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拉丁语的价值 - Ryan Sellers

The Value of Latin | Ryan Sellers | TEDxMemphis

瑞安•赛勒斯拉丁语的价值
Ryan SellersThe value of Latin
1月25日 洛杉矶湖人队的科比•布莱恩特
In January 25th, Kobe Bryant at the Los Angeles Lakers
严厉地批评了美国年轻一代的
made some very critical comments about the younger generation of
篮球运动员
basketball players in the American.
在孟菲斯灰熊队败北后
He was actually during a press conference
召开的新闻发布会上
following a loss to our own Memphis Grizzlies,
他猛烈抨击了加入业余体育联合会的年轻人
in which he lashed out the young man who have come up for the AAU system.
他说尽管这些年轻运动员可能已经掌握了
He said that alothough these young palyers may have mastered
很多炫目的控球技巧
a lot of fancy dribbling techniques
和反重力暴扣
and gravity-defying slam dunks,
但他们从未学到篮球的基本技巧
they never learned the basic skills about basketball,
带球上篮 罚球 中距离投篮
layups, free throws, mid-range shots,
背身单打 抢位挡人 篮板球 传球和防守
posting-up, boxing-out, rebounding, passing and playing defense.
通过他对这些年轻运动员的观察总结
And summarizing his observations about these young players.
科比作出了极具洞察力的评价
Kobe made a very perceptive comment,
他说 “他们不知道比赛的基本原理”
he said, “they don’t know the fundamentals of the game.”
正如这些基本原理之于篮球比赛的重要性
Just as the fundamentals is important in basketballs,
基本原理对于教育也很重要
they’re also important in education.
我们不可能只通过让学生看看电脑
We can’t prepare students for the future
就让他们未来无忧 一片光明
simply by giving them a laptop and hoping for the best.
我们都知道TED这样的演讲
Now we all know the TED events like
是基于各种想法的
this are based on ideas,
了不起的想法 违反直觉的想法
big ideas, counterintuitive ideas.
所以我今天想提出的想法是:
So the idea I’d like to propose today is this:
要让学生掌握基本原理 为未来做好准备
one of the most effective ways of building strong fundamentals in students
挺讽刺的是
and prepaing them for future,
其中一个最有效的方法是回顾过去的拉丁语教学
ironically enough is by looking to the past through the teaching of Latin.
拉丁语会让学生的思维更有逻辑性
Latin will help students think more logically,
交流更有效率
communicate more effectively and
更能理解周边的世界
have a more comprehensive understanding of the world around them,
无论将来技术会多么先进
no matter how technologically advanced that world may become.
首先 让我们澄清一个常见的错觉
To begin with, let’s address a commen misconception
那就是拉丁语已死
that Latin is a dead language
2000年前的古欧洲人说拉丁语
spoken by ancient European 2000 years ago,
跟活在21世纪的人没有什么关系
holding no relevance whatsoever for people living in the 21 century.
甚至有一首旧诗表达了这种观点
There’s even an old poem that expresses the point of view.
拉丁语是一种死得不能再死的语言
Latin is a language, as dead as dead can be.
它先是杀了古罗马人 现在又来杀我了
First it killed the romans and now it’s killing me.
学生们有时可能觉得是这样
Now students may feel this way sometimes but the…
但是这根本不是真的
this simply is not true,
事实是拉丁语从未死去
the reality is that Latin never died,
也从未以一个纯粹悲剧的死亡形象面临崩溃
and never came to a crashing end with a death of a single tragic figure.
它只是随着时间推移逐渐进化了
It’s simply evolved gradually over time
变化成其他语言了
and developed into the other languages.
再者 古典拉丁语仍生机勃勃
Moreover classic Latin is still very much alive
在政府 艺术 宗教 文学 医学 法律和科学中仍然活跃
and well in government, art, religion, literature, medcine, law and science.
这不是已死的语言
It’s not a dead language.
它是永生的
It’s an eternal language.
那么 学习这门永生语言的好处是什么呢?
So, what are the benefits of studying this eternal language?
它能怎么帮助学生掌握好
How can it help students develop
如科比·布莱恩特所说的比赛的基本原理呢?
as Kobe Bryant would say the fundamentals of the game?
第一点:语言基础
First point: language foundation.
正如我刚刚提到的 拉丁语经历的是进化而不是灭绝
As I just mentioned Latin experienced an evolution not an extinction.
在这近千年的过程中
