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认识重叠区效应的紧迫性

The urgency of intersectionality | Kimberlé Crenshaw

认识重叠区效应的紧迫性【启点字幕组】
Light up the world
我想尝试一些新鲜的做法【金伯莉•克伦肖】
I’d like to try something new.
在座的各位能够参加的 请起立
Those of you who are able, please stand up.
好的 我会说出一些人的名字【2016年10月 加州 旧金山 】
OK, so I’m going to name some names.
你若没听过这个名字【由TED女权频道录制】
When you hear a name that you don’t recognize,
又不能说出任何关于这个名字的信息的话
you can’t tell me anything about them,
请坐下
I’d like you to take a seat
坐着就好
and stay seated.
对于能站到最后的 我们看看他们都知道些什么 好吗
The last person standing, we’re going to see what they know. OK?
好了
All right.
埃里克•加纳
Eric Garner.
迈克•布朗
Mike Brown.
泰米尔•赖斯
Tamir Rice.
弗雷迪•格雷
Freddie Gray.
请现在仍站着的各位
So those of you who are still standing,
转个身看一看
I’d like you to turn around and take a look.
看起来有一多半的人仍然站着
I’d say half to most of the people are still standing.
那我们继续
So let’s continue.
米歇尔•库索
Michelle Cusseaux.
塔妮莎•安德森
Tanisha Anderson.
奥拉•罗塞尔
Aura Rosser.
梅根•霍卡迪
Meagan Hockaday.
我们再往周围看一下
So if we look around again,
大概只剩下四个人站着了
there are about four people still standing,
事实上我不会把各位架在火上烤的
and actually I’m not going to put you on the spot.
我那样说显然是为了鼓励大家 各位可以坐下了
I just say that to encourage transparency, so you can be seated.
你们当中辨认出第一组姓名的人知道
So those of you who recognized the first group of names know
这些人是在过去的两年半时间里
that these were African-Americans who have been killed by the police
被警察杀害的非裔美国人
over the last two and a half years.
大家可能不知道的是
What you may not know
第二组也是过去两年内
is that the other list is also African-Americans
被杀害的非裔美国人
who have been killed within the last two years.
而你们认识的与不认识的名字之间
Only one thing distinguishes the names that you know
只有一个差别
from the names that you don’t know:
性别
gender.
首先要声明一下 观众群体
So let me first let you know that there’s nothing at all distinct
是无差别的
about this audience
这也解释了我们刚看到的认知模式
that explains the pattern of recognition that we’ve just seen.
我已经在全国做过十几次这个实验
I’ve done this exercise dozens of times around the country.
无论是女权组织
I’ve done it to women’s rights organizations.
民权组织
I’ve done it with civil rights groups.
教授 学生
I’ve done it with professors. I’ve done it with students.
心理学家 社会学家
I’ve done it with psychologists. I’ve done it with sociologists.
甚至是国会中的进步人士都是实验对象【可能指进步派国会小组】
I’ve done it even with progressive members of Congress.
而每一个群体
And everywhere, the awareness of the level of police violence
对黑人女性所遭遇的警察暴力的认知水平
that black women experience
都非常低
is exceedingly low.
难以置信 不是吗 竟然会有这样的事
Now, it is surprising, isn’t it, that this would be the case.
这里涉及两个问题
I mean, there are two issues involved here.
一个是针对非裔美国人的警察暴力
There’s police violence against African-Americans,
还有一个是 针对女性的暴力
and there’s violence against women,
这两个问题是最近的热议话题
two issues that have been talked about a lot lately.
但当我们思考 谁和这些问题相关联
But when we think about who is implicated by these problems,
谁是这些问题的受害者时
when we think about who is victimized by these problems,
我们永远不会想到这些黑人女性的名字
the names of these black women never come to mind.
如今 沟通方面的专家告诉我们
Now, communications experts tell us
当现实情况不适用于任何已有框架时
that when facts do not fit with the available frames,
人们很难将新产生的事实
people have a difficult time incorporating new facts
与曾经思考问题的方式相结合
into their way of thinking about a problem.
