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美军最强炮——轨道炮

The US Military's Most Powerful Gun

本期《真实工程》视频由brilliant.org
This episode of Real Engineering is brought to you by brilliant.org,
一个让你像工程师一样思考问题的网站赞助播出
a problem solving website that helps you think like an engineer.
火炮的历史可以追溯到
Guns are a technology whose roots can be
十二世纪的中国
traced all the way back to 12th century China.
尽管这项技术的发展已超乎认知:
And although the technology has advanced beyond recognition:
火炮的大小和威力都在增强
with the guns growing in size and power,
弹药的形状也从球形
their ammunition has evolved from spherical
发展成我们更熟悉的子弹型
to the more familiar bullet shape
从而能在超音速情况下发挥出更佳效果
to make them more efficient at supersonic speeds;
炮筒里也加装了螺旋线来使飞行的炮弹
the barrels have been bored with twists to impart a spin
高速自旋 使它的射击更加精确
on the round to make it more accurate;
它们的运输方式也给其使用带来了变革
and the method of their transportation has revolutionized how they’re used.
但几个世纪以来 有一件事却从未改变
But there has been one constant for this technology through the centuries.
我们今天就来看一下
Today we’re going to learn how this
火炮技术是如何凭借轨道炮的发明
technology looks set to be revolutionized by its largest iteration to date
经历最大的变革的
with the invention of the rail gun.
轨道炮使用
Rail guns are guns
电磁力而不是爆炸产生的力
that use electromagnetic force
来推动炮弹
to propel a projectile instead of an explosive.
使用爆炸物来提供推力有一些缺点
Using explosives to power artillery has some drawbacks.
最突出的一个缺点
Perhaps the most glaring one,
就是海军舰船不得不携带巨量的火药
being that naval ships have to carry huge caches of
来为火炮供能
explosives on board to power their guns.
这在历史上已多次造成严重后果
This has backfired several times throughout history,
尤其是在二战期间
particularly during World War II
发生过多次日军攻击并
when on multiple occasions Japanese attacks
引爆舰船上贮存的大量军火的事件
detonated huge stores of ammunitions within ships,
其中最骇人的莫过于
with the most horrifying case being
神风特工队对约翰·伯克号驱逐舰的攻击
the kamikaze attack on the USS John Burke,
其引起的爆炸使得整个
where the resulting explosion dwarfed
护航队伍中的大型船只都显得相形见绌
the gigantic ships in its convoy.
很明显 轨道炮可以杜绝此类事件发生
Obviously, avoiding future cases of this would be ideal;
但轨道炮的优点不止于此
but this isn’t the only advantage.
目前的轨道炮设计能够使所有海军军舰的
Current railgun designs are doubling the muzzle velocity
出口速度翻倍
of all naval artillery
达到6马赫的超音速——
with hypersonic speeds up to Mach 6 —
目前大多数军舰火炮最快能到3马赫
most naval artillery max out at Mach 3.
如果没有高速度带来的更大阻力
This would extend the range and
这种速度扩大的射程
reduce the time to impact by nearly double too
和减少的时间都是双倍的
if it wasn’t for the elevated air resistance at these speeds.
这项技术数十年来一直是美军关注的焦点
This technology has been a focus of the US military
而这是有充分理由的
for decades, and for good reason.
那么我们就来看看它的工作原理以及
So let’s see how it works and
在它投入使用之前需要哪些方面的提高
what needs to improve before we see it introduced to service.
轨道炮利用电磁推动电枢运转
Rail guns use electromagnetism to propel a conductive armature,
使射弹沿指定航向飞行
housing the projectile, downrange.
物理原理很简单 但数学计算很复杂
The physics is quite simple, however the math is not.
两根平行的导轨连接到电源
Two parallel rods are connected to a power source —
它们可看作是炮筒
these two rods can be considered the weapon’s barrel.
连接这两根导轨并使电路连通的就是电枢
Connecting these two rods and completing the circuit is the armature.
电流流过导轨时
As the current passes through the rails,
会产生磁场
it generates a magnetic field.
电流流过电枢也会产生磁场
The same happens as it passes through the armature.
在磁场中 这些互相垂直的电流
The interaction of these perpendicular currents
之间相互作用 产生了洛伦兹力
through the magnetic field produces something called the Lorentz Force.
这种力同时垂直于电流方向
This force acts both perpendicular to the flow
与磁场方向
of the current and the magnetic field.
在轨道炮里面
In the case of the railgun,
这种力就会推动射弹
