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运动鞋的生命周期

The wildly complex anatomy of a sneaker - Angel Chang

“你能买到的是时尚 你所拥有的是风格”
Australians call them “runners.”
澳大利亚人称为”跑鞋”
The British know them as “trainers.”
英国人称为”训练鞋”
Americans refer to them as “tennis shoes” or “sneakers.”
美国人称为”网球鞋”或”运动鞋”
Whatever you call them, these rubber-soled, casual shoes
无论你怎样称呼这种橡胶底的休闲鞋
are worn by billions of people around the world.
全世界有数十亿人都在穿
Originally invented in the late 19th century,
最初发明于十九世纪末的
these simple canvas and rubber creations have changed a lot
这些简易的橡胶和帆布制品 从首次被穿上街头
since they first hit the pavement.
到现在已经产生了巨大的变化
Today, sneaker consumption is at an all-time high.
如今 运动鞋的消耗量达到历史新高
No country buys more sneakers than the United States,
其中 美国的运动鞋购买量最大
where people purchase 3 pairs a year on average.
平均每人每年购买三双
To meet this demand, roughly 23 billion shoes are produced each year,
为满足这一需求 每年产生出约230亿只鞋
mostly in factories across China and Southeast Asia.
大部分由在中国和东南亚的工厂生产
But making shoes has become more complicated, more labor-intensive,
但制鞋工艺变得更复杂 需要更多密集劳动力
and in some ways, more dangerous,
在某种程度上 对工人和地球而言
for the workers involved and for our planet.
也变得更加危险
Shoe manufacturing accounts for roughly one-fifth
制鞋业的碳排放量
of the fashion industry’s carbon emissions.
大约占时尚产业总排放量的1/5
Sneakers alone generate 313 million metric tons of carbon dioxide every year,
仅生产运动鞋 每年就产生3.13亿吨二氧化碳
which is equivalent to the annual emissions of 66 million cars.
相当于6600万辆汽车的年排放量
To better understand your shoe’s carbon footprint,
为更好理解鞋子的碳足迹
let’s dive into the anatomy of a sneaker.
让我们深入研究一下运动鞋的结构
For starters, the heel, insole, midsole, and upper layer
首先 鞋跟 鞋垫 内底和鞋面
are usually made from synthetic textiles
通常是由合成纤维制品制成
like polyester, nylon, latex, and polyurethane.
如涤纶 尼龙 乳胶 和聚氨酯
Mining the fossil fuels that make up these materials emits tons of greenhouse gases.
开采化石燃料来制造这些材料会排放大量温室气体
And processing those raw ingredients into synthetic textiles
而且 将这些原料加工成合成纤维纺织品
also uses a lot of energy, further compounding that pollution.
也会消耗大量能源 进一步加重污染
Some sneaker tops are made from natural sources like leather,
有些运动鞋的鞋面用皮革等天然材料制成
but tanning this material relies on chromium;
但是鞣制皮革需要铬
a carcinogenic chemical that can damage freshwater ecosystems.
铬是一种会破坏淡水生态系统 且致癌的物质
The outer soles of most shoes are made of rubber
大多数鞋子的外底由橡胶制成
that’s gone through a process called vulcanization.
这就要经过一个称为硫化的过程
This technique adds sulfur to superheated raw rubber
该技术将硫磺加入到过热的生橡胶中
to create a material that’s both elastic and sturdy.
从而生产出一种既有弹性又强韧的材料
Until recently, sneakers used natural rubber for this process.
直到最近 运动鞋在这个过程中使用了天然橡胶
But today, most outer soles are made with a synthetic blend
但现在 大多数外底是由天然橡胶
of natural rubber and byproducts from coal and oil.
与煤和石油副产品的合成物混合而成
Producing these materials accounts for 20% of a sneaker’s carbon footprint.
生产这些材料占运动鞋碳足迹的20%
But more than two-thirds of the shoe’s carbon impact
但鞋子生产中超过2/3的碳排放
comes from the next step: manufacturing.
来自下一个环节:机器生产
A typical sneaker is comprised of 65 discrete parts,
一双标准的运动鞋由65个零件组成
