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空中引爆核武器的意外效果 – 译学馆
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空中引爆核武器的意外效果

The Unexpected Effects of Nukes in Space

引爆一枚核弹 通常来说似乎是一件危险的事
Detonating a nuclear bomb seems like a risky business in general,
但在上世纪60年代早期
but in the early 1960’s,
美国和苏联急于向世人揭示
the US and the Soviet Union were busy trying to figure out
向太空发射一枚核弹会有什么发生
what would happen if you set one off in space.
结果并不像他们预料的那样
The answer turned out to be something they didn’t really expect.
核爆炸可能引起电磁脉冲 或者说EMP
A nuclear blast could cause a high-altitude electromagnetic pulse, or EMP,
一次强力的人造电磁能爆炸
a powerful man-made burst of electromagnetic energy that could
基本上就能毁掉地球上的通讯
basically wipe out communications here on Earth.
这也是核弹的一个全新用途
It was a whole new way to use the bomb,
这一切是偶然间发现的
and they kind of discovered it by accident.
自1958年
It all started in 1958,
即美国发射其第一颗人造卫星 探险者一号时起
when the US launched its first satellite Explorer 1.
NASA的科学家James Van Allen在上面安装了Geiger计数器
NASA scientist James Van Allen equipped it with a Geiger counter,
因为他想测量不同高度的辐射
because he wanted to measure radiation at different altitudes,
一个他过去一直用气球来进行测量的项目
a project he’d already been working on using balloons.
传回的信息有些奇怪
The readings that came back were strange.
辐射强度似乎随高度的增加而增加
Radiation levels seemed to increase with altitude,
接下来又掉到0 然后又增加
then suddenly dropped to 0, then increase,
接着又突然掉到0
and then suddenly dropped to 0 again.
更多的实验表明 0显示实际上是
More testing showed that readingsthat looked like 0 were actually
因为当时的辐射太高 以至于探测器应付不来
because the radiation levels were so high that the detector couldn’t handle it.
但是spring Van Allen意识到他有了新发现:
But that spring Van Allen realized hemade a new discovery: that there were at
在1000到60000公里的上空
least two belts around the planet
至少有两个带有电子和质子的高密度电离层带
between 1,000 and 60,000 kilometers up
围绕着地球
with extra high concentrations ofcharged particles like electrons and protons.
今天我们称之为
Today we call these belts the
VAN ALLEN带 我们知道它们
Van Allen belts and we know that they’re
由来自太阳风和高能宇宙射线的离子构成
mostly made of particles from solar wind and cosmic rays,
被地球的磁场束缚着
held in place by Earth’s magnetic field.
我们也知道 由于太阳活动 可能有不止两个带区
We also know that depending on solar activity there can be more than two of them.
那年五月 VAN ALLEN
In May of thatyear Van Allen presented his discovery
在华盛顿国际学术会议上公布了他的发现
at a press conference at the NationalAcademy in Washington DC.
那天晚些时候
Later that day,
美国军方
the US military asked
为能在VAN Allen带引爆核弹向他寻求帮助
for his help detonating nuclear weapons in the Van
美国军方长官怀疑苏联
Allen belts. US military officialssuspected the Soviets were doing
正在做高空核试验 当时也没人真正清楚
high-altitude nuclear tests, and at thetime nobody really knew how
高空核爆和在地球表面的核爆有什么不同
high-altitude explosion would differ fromone here on Earth.
Van Allen带会带来新的元素
And the Van Allen Belts added a whole new element
因为核爆会释放出大量的带电粒子
because nuclear blasts release lots of charged
加上原有的两种 就会有更多的带电粒子
particles and here with these two huge bands of more charged particles.
美国担心这来自VAN Allen带的干扰
The US was worried that interference
可能隐藏了飞来的导弹
from the Van Allen belts might hide incoming missiles or
或被用来操控核爆
that they could somehow be used to steera blast.
所以他们决定对高空引爆原子弹的可能
So they decided to learn more
做进一步的研究
about how atomic bombs behaved at high altitudes by detonating a bunch of them.
试验期间 他们结束了
During those tests they ended up
对如此高的电信号的测量
measuring electric signals so high they thought it
他们认为这是由他们使用仪器的其他缺陷造成的意外
was a fluke caused by other flaws in the instruments they were using.
但他们必须要搞清楚
But they had to wait a while to figure out what was
到底发生了什么
really happening,
因为那年晚些时候 苏联禁止了
because later that year the USSR called for a ban on
高空核爆试验 美国也同意了
