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拯救美国航天事业的女性

The Woman Who Saved the U.S. Space Race (And Other Unsung Scientists)

Do you know about the woman who saved the American space program?
你了解拯救美国太空计划的那位女性吗?
How about the woman who helped advance the treatment of leprosy?
你知道是哪位女性推进了麻风病的治疗吗?
Can you name the first American woman to receive a Ph.D. in Chemistry?
你知道谁是第一位获得化学博士的美国女性吗?
Their accomplishments were nearly lost to history,
她们的成就几乎被历史遗忘
but now, Reaction celebrates some of the great unsung women of chemistry.
但现在 我们要赞扬一些被埋没的女化学家
(Legends intro splash)
[历史纪要]
In 1957,
1975年
the Soviet Union launched the first earth-orbiting satellite, Sputnik.
前苏联发射了第一颗地球轨道卫星伴侣号
When the first pings of that Soviet satellite were heard in the U.S.,
当苏联第一颗人造卫星发射升空的消息传到美国时
scientists went into overdrive.
科学家们开始了加速研究
At the time, most American rockets were still exploding at the Launchpad.
那时候 多数美国火箭在发射时会爆炸
And if they made it into the air,
即使火箭能够升空
they didn’t have enough power to get into orbit.
也没有足够的动力支撑它们进入轨道
The answer to our power problem was better fuel,
要解决动力问题就要寻找更好的燃料
and that’s exactly where Mary Sherman Morgan comes in.
Mary Sherman Morgan在此时站了出来
Mary worked at North American Aviation,
Mary就职于北美航空公司
the company tasked with finding a better rocket fuel.
该公司致力于研发更好的火箭燃料
She was the only woman out of 900 scientists working at North American Aviation,
北美航空公司900名员工中 她是唯一的女性
and the only one without a college degree.
也是唯一一位没有大学学位的
Mary and her team developed a new propellant cocktail called “hydyne”,
Mary和她的团队发明了一种新型推进混合物 叫做胺肼燃料
to power the army’s Jupiter C rocket,
为“丘诺”1号火箭提供动力
which was developed by the much more-famous Wernher Von Braun.
该火箭是由更加著名的Wernher Von Braun发明的
On January 31, 1958 the Jupiter C with the help of hydyne –
1958年1月31日 “丘诺1号”在胺肼燃料的推进下
delivered America’s first satellite to space, Dubbed Explorer I.
将美国的第一颗人造卫星 “探测者1号” 送上太空
The satellite’s successful launch was just the boost the American space program needed.
该卫星的成功发射推动了美国的航天事业
Without Mary, the U.S. would have continued to trail behind the USSR in the space race.
没有Mary 美国将在太空竞赛中继续落后于苏联
Mary’s work was top secret,
Mary的工作属于最高机密
and she kept it that way.
她始终保持这种生活方式
She was also fiercely private,
也极其重视保密工作
and her accomplishments were lost among a litany of other amazing space achievements since.
她的成就封存在众多的航天伟绩中
When she died,
她去世后
her son George sat down with some of her former North American Aviation colleagues.
航空公司的前同事和她的儿子George聚会
One leaned over and said
一位Mary的同事探着身子说
“your mom single-handedly saved America’s space program.
“你母亲以一己之力拯救了美国的航天事业
And nobody knows it but a handful of old men.”
却很少有人知道 除了几位老人”
Decades before Mary Sherman Morgan was working at the chemist’s bench,
在Mary Sherman Morgan从事化学研究的几十年前
Alice Ball was working on a better treatment for a very old disease- Leprosy.
Alice Ball正致力于研究麻风病的更佳治疗方法
In 1873, we learn thanks to Dr. Gerhard Hansen,
1873年 多亏了Gerhard Hansen博士
that leprosy was caused by bacteria.
她发现麻风病是由细菌引起的
We knew the causes’
我们知道了病因
and now we needed a better treatment.
现在 我们需要一种更好的治疗方法
At the time the best treatment for leprosy,
当时 治疗麻风病的最佳方法
was injections of Chaulmoogra nut oil.
就是注射大风子树果油
But the results were spotty,
但结果并不理想
the side effects were unpleasant and the injections were painful.
副作用很大 注射过程也很痛苦
Despite all of this –
尽管如此
scientists and physicians kept coming back to this nut oil.
科学家和医师们仍然关注大风子油
Something in it seemed to help patients.
果实中的某些成分确实对病人有帮助
But what was it?
但它是什么呢?
That’s where Alice comes in.
这时候Alice起作用了
Alice was a wiz at natural products chemistry,
她是一位天然产物化学方面的人才
just the kind of work that was needed on Chaulmoogra nut oil.
这也正是研究大风子油所需要的能力
By early 1916, she’d cracked it.
1916年初 她粉碎了大风子果