这些女性的名字被我们的意识忽略了
These women’s names have slipped through our consciousness
因为没有合适的框架来看待她们
because there are no frames for us to see them,
没有合适的框架去记住她们
no frames for us to remember them,
没有合适的框架去持续关注她们
no frames for us to hold them.
因此
As a consequence,
记者们不会把她们作为头条
reporters don’t lead with them,
决策者不会考虑她们
policymakers don’t think about them,
没人鼓励或要求政客为她们讲话
and politicians aren’t encouraged or demanded that they speak to them.
你或许会问
Now, you might ask,
为什么框架会如此重要呢
why does a frame matter?
我是说 毕竟
I mean, after all,
一个影响到黑人 影响到女性的问题
an issue that affects black people and an issue that affects women,
不是已经囊括了黑人中的女性
wouldn’t that necessarily include black people who are women
还有女性中的黑人吗
and women who are black people?
简单来说 这对实现社会公义就是一种涓滴的方式
Well, the simple answer is that this is a trickle-down approach to social justice,
而且多数情况下 这种方式收效甚微
and many times it just doesn’t work.
如果没有认知的框架
Without frames that allow us to see
我们将很难意识到社会问题对于被针对群体的冲击
how social problems impact all the members of a targeted group,
很多人会陷入我们根据框架判断所作出行为不足而产生的裂缝当中
many will fall through the cracks of our movements,
并被遗落在当中 承受看不见的隔离
left to suffer in virtual isolation.
但不是非要如此
But it doesn’t have to be this way.
许多年前 我开始使用“重叠区效应”这个词
Many years ago, I began to use the term “intersectionality”
来处理社会公义问题
to deal with the fact that many of our social justice problems
如种族歧视 性别歧视
like racism and sexism
(这些事情)时常交叉发生
are often overlapping,
制造出多重社会公正问题
creating multiple levels of social injustice.
重叠区效应的产生于
Now, the experience that gave rise to intersectionality
我偶遇艾玛•德格拉菲瑞
was my chance encounter with a woman named Emma DeGraffenreid.
艾玛•德格拉菲瑞是一位非裔美国妇女
Emma DeGraffenreid was an African-American woman,
一个挣钱养家的妻子 也是一位母亲
a working wife and a mother.
我是在法律意见书上读到艾玛的遭遇的
I actually read about Emma’s story from the pages of a legal opinion
这篇意见书出自一位法官之手
written by a judge who had dismissed Emma’s claim
他驳回了 艾玛因遭遇种族和性别歧视
of race and gender discrimination
而对当地汽车生产厂提起的诉讼
against a local car manufacturing plant.
艾玛 像许许多多非裔美国女性一样
Emma, like so many African-American women,
为了养家糊口及其他人寻求更好的工作
sought better employment for her family and for others.
她想为她的孩子们和家庭创造一个更好的环境
She wanted to create a better life for her children and for her family.
但她应聘职位时
But she applied for a job,
却被拒之门外
and she was not hired,
她认为自己之所以没被雇佣 是因为自己是一名黑人妇女
and she believed that she was not hired because she was a black woman.
法官讨论后驳回了艾玛的起诉
Now, the judge in question dismissed Emma’s suit,
驳回理由是
and the argument for dismissing the suit was
雇主确实雇佣了非裔美国人【是否存在种族歧视】
that the employer did hire African-Americans
也雇佣了女性【是否存在性别歧视】
and the employer hired women.
但法官不愿意正视真正的问题
The real problem, though, that the judge was not willing to acknowledge
也是艾玛尝试说出的现象
was what Emma was actually trying to say,
非裔美国人通常受雇于
that the African-Americans that were hired,
生产岗位 维修岗位 并且都是男性【是否存在种族歧视】
usually for industrial jobs, maintenance jobs, were all men.
而被雇佣的女人
And the women that were hired,
通常为秘书或前台工作【是否存在性别歧视】
usually for secretarial or front-office work,
并且都是白人【是否存在性别歧视】
were all white.
只有法庭将这些雇佣条款放到一起
Only if the court was able to see how these policies came together
才会发现双重歧视的存在
would he be able to see the double discrimination
也就是艾玛•德格拉菲瑞正面对的(歧视)
that Emma DeGraffenreid was facing.
