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水滴漫步之迷(太空环境和慢动作观察)聪明160期

The WALKING WATER Mystery (in SPACE and SLOW MOTION!) - Smarter Every Day 160

嘿 我是Destin 欢迎收看聪明日
Hey it’s me Destin and welcome back to Smarter Every Day!
我有一个关于水的问题
I have a problem, there is a specific water phenomenon
我在生活中经常看到它
that I see happening all around me
却不知道为什么会这样
but I have no idea how it works
近几年我一直
I’ve been trying to figure it out for
想搞清楚 2011年我在
years, in fact i put a video on this
这个频道放了一个视频 求网友帮忙
channel in 2011, asking people to help me
解决这个问题
figure it out!
这里有点意思
there’s something interesting happening
我搞不懂 看起来就像
here I don’t understand it it looks like
很多小水珠站在小水珠上面
water droplets are standing on water
看起来就像
droplets. It looks like water is
水犯了恐水病 像水珠在
hydrophobic it looks like when a bead of
热锅里滑着冰
water skates across the hot griddle it
就像有一层水蒸气在水珠下面
creates a layer of water vapor underneath it
不过事实并非如此
only that’s not what it is
如果你知道什么 请告诉我
If you have any information please let me know
感激不尽
I’d appreciate it
见过这种现象吧?如果你
you’ve seen this right? If you watch the
像我一样带着发现美的眼睛
world with a critical eye like I do
这种现象随处可见 例如
you’ll see this everywhere for example
如果你看过
if you’ve ever allowed yourself to watch
咖啡往下滴的情况
a drip coffeemaker when the conditions
你就会发现
are just right you’ll notice that coffee
咖啡的表面形成了小液滴
beads up on top of coffee
这有什么作用呢?有时候
what does it do that sometimes when you
我们洗澡时 水会
turn the shower head on the water will
打在浴缸的另一侧
blast to the other side of the tub
这些水珠不会
instead of making the bottom of the tub
弄湿浴缸 而是在里面已经有的
wet these pearls of water will dance on
水面上跳舞
top of the water that’s already in the
不要觉得这水颜色奇怪
bottom of the tub. Don’t let this weird you
这只是色素
out it’s just water and food coloring
不过有趣的是 如果你
but the interesting thing is if you get
在一定条件下看到这些水流
the stream in just the right location
跟厕所中的水和陶瓷
and interacts with a porcelain and the
相互作用
water that’s in the toilet and just the
就会看到这种现象
right fashion you’ll get these little drops
我不知道这要在
that bead up. I don’t understand what the
什么情况下才能发生
conditions required to make it happen
但我很兴奋 想要知道
are, but I get really excited about it and I
这到底是为什么
want to understand.
有次我们把阿帕奇直升机降落在停机坪上
Seriously one time we landed an Apache helicopter on the pad
当时环境控制系统的
at work, and the environmental control system
冷凝液滴在沥青上
was leaking condensate down onto the
然后我就看到了这种现象
asphalt, and the beads were happening there
就在那一刻 我意识到
that was the moment I realized i have to
我一定要把它搞清楚
know why this is happening. In order to
我们要去科学车库
figure it out we’re going to Science Garage
去见我一位朋友
to see my friend Don Pettit who
唐·佩蒂特 他是精通
has out-of-this-world experience in the
表面化学的专家
area of surface chemistry
本期聪明日 开始
let’s go get Smarter Every Day.
水珠在水上跳舞 我们先要在地球上实验
its water dancing on water, but we’re gonna do it
然后移步太空 是吧?
here on earth, and then in space, that OK?
没错 而且我们要把这个家伙扔下去
Yeah, and we’re going to water down this one!
(笑声)你太坏了
[laughs] that’s bad.
如果你知道唐·佩蒂特 你就知道为何找他
if you know who Don Pettit is you understand why I came to him
想要找到一个
it’s rare to find a person that not only
既懂摄像 又懂得画面背后
understands how to capture beautiful photos
所蕴含的科学原理的人
but also understands the
实在是太难了
fundamental science behind each image
你还知道哪个人
seriously who else do you know that
收集了关于表面科学和
collects books on surface chemistry and
湿润现象的书?这些书
wetting phenomena you own these
都是你的吗?
references?
-是-真的吗?
YeahReally?
你如果对这种东西感兴趣
Well I mean when you’re into this kind of
你也需要的吧?
stuff you need it, right?
全世界的科学家都
Anyways scientists all over the world
在实验室里设计了复杂的装置
have created elaborate setups in their
以观察这些跳动的水珠
labs to try to observe these dancing
也得到一些精彩的
drops and they’ve got some really great
数据 但我知道如果能从唐那里
data but I knew if I got the right type
取到他特殊的相机
of camera in Don’s hands
然后只要随意拍摄
and just turned him loose
我不仅能获得这些数据
we would not only get the data but
