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为什么老年人总是起的早?

The Wild Reasons Many Older People Wake Up So Early

《科学秀》
问题:年长的人为什么这么早醒来?
It is a well-known stereotype that
这是一个众所周知的刻板印象
older people sleep less than younger folks, often rising at like, 4AM.
老年人比年轻人睡得少 通常4点就起床
But even though it’s a stereotype,
虽然这是一个刻板印象
there does seem to be some truth to this.
但看起来确实是有些道理
Like, surveys have found that
比如 调查显示
many seniors wake multiple times in the wee hours
很多老年人在凌晨多次醒来
before finally rising at the crack of dawn.
直到黎明才起床
This doesn’t happen because their bodies need less shut-eye, though
但这不是因为他们的身体需要更少的睡眠
older adults need just as much sleep as younger ones.
老年人和年轻人需要同样多的睡眠
And although sleep can be disrupted by many things associated with aging ,
虽然睡眠会被很多和衰老有关的因素打断
like pain or medication,
比如疼痛或药物治疗
that’s not the full story, either.
但这也不能完全解释他们睡眠少
Instead, studies suggest
相反 研究表明
there are some fascinating and sometimes bizarre reasons
有一些吸引人的 有时甚至怪异的原因
why older adults may wake up with the chickens.
解释了老年人为什么会醒的和鸡一样早
Including this stuff called “brain sand”.
其中就包括一种叫“脑沙”的东西
Which is even weirder than brain sand sounds.
这比脑袋里的沙子听起来还奇怪
The general explanation here is that
对“脑沙”的普遍解释是
something changes with your circadian rhythm as you get older.
随着年龄的增长 它会和你的昼夜节律一起变化
That’s the roughly 24-hour cycle your body is on,
这大概就是你的二十四小时循环周期
which affects everything from when you get tired to when you poop.
它影响着一切 从什么时候累到什么时候排便
But regarding what changes,
但是关于什么改变了
the explanations vary a lot.
有很多不同的解释
Some of these ideas are pretty straightforward.
有些想法很简单
For example, there’s evidence that dying brain cells may play a role.
例如 有证据表明死亡的脑细胞可能与此有关
Hormone changes are also on the table.
也有可能是荷尔蒙的变化
See, over the course of a day,
看 在一天的过程中
your brain triggers the release of hormones into your blood
你的大脑会促使荷尔蒙释放到血液中
regulate your body’s internal clocks.
调节你的生物钟
These hormones result in certain proteins
这些荷尔蒙在24小时的循环中
being produced and broken down on a 24-hour cycle,
产生和分解某些蛋白质
and that influences things like when you naturally wake up in the morning.
这会影响你早上自然醒来的时间
So if something changed with those hormones,
所以如果你的荷尔蒙发生变化
it makes sense that your sleep schedule would, too.
你的睡眠时间表也会发生变化
And according to some evidence, that’s what happens in older adults.
一些证据表明 老年人的情况就是这样
Studies have found that as people age,
研究表明随着年龄的增长
more of these proteins are produced earlier in the day,
一天中更多的蛋白质产生的时间更早了
which could trigger seniors to rise and shine in the wee hours.
这可能会导致老年人在凌晨起床
Some scientists hypothesize that a hormone or
一些科学家推测这是由血液中的
some other molecule in the blood is responsible for this.
荷尔蒙或其他分子造成的
And although it sounds reasonable to begin with,
虽然刚开始听起来很合理
there’s also a really weird study backing this up.
但也有一项很奇怪的研究支持这一论点
In an experiment published in 2011,
在2011年发表的一项实验中
researchers took skin cells from eighteen people in their 20s
研究者从18名二十多岁的人身上提取了皮肤细胞
and grew them in blood serum from eighteen people between 56 and 83 years old.
在十八名56到83岁的人的血清中培养
Serum that, presumably, had this age-dependent hormone or molecule in it.
血清中可能含有这种与年龄相关的激素或分子
And suddenly, the younger cells started producing proteins earlier in the day,
突然 年轻人的细胞开始在早些时候产生蛋白质
behaving like they were forty years older!
表现得好像他们老了四十岁
Which is quite the result.
这就是结果
Now, more specifically than just “hormones”,
现在更具体地说不仅仅是荷尔蒙
it’s also possible that melatonin could be involved here.
褪黑素也可能参与其中
That’s one of the hormones that regulates sleep.
这是调节睡眠的激素之一
Several studies have found that melatonin levels decline with age,
一些研究表明褪黑素水平随着年龄的增长而减少
and the reasons why vary from reasonable to almost ridiculous.
理由有有合理的 也有荒谬的
Like, it seems to happen partly because
部分是因为
certain brain receptors and enzymes associated with melatonin dwindle,
大脑中和褪黑素相关的受体和酶的减少
and possibly because the brain uses more melatonin over the years.
也可能是因为多年来大脑使用了更多的褪黑素
But, this might also be caused by something
但这也可能是由松果体里的
in the pineal gland called “brain sand”.
某种叫做”脑沙”的东西引起的
Buckle up, because this stuff is about to get fascinating.
系好安全带 因为这东西很有趣
The pineal gland is a soybean-sized organ in the center of your brain,
