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让人付费接受辐射的隧道

The tunnel where people pay to inhale radioactive gas

I know it’s infuriating when anyone presents both sides of an issue
如果主播对问题摇摆不定 让观众自己判断
and says: “let the audience decide”.
这挺让人恼火的
And I don’t really like doing meta stuff
我也不喜欢在做视频的过程里
where I talk about the process of making videos,
观点一直变来变去
but I can’t find any other way
但我找不到其它办法
to give enough context to make this video work.
来充分介绍这个视频的背景
Hence the “come for a walk with me
为了打破固定模式 今天这个
through a rough bit of the English countryside” GoPro camera shot
“穿行英国乡村一角”的GoPro视频
is important to break the format visually as well.
就显得格外重要
I’ve been sharing videos from around Germany, Austria and Switzerland
我分享在德国 奥地利和瑞士拍的视频
over the past couple of weeks.
最近几周都这样做
One of the first things I filmed on that trip was
最早拍摄的内容是一个氡气隧道
the radon tunnel, the “radonstollen”,
也叫“氡果子面包”
in Bad Kreuznach in south-west Germany.
位于德国西南部的巴特克罗伊茨纳赫
The video should have gone out weeks ago.
这个视频本该几周前就发布
But despite filming going really well on location,
但虽然视频在当地拍摄得很顺利
despite being really happy with my script and the interview at the time,
当时的脚本和采访也令我很愉快
I just wasn’t comfortable with it when I got back here to the UK.
可等我回到英国 心里却觉得有点不舒服
Radon, or “rad-don” if you’re German,
氡气 德国人叫“辐射氡”
is a colorless, odorless, radioactive gas
是一种无色无味的辐射气体
that’s produced naturally by uranium decay.
由铀衰变自然产生
All around the world, tiny tiny amounts of it seep out
全球范围内 极少量的氡气
from wide areas of the ground
从空旷的地表漏出
and get diluted into the atmosphere harmlessly.
稀释在大气中 没有危害
But if your house is in a particularly bad radon area,
但如果你家在氡浓度较高的区域
like here in Oxfordshire,
像牛津郡的这片区域
then you can get detectors installed or tests done
那你就要装个探测器或做个检测
to check that radon isn’t building up inside your house
确保房间内没有氡气聚集
and exposing you to too much radiation.
也确保自己没有遭受大量辐射
Which is why I was surprised that there are a few places in the world
让我吃惊的是在世界上有一些地方
where people go to be exposed to radon deliberately for pain relief.
人们为了缓解疼痛故意暴露在辐射中
So, the radon tunnel in Bad Kreuznach.
我来讲讲巴特克罗伊茨纳赫的氡气隧道
It is a tunnel that was founded 1775.
这条隧道是1775年建造的
People tried to find mercury here. They dug for mercury.
为了寻找汞 人们在这里进行挖掘
They did never find mercury,
他们一直没找到汞
but round about 110 years ago, they found radon.
但在大约110年前 他们发现了氡
The dose is,
辐射剂量是
per one hour treatment, between 30-60 thousand bequerels.
每一小时的治疗接受3-6万贝克的辐射
On average you need ten treatments, one hour.
每人平均要接受十个疗程 每次1小时的辐射治疗
At the end, the application will have
最终累计辐射剂量
a dose of around about 2.2 millisieverts.
大概是2.2毫西弗
To give you an idea what is the equivalent:
给你类比解释一下
if you have, for instance, X-rays of your hip or your knee,
比如说你要给胯部或者膝盖拍X光
it is more or less the same, equivalent.
这或多或少是类似的
A complete CT of the complete body
一次彻底的全身CT检查
has about between 20 and 40 millisieverts.
大概有20-40毫西弗的辐射
Every medically trained person that I’ve talked to about radon therapy,
每个和我谈论过氡辐射疗法的医务工作者
they’ve all gone through the same three stages that I did.
他们都和我一样会经历三个阶段
First of all, complete skepticism, “oh, that sounds like a bad idea”.
开始是完全持怀疑态度:“这不太行吧”
Certainly, most of the world would consider
当然 全世界大部分人都觉得
deliberate exposure to radioactive gas for pain relief as alternative medicine.
用刻意接受辐射来缓解疼痛是个备选疗法
That’s what I did.