Over the course of hundreds and hundreds of years,
它逐渐发展出了一系列语言
it gradually developed into a set of languages
今天统称为罗曼语系
known today collectively as the Romance languages.
法语 意大利语 罗马尼亚语 葡萄牙语和西班牙语
French, Italian, Romanian, Portuguese and Spanish,
如果你有坚实的拉丁语基础
if you have a strong foundation in Latin,
那么学习任何这些其他语言
then learning any of these other languages
都会更加省力
will be much easier endeavor.
第二:词汇能力
Number two:Word Power
英语本质上不是罗曼语系
English is not a Romance language per se.
但不管怎样 大约60%到70%的英语词汇
But nevertheless about sixty to seventy percent of the words
都是从拉丁语衍生而来的
in the English language do derive from Latin.
下面是个例子
Here’s the example,
美国宪法序言中一个有名的句子
a famous sentence the preamble of the US Constitution.
“我们美国人民”
We the People
我记得上学的时候我得背这个
I remember having to memorize this when I was in school,
你们很多人应该也被要求背诵吧
many of you probably required to do the same.
如果我们把句子中从拉丁语衍生出来的词去掉
If we remove the Latin derivatives from this sentence,
结果如你所见
then as you can see,
剩下没几个了
not much is left behind.
因此 这反映了拉丁语是英语的骨架
Therefore this illustrates the fact that Latin is the backbone of the English language.
这对于词汇习得非常宝贵
It’s invaluable for vocabulary acquisition
那么拉丁语学生在语文部分的标准测试中
and it should come as no surprised that Latin students
比其他人的成绩更出色也就不足为奇了
outperform everyone else on the verbal sections of standardized tests.
第三:批判性思维能力
Number three, there is critical thinking skills.
在过去几年 我们已经听过很多人说
The past few years, we’ve been hearing a lot
STEM教育的重要性
about the importance of STEM education
科学 技术 工程和数学
– science, technology, engineering and mathematics.
拉丁语大概有2000多年的历史
Latin may be 2,000 years old,
但它完美地与这些21世纪的新鲜科目相匹配
but it fits in perfectly with these trendy 21st century subjects,
为什么?因为拉丁语是表述非常精准的语言
Why? Because Latin is a very mathematical language,
如同数学和科学
just like math and science,
它要求学生们极其关注细节
it requires students to pay very careful attentions to detail,
要求他们不只是去记住大量信息
and requires them not only to memorize vast amount of information,
更重要的是评估这些信息
but more importantly to evaluate that information
将其应用到新情景中
and to apply it in new situations.
第四:文化关联
Number four: cultural connections.
这样说是因为 拉丁语鼓励学生们去留意
By this I simply mean that Latin encourages students to recognize
古代世界和现代世界之间的相似之处
the parallels between the ancient world and the morden world.
下面是个例子
Here’s an example.
这是罗马诗人马歇尔写的《表演》作品集
A passage from the Roman poet Marshall from
里面的一小段
a collection called de spectaculis
他写这一段是为了庆祝弗拉维安圆形剧场的盛大开幕
which he wrote to commemorate the grand opening of the
该剧院如今更常被称为古罗马斗兽场
Flavian amphitheater a building better known today as the Colosseum.
尽管这是一首有关古罗马斗兽场的诗
Although this is a poem about the Colosseum,
但它与角斗士的竞技无关
it’s not about gladiator combat.
它反而是对观众席上观众多样性的颂扬
Instead it’s a celebration of the diversity of the spectator in the audience.
有从巴尔干半岛 俄罗斯西部 埃及
There are people understands from the Balkan Peninsula,
不列颠 阿拉伯 土耳其 德国
western Russia, Egypt, Britain Arabia,
和埃塞俄比亚来的人
Turky, Germany, and Ethiopia.
这又有什么意义呢?
What’s the significance?
意义在于 它提醒我们古罗马
Well the significance is that it reminds us that ancient Rome
曾是一个庞大的 多民族多语言的超级帝国
was a large, multi-ethnic, multilingual superpower,
就如同今天的美国
just like the United States today.
伴随着成为庞大帝国所带来的权力和荣耀
And along with the power and glory of being a huge Empire
也带来了很多危机
came a lot of very serious challenges,
我们如今也面临着很多相似的危机
many of the same challenges were facing today.
研究2000年前的古罗马人
Studying how the ancient Romans confronted these issues
是如何面对这些问题的