this force is what pushes the projectile
射出炮筒 继续航行
through the barrel and downrange.
洛伦兹力的优点在于 它是连贯的
The beauty of the Lorentz Force is that it’s consistent,
这也就意味着炮管越长 出口速度就越大
meaning the longer the barrel the higher the muzzle velocity.
但仅仅是用来克服
but the power required to simply overcome the static friction
一个微型导轨内部摩擦力
within the barrel of a miniature railgun
都需要大量的能量
can require significant amounts of energy
而这种能量绝大多数人很难接触到
most individuals don’t easily have access to.
问题就开始
This is when things start to
变得极为有趣或极具挑战性
get extremely interesting or extremely challenging,
因为解决洛伦兹力
because both solving for the Lorentz Force
和生成充足的洛伦兹力
and generating sufficient Lorentz Force
都是在最近二十年里才得到实现
are both huge engineering challenges that have only
并且持续的工程大挑战
been made possible and sustainable in the last 20 years.
在轨道炮中 洛伦兹力的大小
The Lorentz Force, in the case of a railgun,
只是电流 导轨长度
is simply the current multiplied by the armature width,
磁场强度(单位为特斯拉)和sin(θ)的简单乘积
the magnetic field in Teslas, and sine theta,
其中θ是电流的角度
where theta is the angle of the current,
这里θ为90度
which in this case is 90 degrees.
磁场强度B是由轨道炮设计决定的属性
The magnetic field B is a property of the railguns design,
比如材料 导轨间距
such as materials, rail separation,
直径 以及整个设计的几何结构
and diameter and overall design geometry.
在某些假设条件下 这些方程式比较合理
With some assumptions, the equations clean up a bit,
但在实际设计中 这些假设并不能实现
but for actual railgun design, these assumptions can’t be made.
尽管该项技术拥有巨大潜力
While this technology has huge potential,
但要做出一套严谨的武器系统
there are some problems that need to be overcome
仍有许多问题需要克服
to make this a serious weapon system.
首先
First and foremost,
用来发射射弹的这种力
the same force that is applied to the armature
也会作用在平行导轨上
also acts on the parallel rails.
毫不夸张地说 武器系统的每次开火
Quite literally, every time the weapon system is fired,
都是在努力地试图撕裂其自身
the gun is actively trying to tear itself apart.
此外
On top of all this,
每次发射产生的热量相当之多
the heat generated during each shot is so immense;
多到可以熔化导轨
it is melting the rails.
在使用武器系统模型进行演习测试时就可以看到
This can be seen during test fire drills with prototype railgun systems.
射弹后边的那个释放物
That discharge you see behind the projectile
不是由爆炸性的推射产生的
is not the result of explosive propulsion,
而是由流经导轨的巨大电流
but a result of the resistive electric heating created
以及电枢与导轨之间的摩擦力
by the huge current running through the rails
产生的电阻热的结果
and the frictional force between the armature and the rail,
这也使导轨在每次发射中都会熔失一部分材料
causing the rails to melt and shed material during each shot,
对其造成了损害
causing more damage to the rail.
这些都是不可避免的副作用
These are unavoidable side effects,
而这些损害使得轨道炮在完全报废之前
which are currently limiting the railgun to just a few shots
仅能发射几颗弹丸
before the damage breaks the gun entirely.
另一个并且有可能是对轨道炮
Next, and possibly the most obvious limitation
总体设计最明显的限制
to the railgun design as a whole,
就是动力
is power.
只要这种武器投入使用
For this weapon to ever be introduced to service,
那就一定得同时配备能提供
it’ll have to be paired with a power source
25兆瓦功率的电源来为发射供能
capable of providing the 25 megawatts needed to fire it.
即便是之前的发电船有这样的能力
Even if previous generation ships had this capability,
在满足船只系统和发射的用电需求后
they would not have had enough power in reserve
备用电力也不再够用了
after satisfying the needs to the onboard systems and propulsion.
但美国新一代的朱姆沃尔特级驱逐舰
But America’s new futuristic Zumwalt-Class Destroyer
是一艘在测试这种新式武器的
is an all-electric composite ship
全电力复合材料舰船
that was slated to test this new weapon.
拥有78兆瓦发电能力的发电机
With a generator capable of creating 78 megawatts,
该驱逐舰在满足全舰基本电力需求后
it would still have 58 megawatts of capacity available
仍有58兆瓦的剩余功率可用
after providing for the rest of the ship’s essential power requirements.
