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England in the Middle Ages.
The sun is shining. The birds are singing.
The children are playing in the village square.
“What a wonderful time to be alive!” “Hey,
you’re dying of dysentary.” (welp) “Aaaaaaand,
also, we’re being raided by Vikings.”
“What an awful time to be alive!”
It’s the Year 900.
Europe is a Vikings wet dream.
Raids galore. “Hey,
you wanna go raid Paris?” Okay,
that particular raid didn’t go too well,
but the King of the Francs said,
“You guys are pretty tough and scary.”
“How about we give you land in northern France?”
“And in return, you protect us from other Vikings.”
And it was agreed.
维京人建立了诺曼底公国 他们也入乡随俗 跟着法国人学习
The Vikings set up the Duchy of Normandy And then they went full-on French.
信仰基督教 学习法语 与当地法国人结婚生子
Converting to Christianity, learning the language, and making babies with the locals. ( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)
England also had its fair share of Viking problems.
In the 800s, Danish Vikings had conquered most of the country,
but the Anglo-Saxons eventually managed to kick them out.
Although they left behind a bunch of Viking settlers.
Now this guy’s king.
“He sucks. Replace him with his brother!” (k)
and he was like,”Hey, baby.”
来一发吗？”然后他就多了一个儿子 然后他又”嘿 来一发吗？
“How you doin?” and had a son, and then turned around and was like,”Hey, baby.”
“How you doin?” and had another son. (damn)
And then he died and no one was sure which son to make King.
“This one, cause he’s older!”
“Not if I have anything to do with it.”
“That works for us, too!”
Then he grew up and married the Duke
of Normandy’s daughter and had a bunch of kids.
Remember this one, he’s important.
Then his advisors came to him and said, “Hey,
man, all those Viking settlers that are living here?”
“They might band together and kill you.” “Well,
then why don’t we kill them first?”
And so it was.
This pissed off the Danish king, who launched an invasion.
And the Vikings conquered England once again.
Then the Anglo-Saxons unconquered it.
Then the Vikings reconquered it.
The King’s family had to go into exile, including Edward
Remember him? He went to Normandy where he lived for thirty years.
He and his brother Alfred tried to return
to England to retake the throne from the Vikings.
但他们被Earl of Wessex给安排了”兄弟
But they were betrayed by the Earl of Wessex, who said,
“Hey friend, I’ll take you to London where all the nobles are waiting to make you King” “Oh,
no, look out, red-hot poker in the eyes.” (trolled)
“I can’t see!”
And thus you can’t be King. (jerk)
Edward then escaped back to Normandy.
After a few more Viking Kings came and went,
one finally died without an heir
and Edward was called back to England,
where he became king.
And that’s where our story begins
Here’s the thing about becoming a king in the Middle Ages.
Often your entire country won’t support you at first.
You can be vulnerable to rebellions and it
‘s up to you to take control.
Fortunately for Edward,
there was already a super powerful guy who had a lot of control over England
and if Edward could get his support then England would be his.
“Who is this guy?”
“It’s the guy who gave my brother the red-hot poker in the eyes.”
After an awkward moment where Edward exiled Godwin from the country,
He eventually had to give in and let him keep his earldom.
Possibly after Godwin gave him a bunch
of gold and said he was very very sorry.
King Edward also married Godwin’s daughter then Godwin
died and his massive fortune was passed down to
his sons who all became Earl’s in
特别是这个 他 Harold Godwinson
Particular this one became the new Earl
成为了新的Earl of Wessex 也是Edward的姐夫(妹夫？)
of Wessex Harold Godwinson was now King Edward’s brother-in-law
he was a close advisor to the King a
brave warrior who had proven himself in battle against
the Welsh and in many ways he
他就相当于是个”副“国王 噢哦 Edward病重了
Was almost like a Co-King, uh-oh Edward got old and he’s on his deathbed (rip)
Possibly for religious reasons or maybe because he wasn’t happy
about having to marry her
He didn’t boink his wife and as a result has no kids. Meaning,
there’s no obvious heir to the throne
“Meaning I’m gonna be king.””He does have a grand nephew. It could be him”
“Hmm no let’s go with me”
Just one problem.
I mentioned that Edwards mother was in Norman Edward grew up
in Normandy and he had a lot of Norman friends
现任的诺曼底公爵是William the bastard(混蛋威廉？？)
The current Duke of Normandy was William the bastard
Why was he called the bastard one day
his father was sneaking out of his castle
When his advisors said,”Where are you going?” “Uh,
to the tanner’s shop?”
“To get a…”
But that was a lie firstly
because tanner’s give you leather not tans and
Secondly because he was really going to see the
Tanners daughter one thing leads to another and out
comes baby William born out of wedlock
Thus an absolute bastard
His father died when William was seven or
eight and he became the new Juke he
spent most of his childhood narrowly avoiding assassination
Which probably turned him into the big balls tough guy?