high-altitude nuclear testing, and the USagreed.
接下来在1961年 苏联重启
Then in 1961 the USSR started
他们的高空核武器试验
testing their own nukes at high altitudes anyway,
美国也很快跟进
and the US quickly
包括一个海星一号试验
continued their own, including a testknown as Starfish Prime.
海星一号试验是人类第一次在高空引爆氢弹
Starfish Prime was humanity’s first hydrogen bomb detonated at a high altitude.
在距太平洋上Johnston岛发射点400公里的
It detonated 400 kilometers above a point
上空引爆
near its launch from Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean.
它也是迄今为止在太空引爆的最大的核弹
It was also the biggestbomb ever set off in space,
威力比投向广岛的那枚强100倍
100 times more powerful
爆炸威力相当于
than the Hiroshima bomb and with a blast equal to
140万吨TNT炸药
about 1.4 million tons of TNT.
但由于那里空气稀薄 爆炸没有形成火球
But withso little air around it, it didn’t make a fireball.
相反 海星一号生成的带电粒子冲天而起
Instead, the charged particleszooming away from Starfish Prime caused
形成一个巨大的光点 照亮了Johnston岛方圆几千公里的地方
a huge Aurora that could be seen for thousands of kilometers around Johnston Island.
接下来 上千公里外的夏威夷的
And then, burglar alarms started going off
警报响起
in Hawaii more than a thousand kilometers away.
27枚火箭跟随海星一号
27 rockets followed Starfish Prime to
去收集数据 甚至它们都没装备好
gather data and even they weren’t equipped
去测量到底发生了什么
to measure what happened.
美方认识到早期奇怪的试验测试
What the USlearned was that the oddly high
并不是故障
measurement from earlier tests weren’tglitches. High-altitude nuclear
高空核爆真的很不同
explosions are just very different.
在近真空的环境中
Inthe near vacuum up there, the energy
核爆释放大量的自由电子
from nuclear blast sends out lots of freeelectrons.
那些电子形成一股
Those electrons create a brief
非常强大的电磁脉冲:EMP 海星一号的EMP威力非常强大
but extremely powerful electromagneticpulse: an EMP. Starfish Prime’s EMP was so strong,
它影响到地球上距离Johnston岛上千公里之外的电流
it affected the flow ofelectricity on Earth thousands of
引起灯火管制 以及夏威夷的电力失灵
kilometers from Johnston Island, causingblackouts and electrical malfunctions in
还造成至少6颗卫星瘫痪
Hawaii and disabling at least sixsatellites.
那还只是些相对独立的地区
But that was in a relatively
今天一次EMP就能使整个国家陷入瘫痪
isolated area. Today an EMP could be used to disable an entire country.
一个美国的委员会在2008年在研究EMP后估计
A US commission to study EMPs in 2008 estimated
一次EMP攻击足以在一年内杀死
that an EMP attack could kill
百分之九十的美国人
90 % of the US population within 12 months
毕竟我们当下的生活 依赖卫星和电力
since so much of the way we live depends on satellites and the electrical grid.
美军方在海星一号后进行了
The US military ran a
几个试验
few more tests after Starfish Prime,
但都是小规模的
but they kept things a lot smaller and the
试验的数据很机密
data from those tests is stillclassified.
仅仅一年后
Only a year later the
苏联喊停另一个高空核爆 1963的《部分禁止核试验条约》
USSR proposed another moratorium on high-altitude nukes: the Limited Test Ban Treaty of 1963,
从那以后 我们就再也没有在高空引爆核弹
and we haven’t set off any nukes in space since then.
所以 最后
So in the end humanity was
人类可能会担忧
probably right to be worried about the
在空中引爆核弹的后果 但主要是因为他们
consequences of detonating nuclear bombsin space, but mainly because they
偶然发现一种使核弹的后果更糟糕的方法
accidentally stumbled upon a way to make the aftermath of the bomb even worse.
谢谢你观看这集基于史实的空间科学秀
Thanks for watching this historicalepisode of SciShow Space and thanks
尤其要谢谢我们的赞助人 是他们让这个秀成为可能
especially to our patrons on Patreon who help make this show possible.
假如你想帮助我们
If you want to help us
持续提供这些内容 只要
keep making episodes like this just go to
去到patreon.com/scishow观影
patreon.com/SciShow tolearn more,
不要忘了youtube.com/scishowspace 不要忘了订阅
and don’t forget to go to youtube.com/ScishowSpace and subscribe.

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译制信息
视频概述

高空核爆

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Tiger_woo

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRhStl7SQnM

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