有战斗发生 这场冲突
Ottoman entry into the war and battles in Africa and the Far East, the conflict becomes
ever more global.
帕夏的心愿达成 奥斯曼帝国参战了 对帕夏来说
Enver Pasha got what he wanted. The Ottomans were now at war. For Pasha, the aim of the
战争的目的很明确 一个新的土耳其民族将在挣扎中诞生 历经磨难
war was clear- a new Turkish nation would be born from the struggle and bonded by the
永保和平 新的土耳其民族不会向阿拉伯世界看齐 而是
suffering. A nation that didn’t look to the Arab world for guidance, but looked to
自成一家 但这个目标终归还是太理想化了 土耳其将在挣扎中失去四分之一
itself. But while this goal was ultimately successful, Turkey would lose a quarter of
的人口 数以百万计的男人 女人 儿童将会丧生 他们中许多人
her entire population in the struggle- millions of men, women, and children, many of them
都死于饥饿或严寒 而那些活着的人 也决不会由巴夏领导
starving or freezing to death – and Enver Pasha would never be the man to lead those who lived.
And a little coda here. The western front had been a stalemate for nearly two months
在那之前 进行的大多都是运动战 而一切都在埃纳河
but before that it was very much a war of motion. That really began to change at the
得以改变 随之开始的是阵地战 如果你还不了解详情的话 请点击屏幕右方的视频
Aisne River and the beginning of trench warfare. Check that out right here if you haven’t
already. And click subscribe to never miss an episode.
第15周：世界大战 - 奥斯曼帝国出场