还能做得更漂亮
we would do it beautifully
这是一架幻影v2511
it’s a Phantom v2511 which is a very very
相机 帧率非常高 运行时噪音很大
fast camera and its really loud but
我们要试一下
we’re gonna turn on the science here
在这开启这项科学实验
and give it a go
我们只做了一个小时的
after only about an hour of
相机实验
working through the lenses and lighting
唐就想出了一个装置
with Don, he quickly came up with a setup
用于观察每一滴漂亮的水珠的
to observe a beautiful single drop of
降落 跳动 然后
water landing on, bouncing, and then
合并到水池里
coalescing into a larger pool of water
一颗水滴正平衡在
alright so we have a drop balancing on a
水面上 注意
still surface of water and you’ll notice
这并不是在合并
that it isn’t coalescing.
合并是指当有两块水
Coalescence is when you have two pieces of water that
相互接触然后变成一块水
touch and then merge to become one piece.
注意这有一个耽搁期
Now you notice there’s this delay time
这时水珠只是停在水面上
where the drop is sitting there before
还融入水里 这叫做 “居住时间”
coalescence that’s called the ‘Residence Time’
科学家对这个
and scientists have a pretty good
做出了一种很好的解释
understanding of what’s going on here.
科学家认为 当水珠接触到水面时
As a drop touches the surface scientists
两者间产生了空气层
believe there’s air trapped in-between
水滴向下压 空气层逐渐
as the drop rests that air starts to
被排尽 然后水滴
seep out of that gap and then
和水才合并到一起
coalescence occurs.
国家健康协会做了一个很酷的
The National Institute of Health did this really cool
研究 证实了空气间隙理论
study where they verified the air gap theory
他们的方法是
by reducing the air pressure
减少水滴周围的气压
around coalescing water drops and as
如你所料 气压越低
you’d expect the lower the air pressure
“居住时间”越短
to lower the residence time which is
真的酷毙了
really cool
在唐拍摄的这个视频里
anyway you can plainly see on the video
你可以清楚地看到
that Don captured that as the drop comes
水滴停了下来 上下跳动
to a rest it starts to slowly bob up and
接着变得有点像
down and then it’s like a little water bridge
建在空气间隙里的水桥
is built in that air gap and then
然后两者才会互相合并
coalescence occurs so this is my
问题在于 我看到
question in the phenomenon I’m seeing
水滴在平衡状态时上下跳动
I’m seeing a steady state bouncing of a
这意味着 它们之间
drop which means there’s impacts
不断地发生相互作用
happening over and over
为什么水滴不能直接
why is that not punching through that
打穿那层空气与水面
air gap and causing coalescence to
合并呢?为了搞清楚这个
happen easier? In order to understand this
我们得看看那种相互作用
we actually have to look at that impact
所以接下来要进行的实验会很刺激
which means this is about to get awesome
这里面是一套设备 是一位Youtube
this is a device that’s been shipped to me
NightHawkInLight版块下的版主Ben
from another youtube channel
寄给我的
Ben at NightHawkInLight and he has
他曾在扬声器里装水
drops of water that he puts on water
让水滴“坐”在上面 接下来我们
which is sitting in a speaker so we’re
要像Ben一样重新组装
about to basically recreate the setup
这套设备 透露一下 您在太空
that Ben did. So full disclosure you’ve
做过这项实验 对吗?对!(笑声)
done this in space right? I have! [Laughter]
我们要用高速摄像机
But we’re going to use this high-speed
来帮我们弄清这个在地球上的现象
camera to understand the phenomenon here
接着你会教我
on earth and then you’re going to teach
你在太空中的发现
me about what you discovered in space
对吗?对 我们会在
right? Yeah we’re gonna, we’re gonna start
地球上开始 在太空中结束
on earth and end up in space
Ben:你好
[phone ringing] Ben: Hello?
Destin:嘿 Ben 我是Destin 最近怎么样?唐:我是唐!
Hey Ben it’s Destin, how are you Yeah and this is Don
我们在科学车库 正玩得高兴呢
we’re in science garage here having fun
厉害了 唐 很开心能听到你的声音
Awesome, Don it’s cool to hear from you
你觉得哪个频率和
what frequency and amplitude
振幅最好用?
worked out best for you?
如果我们把这个喇叭关掉
if we were to turn that speaker off right now they
-这些水滴就会消失吧?-试试看 -嗯
would go away right? -Well let’s see. -Okay
还是有水滴 不过很快就跟水合并了
See? They’re there but they coalesce very quickly
嗯…你继续
So, okay keep doing that don’t
我改变一个变量试试
change anything we’ll change one variable
-好-我来打开扬声器的震动
OK. That’s me turning on the vibration of
我觉得
the speaker. So what I think is
水滴本来要往下落
happening is the water is trying to
压迫水的表面
settle and go down and press against the surface
-对 没错-但是 因为水滴
Uh-huh that’s right. But because it’s
被扬声器的震动往上推