就和我一样
And then stage two.
然后是第二阶段
You look at the scientific papers and, yes, the marketing,
你看了市场上的一些科学论文
that talk about what limited trials there have been,
关于做了哪些有限的实验
and the patient testimonials, the theories about why it works,
病人的反馈和解释氡疗原理的理论
the reaction becomes…
然后你的态度就变成了
agh, I guess maybe it’s worth a look?
呃 也许这方法值得了解一下?
But there’s a “conflict of interest declaration” in that paper.
论文里有一个“利益冲突声明”
But it says the funders had no say in the results or the release.
说资助方没有干预论文结果和论文发表
And there is almost a folk belief in some parts of the nuclear industry,
在部分核工业领域有这样一种民间说法
particularly in the US, about something called “radiation hormesis”,
尤其在美国 大概叫“辐射刺激效应”
where very small doses of radiation can have a beneficial effect, they think,
指的是他们认为小剂量辐射对身体有益
because they cause repair systems in your body to kick into action.
因为辐射能激活身体的自我修复系统
But that is an idea, a hypothesis.
但那只是一种猜想
It’s not even really a theory yet.
甚至都还不是一种理论
It’s not been properly tested.
没有经过科学的测试
All the major international authorities say that it’s entirely unproven
所有大型权威机构都说这种理论未经证实
and there isn’t really any truly safe dose of radiation.
并且没有真正意义上的安全辐射剂量
And yet, radon therapy seems to work for a lot of people.
但似乎氡辐射治疗对很多病人确实有效
So then you’ve reached the third stage:
所以现在你到了第三阶段
not knowing how to even talk about this responsibly.
完全不知道到底怎么评价才比较负责
That’s where I’m at.
就像我现在这样
I’ve met the people who run a radon tunnel.
我已经访问了氡气隧道运营者
I’ve talked to a patient.
也和病人聊过了
I’ve got a duty of care to them, as I do to anyone I film with.
我要对他们负责 要对参与拍摄的人负责
But I also have a duty to the audience
但我也要对观众负责
and to the truth, scientific or historical or personal.
从科学或历史或个人的角度对事实负责
So I need to make something very clear.
所以我要把这些说清楚
This is not an endorsement.
我并不是在为它做宣传
I think radon therapy is fascinating.
我觉得氡气疗法很有趣
The people who run the radon spa definitely think it works.
氡疗运营者肯定相信这个疗法有效
Certainly, most of their patients do.
当然 大部分病人也相信
There’s just enough evidence here that this unqualified skeptic
足够证据表明 持怀疑态度的人不能
can’t write it off, not immediately.
直接否定这种疗法
And the fact that there’s all this infrastructure for handling radioactive gas
还有这些控制辐射气体的设施存在的事实
as part of something that most of the world hasn’t even heard of.
全世界大部分人甚至都没听说过这些
Well, I think that’s interesting enough to at least discuss.
我觉得这一点很有意思 值得讨论一下
Just to make clear,
澄清一下
it is not wellness, it’s not miracles.
这不是恢复健康也不是奇迹
We do not promise something weird.
我们不做一些奇怪的保证
It is pure medicine.
这纯粹是医学治疗
It’s a medical application where you need a doctor’s prescription.
你需要医生的处方才能接受治疗
And at the end, 85% of the patients,
并且最终有85%的患者
they report it helped, it worked.
都反馈治疗有效果
So you get rid of your medication for pain relievers for one year and more.
治疗后可以一年多不用吃止疼药
It is not wellness. That’s really… it must be clear.
这不是恢复健康 这一点必须说清楚
Obviously, to get a license for this, especially in Germany,
要申请执照当然不容易 尤其在德国
it’s a really huge and complicated process,
这是个漫长而复杂的过程
and therefore we have to prove
我们必须保证
that the minimum application of the doses is not below 30,000Bq
最小辐射剂量不低于3万贝克
and the maximum dose is never above 100,000Bq.
最大辐射剂量不高于10万贝克
We are always, in the average, somewhere between 30-60 thousand,
我们的平均剂量在3万到6万贝克之间
which is a perfect range for the treatment.
这是最完美的治疗剂量区间
There are plenty of doctors and health insurance companies in Germany
在德国 很多医生和医保公司支持氡疗法
that endorse radon therapy, but that isn’t evidence for it working.