轨道炮研发中的困难和对该驱逐舰建造的
Difficulties in railgun development and fiscal pull backs
资金撤回已经延迟了这种武器的部署
in Zumwalt construction have delayed their introduction.
但它们可以并有可能
But they can, and likely will,
只要耐久性问题能得到解决
be retrofitted in the coming years,
在接下来的几年里就继续得到改进
once the current Durability problems have been solved.
尽管这项技术目前都是军方在资助
And while this technology is currently being funded by the military,
但它对其他行业也会有深刻影响
it has far-reaching potential for other industries.
我们最近谈到过使用传统导弹
We spoke recently of the challenges
拦截洲际弹道导弹所面临的挑战
of intercepting ICBMs with traditional missiles.
轨道炮使得多重拦截能以较低成本
Rail guns could allow multiple interceptors to be quickly fired
进行快速反应 并提高拦截的成功率
at a fraction of the cost and increase the chances of success.
它们已经被认为是保护地球
They have even been suggested as a means
受到小行星威胁的一种途径
of protecting the earth from asteroids,
即利用太空轨道中的巨型版本
with huge versions in orbit,
来摧毁即将撞来的小行星 或是改变其飞行方向
to destroy or change the direction of incoming asteroids.
如果我们能单单利用
Launching a satellite like this
磁场对移动电荷施加的力来把
could also be made drastically cheaper too
材料运送到轨道上
if we can deliver the materials to orbit
像这样发射一颗卫星
with nothing more than the force a magnetic field
也能够变得相当廉价
imparts on a moving electric charge.
如果你想了解更多关于
If you’d like to learn more about
电磁学的知识以及它们影响世界的方式
electricity and magnetism and how they affect the world around us
或者其他任何的科学与数学原理
or any number of other scientific and mathematical principles,
最好的学习并理解这些原理的方式
the best way to learn and understand principles
就是亲自去实践它们
like this is by applying them yourself,
而这正是brilliant.org能为你做的
and that’s exactly what brilliant.org allows you to do.
我开设此频道的目的之一 就是想
One of my goals with this channel is to
激励观众们紧跟工程师先辈们的步伐
inspire my viewers to follow the path of past engineers
让这个世界变得更加美好
to make this world a better place.
但是只有我们学着亲自去搞懂这些原理才行
But to do that you have to learn how to apply these principles yourself.
Brilliant就是这样一个解决问题的网站
Brilliant is a problem-solving site that
它会通过将问题分解为易消化的小块
helps you think like an engineer
来帮助你像工程师一样思考
by guiding you through problems that are broken
从而使你从一无所知
into digestible sections that bring you from knowing nothing
变成对事物有深入的理解
to having a deep understanding of the topic.
我最喜欢的地方就是
What I love is that when you answer
当你的回答有错误时 它甚至能详细地指出原因
something incorrectly, it even tells you exactly why,
所以你能改正错误的想法
so you can correct your misconceptions.
为了支持Real Engineering并对Brilliant了解更多
To support Real Engineering and learn more about Brilliant,
前往brilliant.org/realengineering
go to brilliant.org/realengineering
并免费注册吧
and sign up for free.
并且前两百名点击链接的
And the first 200 people that go to that link
观众将可以得到购买年费会员的八折优惠
will get 20% off their annual premium subscription.
Brilliant与我的频道内容十分契合 所以快去访问吧
Brilliant is a perfect fit for my channel, so please check them out.
和平常一样 感谢Patreon上所有支持者们
As usual, thank you to all my Patreon supporters
为该频道的生存做出的努力
for helping this channel exist.
我与来自Wendover Productions的山姆
Myself and Sam from Wendover Productions
刚刚在我们的播客Showmakers上
just released the latest episode
发布了最新的一集视频
of our podcast, Showmakers,
其中邀请到了特殊嘉宾 克里斯蒂安·蒂尔尼
with special guest, Christian Tierney,
一位杰出的摄影师兼电视录像制作人
who is an incredible photographer and videographer
他最近在康纳·麦格雷戈与
who recently worked with Conor McGregor
弗洛伊德·梅威瑟的最后一战中与前者共事过
for his last fight with Floyd Mayweather.
相关视频链接已在屏幕上了
The link for that should be on screen now.

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视频概述

轨道炮是火炮发展历史上的一个重要变革,我们一起来看看它的工作原理和实际中遇到的问题吧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2HcqS508lIo

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