being pushed back up due to that
震动给了这个系统能量
vibration it, it adds energy back into
将水珠往上推
the system and then pushes it away
这个过程让细小的空气间隙
And I’m saying that that process keeps the
不会被破坏 水滴的平衡得以维持
small air gap between the drop, it helps maintain that
不要做思考的巨人 行动的侏儒
You can sit here and postulate things till you’re blue in the face,
要用实验来探究
until you make an observation to see
基础物理到底是什么 然后
what that fundamental physics is, then
你才能弄懂真相是什么
you can back out what’s going on and
高速摄像下的水滴画面
high-speed of what’s going on with that
可以帮我们回答这些问题
drop it would do a lot to help answer these questions
这马上要成为
this is quickly becoming
我参加过的最好的
one of the most awesome setups I’ve ever
实验之一 你呢?
been a part of, would y’agree?
没错 简直太棒了
Yeah this is just totally awesome.
你都去过太空了!
But you’ve been the space!
准备
Allright, here we are
历经多年等待
the moment of truth after years of waiting
我们终于具备了
we finally have everything we
观测所需要的
need in order to make
一切条件 来咯 开始了
an actual observation. Here we go.
出现了
and there it is
看到没?我第一次
did you see it? When i first saw this
看到这里时 觉得有点蹊跷
footage it stood out to me like a sore
出乎我的意料 水滴不是
thumb instead of crashing into the drop
一头扎入水堆里
like I anticipated it’s almost like
那些水波就像
those peaks and valleys make some type
棒球手的手套一样
of moving catcher’s mitt that gently
将水滴缓缓地抓住
catches the drop and lets it down gently
而不会破坏那层空气
without breaking that air layer
现在我们把画面放大
now i want to zoom in and see if we can
看能不能观察到水波抓住水滴的瞬间
see that wave catch the drop
有了 一目了然
there it is it’s pretty clear what’s
打个比方
going on here think about it this way if
如果有人向你扔水气球
somebody threw you a water balloon would
你会像这样迅速接住
you rush your hand up and try to meet it
然后水溅一身吗
really quickly and risk bursting that
不会 你会尽量
surface tension? No, you would try to
让你的手和气球同速
match the velocity of the balloon with
这样你就能减少
your hands so you could decrease the
气球的碰撞动能 事实上
collisional kinetic energy in fact
有一道公式可以用来算
there’s an equation for how to calculate
碰撞动能
collisional kinetic energy and that’s
而碰撞动能会影响
what factors into whether or not the
水滴是否能存在 如果
drop survives if the velocity of the
液体的流速和水滴的速度
liquid and the small drop are about the
十分接近 此时碰撞动能接近零
same then that factor goes to 0 and the
所以很快就失去动力
collisional kinetic energy quickly
从而掉入水里 既然知道了这点
decreases to zero now that we understand
我们可以推测 时间也是
this we can infer that timing is a huge
影响因素 一些水滴
factor here and there’s probably a bunch
因为撞击的时机不对
of drops that just don’t survive because
而很快消失
they hit the wave wrong
事实上 这正是我们在高速下
in fact that’s exactly what we see in
所看到的 还有一个问题
the high-speed. One more thing to think
重力一直
about is the fact that gravity is
将水滴向震动的水面拉
constantly pulling the drops back down
这意味着水滴
to that vibrating surface which means it
需要找到一个柔软的点着陆
always has to find the soft spot to land
水滴越大 受到
the larger the drop, the greater the
向下的重力越大
gravitational force pushing down on it.
但如果在失重下
But what if you did this somewhere where
会发生什么?
there was no weight on the drop?
水滴会反弹
Oh, then it bounces off
-我有视频-能让我看下吗?
I’ve got the video. Can we see it?
行!
Yeah!
2011年 我在
I discovered this phenomenon for myself
阿拉巴马的树林里
occurring naturally in the woods of
发现了这个自然现象 同年
alabama in 2011, the same year that
唐·佩蒂特去到
Don Pettit launched to the international
国际太空站 在那里他
space station where he accidentally
偶然地以一种美妙的方式
recreated the phenomenon in a really
重现了这种现象 他进行了
remarkable way. He performed a very
一项十分相似的扬声器实验
similar water speaker experiment, except
只不过水由于失重
in weightlessness the water forms a
而呈现球形 为了使实验
sphere. Just to make it interesting Don
更有趣 他在水球中
put an air bubble on the inside of that
弄了个气泡 然后打开了
water sphere and then he played tones
扬声器 想看看
through the speaker just to see what
会发生什么
would happen
气泡跟水球都跟扬声器纸盒
[Don]… and the air bubble is attached to the speaker cone, and so is
连在一起 现在频率是60赫兹
the water and i’m at 60 Hertz i’m going
我要把振幅调高 开始