He’s remembered as today in
1051 the town of Aleçon tried to rebel against
him and the townspeople beat on dead animal skins
as an insult to his commoner mother
William was furious and he responded by well,
let’s just say it wasn’t pretty that’s the kind of guy
We’re dealing with here William and Edward
were good friends and Edward allegedly promised that
William could have the English throne after him
A decade later Harold Godwinson even
visited William and pledged an oath to him over
Holy relics promising
that William could be the next king of England
Although it’s possible Harold only did it
because William was holding his family hostage
So when William heard that the king was on his deathbed he said hooray.
I’m gonna be king
So now you have two extremely powerful men
who both think they’re about to become the next king.
这个家伙是挪威国王(King Of Norway)
But wait This guy is the king of Norway
He spent most of his life as a warrior for hire.
Fighting for whoever would give him the most gold
You name a place.
He probably fought a war then Poland.
Against pirates in the Mediterranean Yep,
the holy lands Sicily and Bulgaria. Yep
He got crazy rich off the back
of it and was swimming in gold
Then he returned home and became King
One of the previous Norwegian kings had made an
agreement with one of England’s Viking kings saying
that when that Viking King died the king
Of Norway would get the English throne.
Hardrada felt that because of this agreement
He was now entitled to the English throne
He was also eager to go
on one last big conquest that would turn him into a legend
So when he got word that Edward was on
his deathbed he thought I’m gon na invade
England and then I’m gon na be king
So now we have three extremely powerful men who
all think they’re about to become the next
king of England and that means somebody’s probably
玩真的了 在英格兰 Godwinson
About to get hurt back in England Harold Godwinson is watching
over the dying King Edward.
He comes out with a shocking announcement Hey,
everyone gather in.
Don’t be shy. Okay,
so I’ve got bad news.
The king is dead
I know very sad, but good news.
He said that I should be the next king.
“所以臣服于我吧！” “哦 对了” “Edward说如果他曾经许诺给某人”
So hooray for me and Oh, yeah He said that if he once told anyone else
They could be king
之后称王 这是假的 这个“某人”应该老老实实呆在诺曼底”
that he doesn’t like them anymore and they should just stay in Normandy
And also he said that no one should ask any further questions Okay.
Go um. Go do whatever it is you do Usually it took months
of preparation to crown a new king
But Harold rushed it and he had himself
crowned the same day King Edward was buried in Normandy
在诺曼底 William的谋士告诉他: “嘿William 坏消息 Godwinson擅自称了王” William气坏了
William’s advisors came to him and said:”Hey Big Willie, bad news, Harold Godwinson has taken the English throne.” And William was furious
他派遣信使 告诉Harold： “William希望你立刻停止偷窃王位的行为并将王位归还予他”
So he sent an envoy to Harold who said:”William says you stole the throne and demands you immediately return it to him.” Hmm
Let me think about that thinking No.
“他说不” “那个混蛋！” “等等 难道你才不是混蛋？
“He said no.””That bastard.””Wait, I thought you were the bastard”. (lol)
William immediately began gathering his armies
together and preparing for an invasion of England
Now killing a king was generally frowned upon in old-time Europe
because they were considered to have been chosen by God himself
So back in Normandy, William had to get God on his side.
He needed the Pope’s blessing for his conquest
So he went to the Pope and said
” Godwinson made an oath to me over Holy relics
And then he usurped the throne. Can I kill him?” “Yeah,
“”这样啊 那就杀了他吧” 教皇这就给了William理由 上帝站在了他这边
sure. Why not.” So the Pope gave William his blessing meaning William now had God on his side. Everything was ready to go
Just one problem.
*真的欠东风* 风向朝南 对William不利
It was blowing the wrong way and William had to wait
with his army in Normandy
While Godwinson waited with his army in the South of England,
they waited and waited and waited
And then William said screw it and sailed for England and got shipwrecked
because the wind was blowing the wrong way
So then he decided to keep on waiting
They waited for two months and the wind never changed
eventually Godwinson got bored and also ran out of food for his soldiers
So he sent them all home, and he returned to London
The south coast was undefended and all William could do was keep waiting
while the northerly wind kept William in Normandy
It was carrying Hardrata and his Viking army to England
Hardrata landed near the old Viking city of
York and defeated a regional army led by
the northern Earl’s and York’s surrendered
When Godwinson heard about this, he must have been pretty upset
He had just disbanded his army.
And now he had to gather them all
together again and march all the way north
He made the exhausting journey in just FOUR days (hm, impressive)
Which is crazy quick and he caught the
Vikings off guard and unprepared for battle.