但是法庭拒绝艾玛将两种行为的原因放在一起
But the court refused to allow Emma to put two causes of action together
来讲她的遭遇
to tell her story
因为法官相信 如果他允许艾玛这样做
because he believed that, by allowing her to do that,
艾玛就会被特殊对待
she would be able to have preferential treatment.
也就是说 在棒球赛中 其他非裔美国男性和白人女性只能挥一下球棒
She would have an advantage by being able to have two swings at the bat,
而她能挥两下
when African-American men and white women only had one swing at the bat.
当然了 非裔美国男性和白人女性
But of course, neither African-American men or white women
都不需要将种族歧视和性别歧视结合起来
needed to combine a race and gender discrimination claim
讲述他们经历过的歧视
to tell the story of the discrimination they were experiencing.
为什么 法律拒绝为非裔美国妇女提供保护
Why wasn’t the real unfairness
不是真正的不公平
law’s refusal to protect African-American women
仅仅因为她们的经历与
simply because their experiences weren’t exactly the same
白人女性还有非裔美国男性的经历不甚相同吗
as white women and African-American men?
法庭没有将非裔美国女性包含到框架当中
Rather than broadening the frame to include African-American women,
而是将她们的案子直接扔出了法庭
the court simply tossed their case completely out of court.
作为一名反歧视法(专业)的学生
Now, as a student of antidiscrimination law,
一位女权主义者
as a feminist,
一位反种族主义者
as an antiracist,
我为这件案例感到震惊
I was struck by this case.
好像不公正得势了
It felt to me like injustice squared.
首先
So first of all,
黑人女性被工厂拒绝
black women weren’t allowed to work at the plant.
第二 法庭通过法律上的轻视
Second of all, the court doubled down on this exclusion
又一次拒绝了这名黑人女性
by making it legally inconsequential.
第三 这个问题甚至没有名字
And to boot, there was no name for this problem.
我们都知道 当一个问题没有名字时
And we all know that, where there’s no name for a problem,
你就看不到这个问题
you can’t see a problem,
而当你看不到问题时 你也很可能没办法解决它
and when you can’t see a problem, you pretty much can’t solve it.
许多年过去了 我逐渐意识到
Many years later, I had come to recognize
艾玛遇到的问题 是一个框架问题
that the problem that Emma was facing was a framing problem.
法庭用于辨识性别歧视
The frame that the court was using
或是种族歧视的框架
to see gender discrimination or to see race discrimination
是不公平的 扭曲的
was partial, and it was distorting.
对我来说 我那时面临的挑战
For me, the challenge that I faced was
是试着想出 是否存在一种可选择的描述
trying to figure out whether there was an alternative narrative,
一个可以让我们看到艾玛困境的棱镜
a prism that would allow us to see Emma’s dilemma,
一个可以让我们将艾玛从法律漏洞中拯救出来的棱镜
a prism that would allow us to rescue her from the cracks in the law,
可以让法官们看到她的经历的棱镜
that would allow judges to see her story.
所以我想到
So it occurred to me,
也许做一个与十字路口相似的类比
maybe a simple analogy to an intersection
可以让法官更清晰地看到艾玛的困境
might allow judges to better see Emma’s dilemma.
通向这个十字路口的道路
So if we think about this intersection, the roads to the intersection would be
会是种族和性别构成劳动力量的道路
the way that the workforce was structured by race and by gender.
这些道路中的交通规则则是雇佣政策
And then the traffic in those roads would be the hiring policies
以及其他通向这些道路的尝试
and the other practices that ran through those roads.
因为艾玛既是黑人又是女性
Now, because Emma was both black and female,
她的位置就恰好处于这些道路重合的地方【性别歧视】【种族歧视】
she was positioned precisely where those roads overlapped,
她同时经历着
experiencing the simultaneous impact
这家公司对于性别和种族的歧视所带来的冲击
of the company’s gender and race traffic.
法律呢 法律就像图中出现的救护车
The law — the law is like that ambulance that shows up
已经准备好去救助艾玛
and is ready to treat Emma only if it can be shown
前提是她要证明自己是在种族歧视那条路上受的伤还是在性别歧视这条路上受的伤
that she was harmed on the race road or on the gender road
而不是在两条路交叉的位置上
but not where those roads intersected.