2000 years ago therefore,
将会有助于如今的学生以更老练的方式
will help today’s students grapple with the same issues
去解决相同的问题
in a much more sophisticated fashion.
最后一点:就业准备
Final point: career preparation.
我总是喜欢给一些例子
I always like to give some examples
关于那些着手准备就业时有坚实的拉丁语基础的人
of people who started out with a very strong foundation in Latin.
接着他们就在各大领域
And who then went on to achieve success
大获成功的故事
in a wide variety of ares.
我不只是说医生和律师
And I don’t mean just doctors and lawyers,
我是指像酷玩乐队里的克里斯·马丁这样的演奏者
I mean performers like Chris Martin from Coldplay.
出演过《办公室》和《明迪烦事多》的敏迪·卡灵
Mindy Kaling from the office and the Mindy project,
还有鲍勃·迪伦
and Bob Dylan.
迪伦不只是在明尼苏达州希宾镇上的希宾高中学过拉丁语
Dylan not only studied Latin at Hibbing High School in Hibbing Minnesota,
他还是拉丁语俱乐部的成员
but he was also a member of the Latin club.
想象一下 鲍勃·迪伦这样一个特立独行的传奇人物
Imagine that Bob Dylan a legendary nonconformist
加入了他高中的拉丁语俱乐部
joining his high school Latin Club.
他一直以来都在把古典引语
He’s been incorporating classical references
融入到他的音乐中
into his music ever since.
比如像托妮·莫里森这样的作家
Writers such as Toni Morrison the last American
最近一位获得诺贝尔文学家的美国人
to win a Nobel Prize for Literature.
还有J.K.罗琳——哈利波特系列的作者
And JK Rowling, the author of the Harry Potter series.
她们都在大学里选修古典文学
Both of whom minored in classical studies in college.
类似于CNN的创始人特德·特纳这样的企业家
Entrepreneurs such as Ted Turner, the founder of CNN.
还有脸书的创始人和CEO 马克·扎克伯格
And Mark Zuckerberg, the founder and CEO of Facebook.
扎克伯格最开始设计的计算机程序之一
One of the very first computer programs Zuckerberg ever designed
其实是一个基于古罗马帝国的电子游戏
was actually a video game based on the ancient Roman Empire.
此外 他最开始去哈佛大学
Moreover he initially went to Harvard
是出于兴趣主修古典研究专业的
with an interest in majoring in classical studies,
大家都知道 直到他被一个小计算机项目吸引了才改变志向
until as we know he was sidetracked by little computer project.
国家橄榄球联盟的四分卫 比如德鲁·布里斯
NFL quarterbacks, such as Drew Brees,
他在高中的拉丁语预修课程中成绩优异
who was an excellent ap latin student in high school.
还有罗伯特·格里芬三世
And Robert Griffin, the third
当他处于在球场上创纪录的那个赛季时
who was studying Latin at Baylor University.
在贝勒大学学了拉丁语
during a record-setting season on a field.
最后的例子是政客
And finally political figures from
从左到右依次是
both the left and the right.
比尔·克林顿 鲍里斯·约翰逊和康多莉扎·赖斯
Bill Clinton, Boris Johnson and Condoleezza Rice.
当学生们毕业并开始找工作时
When students finish school and hit the job market,
坦诚地说吧
let’s be completely honest.
潜在雇主们不会去特意找那些
Prospective employers are not specifically going to be looking for people,
能够在过去完成时的虚拟语气下结合拉丁语动词的人
who can conjugate Latin verbs in the pluperfect subjunctive.
他们不是要特意去找
They’re not specifically going to be looking for people
那些能够翻译《埃涅阿斯纪》第四卷的人
who can translate book four of the Aeneid,
他们也不会去特意找那些
and they’re not specifically going to be looking for people
能够熟背朱利奥·克劳狄王朝皇帝们的成就的人
who can rattle off the accomplishments of the giulio Claudian emperors.
但是 他们会去找那些
They will however be looking for people
有逻辑性思维 能高效沟通
who can think logically, communicate effectively
以创新方式解决问题的人
and solve problems in innovative ways.
换句话说 他们要找那些
In other words they’re going to be looking for people
懂得比赛的基本原理的人
who know the fundamentals of the game,
而我们能通过学习拉丁语培养这种基本原理
fundamentals which we can cultivate through the teaching of Latin.
非常感谢
Thank you.
[鼓掌声]
[slapping]

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视频概述

演讲者列举了5点学习拉丁语的好处,并举例证明拉丁语对于就业有帮助

听录译者

岸雩

翻译译者

One静茹

审核员

审核员T

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_6eYkDhH61Y

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