但这并不能证明氡疗法就是有效的
The British National Health Service
英国国家卫生服务处
paid for some homeopathic treatments until 2017,
直到2017年还在为一些顺势疗法买单
despite a mountain of evidence proving
尽管有大量证据表明
that homeopathy does absolutely nothing.
顺势疗法一点用都没有
Homeopathy may feel like it works for some people,
顺势疗法似乎对部分人有效
but if you just give people a sugar pill, a placebo,
但就算你给病人一片糖 也就是安慰剂
and say “it’ll help with your pain”,
然后说它能缓解疼痛
a lot of the time feels like it does help,
很大可能也会有效果
at least for the short term.
至少短期内有
The placebo effect isn’t quite as magical as some folks think,
安慰剂效应并没有某些人想的那么神奇
but certainly very powerful for sensations like pain and nausea…
但对疼痛和头晕恶心这类症状却有奇效
the sort of things that radon therapy is intended to treat.
这些恰好是氡疗法用来治疗的症状
But the trouble is that radon spas
问题在于
aren’t like homeopathy or like magnet therapy.
氡疗法不像顺势疗法和磁疗那么流行
They’re not popular enough to have been comprehensively tested.
氡治疗太冷门了 没人全面地检测过它
Anecdotes are not evidence for something medical,
民间轶闻不能作为医学治疗的根据
particularly when radiation is involved.
特别是提到辐射的时候
The warning signs of quackery, of fake medicine are:
庸医和假药的警示信号就是:
bold claims about miracle cures;
大肆宣传神奇的疗效
single interventions that claim to help wildly different conditions;
宣称一种治疗方法能治愈很多种不同症状
or explanations that defy the laws of physics.
或是给出的解释违背物理原理
It’s not guaranteed to be quackery,
当然就算发现这些特征
if you’ve got those, of course, but those are the warning signs.
也不保证就是庸医 但这些都是提醒
In other parts of the world, radon therapy is much less regulated.
其它国家对氡疗法的管理要宽松很多
In Montana, USA, there are old radon-filled mines
在美国蒙大拿州 有一些含氡的古老矿洞
that just charge admission to go sit inside.
要付钱才能进去坐
And some of them make wild claims
一些运营者大肆宣称进矿洞
about helping diabetes, gout, asthma,
有助于治疗糖尿病 痛风 哮喘
MS or even cancer.
多发性硬化 甚至是癌症
But the claims made in Germany are much more limited and specific.
但德国的氡疗法宣传的疗效更少也更具体
It’s just for relief of chronic pain,
仅仅是缓解慢性疼痛
and the cause of chronic pain can often be a mystery.
引发慢性疼痛的原因往往很难找到
And so can how to treat it.
如何治疗也是个迷
The treatment doesn’t work instantly,
氡治疗不会立刻生效
so if you leave the tunnel, you are not instantly cured.
所以离开隧道之后不会立刻就不疼了
Patients, they report to us,
病人向我们反馈
normally it takes some days, up to 6-8 weeks, when it works.
一般几天之后才有效果 最多要6-8周
We are aware that some other tunnels worldwide,
我们了解到在全世界范围内
they claim they can cure anything.
有些氡隧道宣称能治愈一切
We are pain relief, pain relief from inflammatory process.
而我们只帮助病人缓解炎症疼痛
Not more and not less.
就只有这个疗效 不多也不少
Normally, people think “radioactivity, oh, that’s harmful!”
人们一般都觉得辐射是有害的
but it is always the same question,
但关键就在于一个问题
it’s the doses that makes sense, and what we here apply.
那就是辐射剂量是否合理以及用什么设备
You see this equipment
你看这台仪器
that is monitoring how much radon is emitted,
它正在监测氡的释放量
and we do emit radon in that quantity
我们控制氡气释放量
that is necessary to initiate healing processes.
这个含量刚好能达到治疗效果
There’s one line in that big analysis paper
在分析报告上有一句话
that says it’s really difficult to do a fully double-blind study about this.
说对氡疗法做双盲研究很难
That would be where each patient doesn’t know
双盲实验里 病人和医生
if they’re receiving radon or not, and neither do the staff or the doctors.