松果体是大脑中央一个黄豆大小的器官
and it releases melatonin and plays a big role in your circadian rhythm.
它释放褪黑素 在昼夜节律中发挥重要作用
So, it’s pretty important.
因此 它十分重要
But something weird happens to it as people age:
但一些奇怪的事情随着年龄的增长发生了
In this gland, calcium deposits can form.
在这个腺体里 会形成钙沉积
Now, calcification occurs in other organs, too.
现在 其他器官也有钙化现象
But the pineal gland
但在松果体中
has the highest rate of calcification of any organ in the body.
钙化率是身体中所有器官中最高的
One study found that in people aged forty to seventy,
一项研究发现 在四十到七十岁的人中
up to twenty-eight percent of the pineal gland
高达28%的松果体
could be studded with these chunks of calcium,
会布满这些钙块
also known as brain sand.
也就是所说的脑沙
It’s little rocks… in your brain!
也就是小石头 在你的脑子里
Scientists don’t really know why these deposits happen, either.
科学家也不知道为什么这些沉淀物会出现
Some hypothesize it could be caused by vascular inflammation
有人推测这可能是由血管炎症
or reduced oxygen in the brain,
或大脑缺氧引起的
both of which can occur more as people age.
随着年龄的增长 这两种情况都会发生的更多
These scientists think either of these things
这些科学家认为任何一种情况
might be causing stem cells in the pineal gland
都可能导致松果仁中产生干细胞
that is, cells that can turn into other types
干细胞可以分化成其它类型的细胞
to transform into cells that produce bone.
分化成可以生成骨骼的细胞
That’s right.
没错
Pineal calcification might be similar to the production of bone in the brain.
松果体钙化可能类似于大脑中生成骨骼
Which should not be a thing!
这应该不是个问题
For now, at least, that’s just speculation.
至少现在只是推测
Still, researchers do know that brain sand reduces
尽管如此 研究人员确实知道脑沙会减少
the amount of melatonin in the fluid around the brain and spinal cord.
大脑和脊髓周围液体中褪黑素的含量
And that can lead to insomnia and other sleep disturbances,
这会导致这会导致失眠和其他睡眠障碍
including waking up super early.
包括醒的特别早
So, from dying cells to hormones to brain sand,
所以 从死亡细胞到荷尔蒙再到脑沙
there are tons of ideas about why older adults
关于老年人为什么会起得这么早
tend to rise so early.
有很多说法
And it’s possible that multiple factors might be at play here.
有可能是多种因素共同作用
In any case, there are so many ideas here
无论如何 这里有这么多观点
that some scientists speculate there might be an evolutionary reason behind all this.
一些科学家推测这背后可能有一个进化的原因
It’s called the “poorly sleeping grandparent hypothesis.”
”这就是所谓的“祖父母睡眠不好假说”
The idea is that,
这个观点认为
back when most humans slept outside or in relatively open environments,
当大多数人类睡在户外 或相对开放的环境中时
it was beneficial for some people to stay up
对一些人来说 保持警觉
and remain vigilant for lions and other predators.
警惕狮子和其他掠食者是有益的
And as a result,
结果
we evolved circadian rhythms that changed with age
我们进化出了随着年龄而变化的昼夜节律
and ensured someone was always awake to act as a sentinel.
并确保总有人醒着放哨
This idea is cool, but it is just a hypothesis.
这个想法很酷 但它只是一个假设
It’s completely possible that our sleep schedules evolved for a different reason,
我们的睡眠时间表完全有可能是因为不同原因造成的
or as a matter of chance.
又或者纯属偶然
But it does kind of make you think:
但这确实会让你想到
If older people have internal alarm clocks
如果老年人的生物钟
to save their families from man-eating lions,
可以让他们的家人免受吃人狮子的伤害
that’s a pretty heroic reason
那么早起去丹尼餐厅吃饭
to get up early in the morning and go to Denny’s.
是一个非常英勇的理由
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
感谢收看本集的《科学秀》
We’re able to make content like this thanks to our patrons on Patreon,
感谢Patreon的赞助人我们才能做出这样的内容
who not only have formed a delightful community,
他们不仅组成了一个愉快的社区
but also ask great science questions.
还提出了很棒的科学问题
If you’re a patron, you can submit a question to our QQ inbox,
用户可以将问题发送至我们的QQ邮箱
and we’ll check it out and maybe make an episode like this answering it.
我们会查收邮件 也许会制作这样一期节目来回答
This is the best way to send us questions,
这是向我们提问的最佳方式
but even if you’re not a patron,
但即使你不是用户
we’d still love to hear what you’re curious about.
我们也很乐意了解你好奇的事物
You can leave your science questions in the comments below,
你可以在下面的评论中留下你的科学问题
if you see one you like, you can give it an upvote,
如果你看到喜欢的 可以投赞成票
and we’ll do our best to check them out.
我们会尽力去查看这些问题
(outro music)
[尾声音乐]

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视频概述

从科学角度介绍老年人早起的原因

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

蒽~宇

审核员

审核员AK

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7YbqEhFMQCY

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