each of which is produced by specialized machinery.
每个零件都由专门的机器生产
This means it’s cheaper for factories to mass-produce each piece separately
这意味着 不同工厂分别批量生产单个零件
rather than manufacturing every part under one roof.
比同一工厂生产所有零件便宜
But the transportation required to ship these pieces
但将这些零件船运到同一个组装厂
to one assembly plant emits even more CO2.
会排放更多的二氧化碳
Once the components arrive at the assembly line,
零件到达装配线后
they undergo cutting, pouring, melting, baking, cooling, and gluing,
需要进行切割 浇注 熔化 烘烤 冷却和粘合
before the final products can be stitched together.
最后的成品被缝合在一起
The assembly of a typical sneaker requires more than 360 steps,
组装一双标准的运动鞋需要360多个步骤
and accounts for the remaining 20% of a sneaker’s environmental impact.
占运动鞋对环境影响的20%
The dispersion of factories fuels another problem as well:
工厂的分散也引发了另一个问题
labor abuse.
虐待劳工
Most brands don’t own or operate their factories,
大多数品牌没有或不经营自己的工厂
so the plants they work with
所以 他们合作的加工厂
are in countries with little to no worker protection laws.
都在几乎没有工人保护法的国家
As a result, many laborers earn below the living wage,
这就导致许多工人的收入低于最低工资标准
and are exposed to harmful chemicals, like toxic glue fumes.
自身也暴露于有害化学物质中 如毒胶的烟雾
When manufacturing is complete,
当生产完成后
the shoes are packaged and transported to stores around the globe.
鞋子被包装好 运送到世界各地的商店
For many, these shoes could last years.
对很多人来说 一双鞋可以穿很多年
But for someone running 20 miles a week,
但对于一周要跑20英里的人来说
a pair of running shoes will start wearing out after roughly 6 months.
一双跑鞋大约6个月后就会开始磨损
Since the shoes are made of so many different materials,
因为鞋子由许多不同的材料制成
they’re almost impossible to break down into recyclable components.
所以几乎不可能分解成可回收的部件
20% of these shoes are incinerated,
其中 20%的鞋子被焚化
while the rest are tossed into landfills
其余的则被扔进垃圾填埋场
where they can take up to 1,000 years to degrade.
在那里它们需要长达1000年的时间才能降解
So, how can we balance our love of sneakers
那么 我们如何在对运动鞋的热爱
with the need for sustainability?
和可持续发展之间取得平衡呢?
First, designers should streamline design elements
首先 设计师应该简化设计元素
and focus on eco-friendly materials.
并以环保材料为主
Factories need to develop energy efficient manufacturing processes
工厂需要开发能够整合装配步骤和零件生产的
that consolidate steps and sneaker parts.
高效节能的生产流程
And consumers should support companies using clean energy
消费者应支持使用清洁能源
and ethical manufacturing processes.
且生产流程合乎道德的公司
We can also buy fewer shoes, wear them for longer,
我们也可以少买些鞋 穿久一点
and donate those we no longer need.
再把不需要的鞋子捐出去
So no matter what your style,
所以不管你属于哪种风格
we can all take steps towards a sustainable future.
我们都可以迈向可持续发展的未来
So that’s the life story of your sneaker.
以上就是你的运动鞋的一生
But what about smartphones?
智能手机又是怎样的呢?
What’s under that beautifully engineered exterior?
它设计精美的外表下有什么?
And where did all those little parts come from?
那些小零件都从何而来?
Learn more with this video.
通过此视频了解更多信息

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视频概述

一双运动鞋需要经过很多工序。不穿的运动鞋别再乱扔了。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

我叫豆豆飞

审核员

审核员HJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A_YMOhpyErI

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