to start increasing the amplitude, here we go
哇 水球和气泡的
Wow. So we’re getting a series of
交界处出现了
standing nodes on the interface of the
很多连续的点 接下来
air bubble with the water. I’m going to
我要放矩形波
put a square wave in
嗯…接下来是三角波
OK… triangle wave
唐放了不同频率 振幅 类型的
So Don played with different frequencies, amplitudes,
音乐 比如摇滚
he played different types of music like rock
然后 他播放了大提琴
and roll, and then he played the cello
唐说 播放大提琴的时候
Don said whenever he played cello music specifically,
水滴总会
little drops would break off
脱离水球
on the inside of the sphere
在气泡里面弹来弹去
and start bouncing around on the inside.
大提琴?
A Cello!?
大提琴:我们不一样!
There’s something about the Cello!
[音乐:巴赫大提琴第一号组曲 前奏曲]
[Music: Bach’s Cello Suite No. 1 – Prelude]
这个视频点燃了我的大脑
This video sets my brain. on. fire.
前面我们讲了
We’ve learned two main mechanisms for
两种合并机制
coalescence we have the weight of the
一种是水滴的重量
drop that squishes that air boundary and
挤压掉空气
makes it go
另一种是没有重量
we have no weight, so we’re left with
只有碰撞动能 每次
collisional kinetic energy every
导致合并的碰撞
collision that results in the
都一览无遗
coalescence, everything is right there
可以直接看到发生了什么
and you can just directly see what’s happening
振动的侧壁?侧壁能使
the sidewall that’s vibrating? It makes
小的水滴比大的弹得
the small drops go faster than the big
更远 因为质量较小
drops, because there’s lower mass but
而激发能相同
it’s the same amount of excitation energy
我爱死这个视频了
i really liked this video
大自然的鬼斧神工沁人心脾
it’s beautiful on multiple levels and I
希望你也感受得到
I want you to think it’s beautiful too
[音乐:巴赫大提琴第一号组曲]
[Music: Bach Cello Suite 1]
很久以来 这是我的一个
this has been a huge science goal for me
重大科学目标 所以我
for a really long time, so I want to say thankyou
想感谢谷歌科技团队
to the google making in science team
让我得以制作这个视频 谢谢
for making this video possible thank you
如果想看好玩的视频
so much if you would seem really cool
搜索#sciencegoals
videos check out the hashtag #sciencegoals
每时每刻都有
there’s all kinds of videos being
各种视频上传 比如
uploaded all the time for example check
NightHawkInLight上的版主Ben
out Ben at NightHawkInLight, obviously he
也就是刚刚扬声器的
helped me make this video it was his
主人 有了这个
speaker setup that helped us do the
才有了视频里弹跳的水珠
stable bouncing droplets in this video
或者检索 Diana AKA PhysicsGirl
or check out Diana AKA PhysicsGirl who
她会教你如何
teaches you how to make anti-bubbles in
在家中用日用品制造反泡沫
your own home using household items
你也可以检索
or you can go check out this cool video
真理频道上的Derek
by Derek at Veritasium who explains that the
他解释了水滴反弹机制
bouncing drop mechanism can be used to
可以用于量子理论
model quantum theory. He uses bouncing
他用硅油滴的反弹 再现了
drops of silicone oil to reproduce the
双缝实验 在sciencegoals
double-slit experiment check out any of
标签下检索更多视频
these other videos under the hashtag #sciencegoals
见证科学之美
to go see really awesome science content
十分感谢唐·佩蒂特
A huge thank you to Don Pettit
分享表面化学的知识
for sharing his knowledge of
和他在太空的影片
surface chemistry and his orbital footage
感谢他的谦虚 这真是极好的
in a really humble way that was awesome
谢谢唐!最后 我们刚刚用到的
thank you Don! Last thing, the v2511
幻影V2511现在
the Phantom that we used in this video
归聪明日所有
that’s now thing on smarter every day
这也是我很久前的
which has also been a science goal for a
一个科学梦想 如果你
really long time so if you’re interested
想订阅我们的节目
in subscribing you’ve ever thought about
机不可失
it now is a really good time to do that
因为你会越拖越久
because the slow more is about to get slower
观看更多高清 有趣的
it’s about the higher resolution and
视频 请尽情
it’s about to get more fun. Feel free to
戳我的头像订阅 如果你不想 那就算了
click my face if you’d like to subscribe if not that’s it.
我是Destin 你在聪明日 每日更聪明祝好
I’m Destin, you’re getting smarter every day. Have a good one.

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译制信息
视频概述

当水掉在水里的时候会发生什么?直接融合吗?看我左手右手一个慢动作,一起来观察自然界的神奇…

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

小大红

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJDEsAy9RyM

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