双方都不知道是否真的有氡气存在
Yes, radon is colorless and odorless, but it’s always there, coming out the ground.
氡气无色无味 但它一直从地底冒出来
You can’t fool people into walking into a somehow-identical tunnel or cabin
你没法在原来的房间旁边偷偷建个新房间
that you’ve just mysteriously constructed next door to the old one,
看起来是一样的隧道或小屋但里面没有氡
but that doesn’t happen to have radon in it this time.
然后骗病人进来做实验
Except, in that one tunnel in Bad Kreuznach,
除非是在巴特克罗伊茨纳赫的隧道里
you can turn off the radon.
因为在那里你可以关掉氡气
This is absolutely unique, and to my knowledge,
这个氡隧道非常特别 据我所知
no other tunnel worldwide has the same technique.
全世界有这种技术的氡隧道仅此一个
And that is why we are, today, absolutely safe.
这就是为什么我们现在是绝对安全的
As you see on the monitor, we have no radioactivity here,
从监测仪上能看到 这里一点辐射都没有
besides the normal activity you have outside.
你可以像在户外一样正常活动
The radon gas is emitted very deep down in that mountain
氡气是从那座山底下释放出来的
and it is naturally emitted.
是自然释放的
At the end, we just grab the gas with with a pipeline
我们用管道从山底获取氡气
and a kind of fan that transports it into this room.
然后用风扇抽吸把氡气运到这个房间
And we can switch it on and off in that proportion we need it.
我们可以控制开关调节氡气浓度
That’s why I was allowed to film in the treatment room.
这就是我能在治疗室拍摄的原因
It didn’t have any radon in it.
那里完全没有氡气
Not then, anyway. It hadn’t been used for hours.
距离上次用已经过了几个小时
All the ventilation meant there was just fresh air in there.
通风系统代表那里有新鲜空气
It would absolutely be possible
那个隧道绝对适合
to set up a proper, large-scale, double-blind study in that tunnel.
进行大规模的双盲实验
If some university or government wanted to fund it.
但前提是有大学或政府部门资助
If they could find enough willing patients.
而且要找足够多的病人
If their ethics review board
并且伦理审查委员会
would be willing to sign off on treating people with radioactive gas.
要同意对病人进行辐射气体实验
And if it could be arranged that no-one, not even the staff at the tunnel,
还要保证连隧道工作人员都不知道
knew whether each patient was getting radon therapy or just fresh air.
病人究竟面对的是辐射气体还是新鲜空气
It would be difficult.
这些条件很难达到
But it’s more possible there than anywhere else,
但没有其它地方比这里更合适了
and I want that trial to happen.
我希望促成这个实验
That’s why I decided to talk about this and put the video out.
这就是为什么我要聊这些和发布这个视频
That’s why I’m willing to risk
这就是为什么我愿意冒风险
giving an audience to something that isn’t proven yet,
给观众介绍这些未经证实的东西
because if that works as claimed,
因为如果真的像描述的一样有效
even just for some people with chronic pain, it’d be brilliant.
哪怕只对部分慢性疼痛患者有效就已经很棒了
Very minor radiation exposure is a risk that
少量辐射带来的风险
a lot of people would be willing to take, clearly are willing to take,
显然大部分人都愿意接受
if they can’t get pain relief any other way.
尤其当他们没有其它办法的时候
And if it doesn’t work,
如果最后证明它是无效的
then we probably need to stop exposing people to radiation?
那也许我们该阻止人们暴露在辐射下
I know it’s a cop-out to say “more studies are required”.
我知道说“还需要更多研究”是一句废话
It’s the weak ending to every inconclusive undergraduate paper,
没得出结论的大学论文都这样结尾
but in this case, it’s true.
但在这件事上 确实是这样
More studies are required, and hopefully those studies will happen soon.
需要更多研究 希望赶紧有人进行研究
Because I would love to go back to a radon spa in a few years’ time
因为我想几年之后回到氡隧道
and follow up with the proof.
看看最后验证的结果

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视频概述

我们平时拍个X光都怕受辐射,可有这样一个隧道,竟然让人付钱排着队接受辐射?究竟是这些人一时兴起还是另有隐情呢?来看一看吧!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

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审核员EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZkusjDFlS0

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