所以你会怎样看待这种被多重力量冲击
So what do you call being impacted by multiple forces
并将你抛弃 不再保护你的现象呢
and then abandoned to fend for yourself?
重叠区效应看起来就是我要的表达
Intersectionality seemed to do it for me.
我会继续学习关于非裔美国女性
I would go on to learn that African-American women,
其他肤色的女性
like other women of color,
全世界处于社会边缘的人群
like other socially marginalized people all over the world,
都面临的 由重叠区效应引起的
were facing all kinds of dilemmas and challenges
各种困境和挑战
as a consequence of intersectionality,
来自种族和性别(歧视)的重叠区
intersections of race and gender,
来自同性恋歧视 跨性别恐惧 排外主义 体能歧视(的重叠区)
of heterosexism, transphobia, xenophobia, ableism,
所有这些社会动力一起涌来
all of these social dynamics come together
所带来的挑战 有时是相当独特的
and create challenges that are sometimes quite unique.
但同样的
But in the same way
重叠区效应
that intersectionality
提升了我们对于黑人女性生活方式的认知
raised our awareness to the way that black women live their lives,
这同样暴露了非裔美国女性可悲的生存环境
it also exposes the tragic circumstances
身处其中 她们往往死于非命
under which African-American women die.
对于黑人女性的警察暴力
Police violence against black women
是真实存在的
is very real.
黑人女性所面临的暴力是
The level of violence that black women face
她们中的一些仅仅与警察遭遇就要丢掉性命
is such that it’s not surprising
而这种暴力程度并不令人惊讶
that some of them do not survive their encounters with police.
七岁的黑人女孩
Black girls as young as seven,
九十五岁的奶奶
great grandmothers as old as 95
都被警察杀害
have been killed by the police.
她们在自家客厅被杀害
They’ve been killed in their living rooms,
在自己卧室被杀
in their bedrooms.
她们在车内被杀害
They’ve been killed in their cars.
她们在街道上被杀害
They’ve been killed on the street.
她们在父母面前被杀害
They’ve been killed in front of their parents
甚至是在自己的孩子们注视下被杀害
and they’ve been killed in front of their children.
她们死于枪下
They have been shot to death.
她们死于践踏
They have been stomped to death.
她们死于窒息
They have been suffocated to death.
她们死于粗暴对待
They have been manhandled to death.
她们死于电击
They have been tasered to death.
她们在求助过程中被夺去生命
They’ve been killed when they’ve called for help.
她们在独处时被夺去生命
They’ve been killed when they were alone,
她们在社交时被夺去生命
and they’ve been killed when they were with others.
因为是黑人 购物时被害
They’ve been killed shopping while black,
因为是黑人 开车时被害
driving while black,
因为是黑人 她们创后精神失常
having a mental disability while black,
因为是黑人 她们经历着非法入侵
having a domestic disturbance while black.
因为是黑人 她们无家可归被残忍杀害
They’ve even been killed being homeless while black.
因为是黑人 她们打电话时被杀
They’ve been killed talking on the cell phone,
与朋友笑闹
laughing with friends,
坐在登记被盗窃的车里
sitting in a car reported as stolen
在白宫前掉头
and making a U-turn in front of the White House
后座上有个系这安全带的婴儿
with an infant strapped in the backseat of the car.
为什么我们不知道这些事情呢
Why don’t we know these stories?
为什么她们生命的流逝
Why is it that their lost lives
不能引起同样程度的媒体关注和公众抗议
don’t generate the same amount of media attention and communal outcry
像他们丧生的兄弟一样呢
as the lost lives of their fallen brothers?
是时候做出改变了
It’s time for a change.
那么我们能做什么呢
So what can we do?
在2014年 非裔美国人政策论坛开始要求我们
In 2014, the African-American Policy Forum began to demand
说出她们的名字
that we “say her name”
在集会上 在抗议中
at rallies, at protests,
在大会上 在会谈中
at conferences, at meetings,
任何地点 所有位置
anywhere and everywhere
声讨对黑人群体的暴力被提上日程
that state violence against black bodies is being discussed.