The two armies stood on either side of the river Derwent
Legends says that a beserker Viking
single handedly held the only way crossing the river
dodging arrows and fending off attackers
Until some English soldiers got under the bridge
in a barrel and gave him the old spear in the jewels
This gave the Vikings enough time to form a shield wall.
But because they’d been caught off guard
Many weren’t wearing their chainwear and armour and the English eventually defeated them,
and with him bringing the Viking era
in England to an end
just keep waiting…just keep waiting..
well…this is BOOORING!
ayyy there we go!
Williams fleet of over 700 ships and
14,000 men set sail and landed on the English coast
at Pevensey and set up camp near Hastings and
Harold was still all the way in York his
exhausted army had to march all the way south just days
after their battle with the Vikings.
Harold made it to London and considered just
Staying there waiting for William to come to him but
William forced Harold’s hand by burning down a bunch of villages
Harold’s army set out and met Williams
on the 14th of October
and both sides prepared themselves for the Battle of
Hastings the English were on a hill so they
decided to stay there because it was
A good defensive position the Normans approached and
the two sides probably spent a while yelling at each other
William and the Normans had a few tactical advantages
over the English the first were the archers the
Normans sent volley after volley of arrows
Of the English who formed a shield wall in defence
Then Williams sent his infantry up the hill
The English threw anything they had
at them and the Normans couldn’t break through the shield wall
Then the Normans next tactical advantage came into play
William sent his cavalry up the hill but
even they struggled to break through the shield wall defences.
Wave after wave of
Infantry and cavalry came and Harold knew
All he had to do was let the Normans exhaust
自己的实力 他就能获胜 但这时事情有变
themselves and he would win but then something a bit strange happened
It’s possible the Normans incorrectly believed William had been killed
Maybe they lost their will to fight against the shield wall,
or maybe it was an intentional deception tactic
But suddenly the norman forces turned and ran away
from the english believing they had won the english
broke their shield wall and chased down
就抛弃了防御姿态 下山追击 “撤退”的诺曼底人反过来把追击
The retreating Normans who then turned around encircled the
的英格兰人包围了 并围剿了他们 在混乱的战斗中
English troops and cut them down in the chaotic
fighting that followed Harold Godwinson was killed
The most popular theory being that he took an arrow
他兄弟） 英格兰战败了 William获胜
in the eye the English were defeated and William had won
He was no more just a bastard now
He was a conqueror at first English Nobles were
reluctant to make him King but William burned down
a few more villages and the nobles
Eventually gave in and offered him the crown as
he was coronated the local villages and Westminster let
out a cheer of support but William
Thought it was a riot
So he burned down the village (they just love burning down the villages..) William then had to go on a long and costly campaign of quelling
rebellions and burning down villages all
over England *insert burning down village compilation*
To force the people into submission and England
went through a massive transformation under its new
Norman rule English Nobles were replaced with Normans
They built castles and grand cathedrals
But one of the most interesting changes occurred
within the English language
The Normans brought their dialect of French to England and emerged
with Old English and ways we still live with today
First of all, The Normans were obviously the ones in power
So words related to power
like government judge castle and crown come from norman’s words that are considered
Posher are more refined are usually
the norman ones at first the anglo-saxons
probably weren’t that friendly to the Normans
while the Normans likely weren’t that amiable towards the
本地人可能说“come into a room”而诺曼底人会说”
An Anglo-Saxon might come into a room, but
enter into a chamber”(都是进房间的意思)
a Norman would enter into a chamber, an
Anglo Saxon might buy themselves a shirt
shirt” 而诺曼底人会”purchase a blouse”(都是买衣服)
While the Norman would purchase a blouse,
and while that filthy peasants new shirt may be fair
The Norman blouse is absolutely beautiful!
The Normans actually considered some anglo-saxon words so crude
that I can’t even say them on YouTube.
But there’s more!
Ask an anglo-saxon
当你问一个本地人他的职业 他可能会回答一些低贱的职业 例如Baker(面包师)、Miller
What job he does and he might respond with some low-level trade such
as a baker, a Miller, or a shoemaker
But a Norman has a skilled trade like a painter,
a tailor, or a merchant the
anglo-saxon farmers working in the fields owned many cows,
pigs and sheep
But once they were served up in a Norman banquet,
they became beef, pork, and mutton
and written English changed to since many Anglo
Saxons couldn’t write the written language was
romanticized your annoying friend that says Cool Hwip
might just be speaking an old English dialect as the
anglo-saxons originally wrote it hwen hwere and hwat but
the Normans swapped the w and h around and
the long English’a’ vowel sounded more like an
‘O’ to the Normans so you can thank them that you live in a home not a ham (thx Normans!:D) Hey,
fun fact about William. The man couldn’t read or write not in French not in English not in anything (he have dyslexia)
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该视频由Skillshare提供赞助 Skillshare是一个在线教学平台 拥有多达17000以上在线课程 涵盖你所想了解并学习的一切