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油画中诡异的坑--铅皂

The weird chemistry threatening priceless paintings — Speaking of Chemistry

当艺术品保管员 彼得里亚•诺贝尔 正打算清洁一幅有将近400年历史的伦勃朗的画时
When art conservator Petria Noble was preparing to clean a nearly 400-year-old Rembrandt,
她注意到画作表面布满了微小的凹坑
she noticed its surface was riddled with microscopic pockmarks.
不止她注意到了这个现象
And Petria is not alone.
其他的保管员表示 其它数千幅油画中也出现了这些奇怪的现象
Other conservators have reported the strange phenomenon on thousands of other oil paintings.
除了破坏这些珍贵的艺术品的光彩
In addition to threatening the splendor of these priceless pieces of art,
这些瑕疵正在艺术界掀起一股热潮
the blemishes are driving some in the art world crazy.
但研究人员最终弄清了造成这些奇怪凹坑的东西
But researchers finally know what’s creating the strange craters.
1996年 彼得里亚第一次在显微镜下注意到这些凹坑
Petria first noticed the pockmarks under the microscope in 1996.
事实上 在她发现这一现象的数十年前
As it turns out, decades before she came on the scene,
其他博物馆研究人员就已经发现了这些凹坑
other museum researchers had also seen the craters.
她的前辈推测 微小气泡从画里溢出
Her predecessors speculated that tiny gas bubbles had percolated out of the painting,
留下了这些坑
leaving the pockmarks behind.
彼得里亚想明白这些坑的剖析结构
Petria wanted to understand the anatomy of the pockmarks,
这可真是太棒了 因为它是金属做的
which by the way is awesome, because it’s metal,
这幅画是“尼古拉斯•杜普医生的解剖课”
the painting is called “Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp.”
不管怎样 她小心翼翼地从几个凹坑中取出微小的横截面
So anyway, she carefully removed tiny cross-sections from several craters.
结果显示许多坑中都含有一种
It turns out that many of the craters contained a white muck,
看起来像虫卵的白色物质
that kinda looks like insect eggs.
但是这些白色块状物既不是虫卵 也不是气泡
But these white lumps are neither insect eggs nor gas bubbles.
彼得里亚和她的合作者发现这些奇怪的白块事实上是铅皂
Petria and her collaborators figured out that the strange white muck is actually lead soap.
是的 肥皂
Yep, soap.
就像伦勃朗在结束一天的绘画后 用来洗手的肥皂
Like the soap Rembrandt might have used to wash his hands after a long day of painting.
只是 这种铅皂并不是16世纪化妆品制造商生产的
Only, instead of being produced by 16th century cosmetic makers,
而是画自身的产物
this lead soap is a product of the painting itself.
别担心
And don’t worry.
你的肥皂里不含铅 它们含有钠或钾
Your bar of soap doesn’t have lead in it–it contains sodium or potassium instead.
美术作品油漆中的脂肪酸粒子遇到颜料中游移的铅离子后
The lead soap formed over many years within the artwork when lone fatty acids from the
要经过很多年才能形成铅皂
oil paint encountered meandering lead ions from pigments.
有金属皂通常是坏消息
Metal soaps are often bad news.
当它们在画的表面或附近形成时 它们可以迸发出来
When they form at or near a painting’s surface, they can burst through leaving pockmarks that
留下使画作看起来模糊 有沙砾感 且阴暗的凹坑
make art look hazy, gritty, and dull.
铅皂也会在画作上留下损毁的外壳和反光层
The soaps can also leave disfiguring crusts and reflective films on the painting.
但如果在一幅油画内部形成太多的金属皂 问题会变得更糟
But the problems get worse if enough metal soap forms deep within a painting.
这些滑的金属皂可能导致所谓的分层
The slippery soap can cause something called delamination.
那会使涂料层变形 隆起并剥落
That’s when layers of paint deform, lift up, and flake off–not really something you
你肯定不想让这样的事发生在一寸千金的珍贵画作上
want in a piece of artwork whose value is measured in millions of dollars per square meter
了解这些杰作所发生的事情
Understanding what’s going on in these masterpieces,
需要科学家们真正地观察涂料的干燥
has required that scientists literally watch paint dry.
这就是他们发现的
Here’s what they’ve found.
油漆中的配色用油通常来自亚麻籽–一种亚麻纤维的种子
The oil in oil paint usually comes from linseed plants–also known as flax seed.
亚麻籽油含有一种可支持多种脂肪酸的甘油骨架
Linseed oil features a glycerol backbone which can support a variety of fatty acids, such
如亚麻酸
as linolenic acid.
暴露在空气中时 脂肪酸会聚合成一种复杂网状物
When exposed to air the fatty acids polymerize into a complicated mesh that becomes the tough
变成你认为叫“干漆”的坚硬物质
material which you may know as “dry paint.”
除了油 每一种颜料都含有它独特的彩色颜料和添加剂混合物
Besides oil, every paint also contains its own peculiar mixture of colorful pigments
例如 那些用于帮助保持颜料质地和稳定性的
and additives that, for example, help maintain the paint’s texture and stability.
但事实上是 这个我们称作“干漆”的无比复杂的化学体系并不总是稳定的
But it turns out that the incredibly complicated chemical system we call dry paint is not always stable.
随着时间流逝 温度和湿度使脂肪酸从颜料的甘油骨架上分离
Over time, heat and humidity sever the fatty acids from the paint’s glycerol backbone.
这些带负电的脂肪酸在涂料聚合物中游走
These negatively charged fatty acids wander through paint’s polymer matrix until they’re
直到它们被吸引到用在颜料中的带正电的金属离子如铅和锌上
drawn to positively charged metal ions like lead and zinc, which are used in pigments.
脂肪酸和金属结合皂化 聚集成白色团块
The fatty acids and metal marry to form soap, which accumulate into white lumps.
世界各地的艺术品保管员已经在弗朗西斯科•徳 戈雅 文森特•梵高
Conservators around the world have discovered soaps in artwork by Francisco de Goya, Vincent
彼埃•蒙德里安 乔治亚•欧姬芙以及许多其他人等的画作上发现了皂
Van Gogh, Piet Mondrian, Georgia O’Keefe and many others.
从13世纪至今的艺术品(都有)
Artwork from the 13th century to modern day.
尽管我们知道了金属皂(形成)背后的基础化学 保管员仍然
Although we understand the basic chemistry behind the metal soaps, conservators are still
尝试去弄清楚清理这些负载皂的画作的最佳方法
trying to figure out the best ways to clean these soap-laden paintings–and whether cleaning
以及清理是否是个好主意
is even a good idea.
这是因为 对保管员来说 可行的最安全的清理策略之一
That’s because one of the safest cleaning strategies available to conservators–namely
是使用古老的水——事实上可能会加速金属皂的形成
using good old water–may actually accelerate metal soap formation.
那么你怎么想呢?
So what do you think?
为了清理这些艺术品 冒这样的险值吗
Is it worth the risk to try to clean these works of art?
还是说 我们应学会欣赏金属皂产生的朦胧感
Or should we just learn to appreciate the haze from metal soaps,
就像欣赏氧化铜产生的铜绿一样
like we do with the green patina of oxidized copper?
在评论中告诉我们你的意见
Tell us what you think in the comments.

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视频概述

长期保存的油画表面有许多坑,它们是什么?它们是怎么形成的?它们对油画有什么影响?如何清理?可以通过视频了解。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

仿仿

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2ww5aUJD8s

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