但仅是说出她们的名字并不够
But saying her name is not enough.
我们要做更多
We have to be willing to do more.
我们要自愿站出来作证
We have to be willing to bear witness,
为那些我们宁愿不去面对的
to bear witness to the often painful realities
痛苦的事实作证
that we would just rather not confront,
为黑人女性每天都要面对的暴力和侮辱作证
the everyday violence and humiliation that many black women have had to face,
不论种族
black women across color,
年龄 性别表现
age, gender expression,
性别和能力的黑人女性
sexuality and ability.
我们现在就能做出选择
So we have the opportunity right now —
记住接下来我与你们分享的一些照片
bearing in mind that some of the images that I’m about to share with you
可能会让你们想要
may be triggering for some —
一同为这些暴力作证
to collectively bear witness to some of this violence.
这个过程会伴随灵魂歌者艾比 道伯森的歌声【澳大利亚音乐人】
We’re going to hear the voice of the phenomenal Abby Dobson.
当我们与这些女人在一起
And as we sit with these women,
她们有的经历过暴力 有的没能挺过
some who have experienced violence and some who have not survived them,
我们有机会
we have an opportunity
能够逆转我们开场所讲到的惨剧
to reverse what happened at the beginning of this talk,
因为我们不知道这些女人的名字
when we could not stand for these women
所以我们不能为她们发声
because we did not know their names.
在播放结束时 会有一个名单
So at the end of this clip, there’s going to be a roll call.
一些黑人女性的名字会出现
Several black women’s names will come up.
我希望大家可以用念出她们名字的方式加入我们
I’d like those of you who are able to join us in saying these names
用你最大的声音
as loud as you can,
无需整齐划一
randomly, disorderly.
让我们杂乱无章的声音
Let’s create a cacophony of sound
来代表我们的目的
to represent our intention
来表示我们的支持
to hold these women up,
和她们在一起
to sit with them,
为她们作证
to bear witness to them,
把她们带到有光亮的地方
to bring them into the light.
说出来吧
(Singing) Abby Dobson: Say,
说出她的名字
say her name.
说出来吧
Say,
说出她的名字【皆为受害黑人女性名字】
say her name.
雪莉
(Audience) Shelly!
凯拉
(Audience) Kayla!
说出她的名字
say her name.
说出来吧 说出来吧
Say, say,
说出她们的名字
say her name.
说出她们的名字
Say her name.
所有这些名字【请大家起立代表全世界女性念出这些受到暴力对待的名字】
For all the names
我可能永远也不知道【请大家起立代表全世界女性念出这些受到暴力对待的名字】
I’ll never know,
说出她们的名字
say her name.
艾亚娜 斯坦利 琼斯  杰尼莎 方薇儿
KC: Aiyanna Stanley Jones, Janisha Fonville,
凯瑟琳 约翰森  凯拉 摩尔
Kathryn Johnston, Kayla Moore,
米歇尔 库索  莱琪娅 博伊德
Michelle Cusseaux, Rekia Boyd,
谢莉 弗雷  塔瑞卡 伊薇特 史密斯【照片提供自追悼会或亡者家人】
Shelly Frey, Tarika, Yvette Smith.
说出她们的名字
AD: Say her name.
我在开始时说了
KC: So I said at the beginning,
如果我们不能看见问题
if we can’t see a problem,
我们就不能解决它
we can’t fix a problem.
一起 我们一起为她们作证
Together, we’ve come together to bear witness
为她们逝去的生命
to these women’s lost lives.
但现在我们要
But the time now is to move
从哀悼和悲悯中走出来
from mourning and grief
去行动 去改变
to action and transformation.
这是我们能做的
This is something that we can do.
也是我们能选择的
It’s up to us.
谢谢你们的加入
Thank you for joining us.
谢谢
Thank you.

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译制信息
视频概述

非裔美国女性的生存环境很糟糕,她们好像随时都会有生命危险,要怎样做才能改变现状呢?听听演讲者是怎么讲的吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

启点—飞雪群山

审核员

Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akOe5-UsQ2o

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