She developed a process
她一步一步地
to isolate the active constituents in Chaulmoogra nut oil,
从大风子油中提取出活性成分
which were fatty acids, in the form of ethyl esters.
它是以乙酯形式存在的一种脂肪酸
Injection of these esters provided more effective relief of leprosy symptoms
跟大风子油相比 注射这些酯类
with considerably less pain and discomfort than shots of the oil.
病人的疼痛 不适以及药物的副作用都减轻了
The new treatment was used for decades afterwards.
此后几十年 这种新的治疗方法得到广泛应用
Sadly, 1916 would also see
不幸的是 1916年
the end of Alice’s all-to-brief career in chemistry.
Alice短暂的化学生涯结束了
On New Years Eve, at just 24-years-old, Alice died.
那年除夕 她去世了 年仅24岁
She never got to see the impact of her work
她至死都没有看到自己的研究
on the treatment of leprosy.
对麻风病的治疗有多大影响
And for long time, Alice never got credit.
很长一段时间 她从未获得认可
After her death, another chemist at the college continued her project,
她去世后 同校的另外一位化学家继续她的研究
but published without any mention of Aice or her previous work.
但在发表结论时 只字未提Alice以及她之前的研究
It was decades before the extent of Alice’s contributions were recognized.
几十年以后 Alice的贡献才被人们认可
Almost 90 years after her death,
在她去世后90年
Alice Ball was awarded the University of Hawaii’s Regents’ Medal of Distinction.
夏威夷大学授予Alice Ball杰出成就勋章
Finally, I want to recognize an exceptional woman from my alma mater,
最后 我要为内布拉斯加林肯大学的
University of Nebraska Lincoln.
一位杰出女性校友发声
Rachel Lloyd was a woman of “firsts”.
Rachel Lloyd是一名拥有诸多“第一”的女性
In 1881, she was the first woman
1881年 她是第一位
to publish research in a major American chemistry journal.
在美国重要化学期刊上发表研究成果的女性
In 1887, she was the first American and the second woman in the entire world
1887年 她是第一个也是全世界第二个
to receive a Ph.D. in chemistry.
获得化学博士的美国女性
That same year, Dr. Lloyd became the first female professor
同年 Lloyd博士成为第一位女教授
at a co-ed institution, U-N-L.
就职于男女同校的内布拉斯加大学
Not everyone was thrilled to have her there.
但并不是所有的人都欢迎她
Just a year after her arrival,
入职一年之后
Dr. Lloyd survived an attempt by the chancellor to get rid of her –
她险些因为贵格会教徒的身份
allegedly because of her Quaker religion.
被校长赶走
But the UNL faculty supported Dr. Lloyd with a vote of confidence.
但内布拉斯加大学的全体职工一致支持Lloyd博士
Months later, the chancellor was gone and
几个月以后 校长下台了
Dr. Lloyd was promoted to full professor.
Lloyd博士被提拔为正教授
At UNL, Dr. Lloyd’s research helped sugar beets
在林肯大学 Lloyd博士的研究使甜菜
become a major Nebraska crop
成为内布拉斯加州的主要作物
and made sugar production a viable industry in the state.
使得制糖成为该州的重要产业
Today, Nebraska is 6th in the nation for sugar beet production –
如今 内布拉斯加在全美甜菜产量排在第六
an industry that brings in millions to the state economy.
给该州的经济带来上百万的收入
You’d think Dr. Lloyd’s life story and professional achievements
你或许会认为Lloyd博士的生平和成就
would be better known,
应该被更多人了解
but details were nearly lost to history.
但细节已经被历史遗忘
Thankfully, due to a time capsule unearthed at UNL last year,
多亏了去年林肯大学出土的时代文物密藏容器
we know more about Dr. Lloyd’s pioneering work.
使我们知道了更多关于Lloyd博士的开创性工作
We need pioneers like Mary Sherman Morgan, Alice Ball, and Dr. Rachel Lloyd –
我们需要Mary Sherman Morgan Alice Ball和Rachel Lloyd博士这样的先驱者
explorers with grit and determination,
她们是有毅力和决心的探索者
though these three didn’t always get the glory.
虽然她们并没有获得应得的荣誉
Like, subscribe and share .
如果你喜欢本节目 请订阅并转发
And don’t forget to check out our other Legends of Chemistry videos:
不要忘记浏览其他化学界传奇故事
Accidental Discoveries That Changed the World and Tricking the Nazis and Transforming Medicine.
改变世界的重大发现 欺骗纳粹党人 改变医学

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视频概述

本视频主要介绍了历史上三位著名的化学方面的女性 第一位为美国的航天事业做出了突出贡献 第二位 致力于研究麻风病的治疗方案 以减轻病人的痛苦 第三位 是美国也是全世界第二位获得化学博士学位的林肯大学教授

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

doublejia

审核员

审核员YQ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KFfdaWHRwTk

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