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关于太阳的“双胞胎”和“恐龙”的真相 – 译学馆
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关于太阳的“双胞胎”和“恐龙”的真相

The Truth About the Sun's 'Twin' and the Dinosaurs

最近在网上到处都可以看到:
It’s been all over the internet lately:
天文学家发现太阳有一个邪恶的双生子!
Astronomers discover that the Sun has an evil twin!
而且发现这个双生子杀死了恐龙!
And that’s what killed the dinosaurs!
如果这是真的 那就是令人震惊发现……
Which would be an incredible discovery… if it were true.
这篇论文是上个月发表在英国皇家天文学会月刊的文章
These articles are based on a paper that was published last month in the Monthly Notices
那些研究学者预言每颗星星生成的时候
of the Royal Astronomical Society, where researchers predicted that every star could’ve started
都需要一个合作伙伴
with a partner,
就像在双星系统中
like in a binary star system,
但这些双星往往是随着时间而分开
and that most pairs just split up as time goes on.
这就意味着太阳可能有一个失散已久的兄弟姐妹
Which means that our very own Sun might have a long-lost sibling
在银河系里的某处
out there somewhere in the Milky Way.
但是我们还没有发现它的任何一个兄弟姐妹
But we haven’t actually found that sibling.
即使这颗星星在外面 也不能杀掉恐龙
And even if this other star is out there, it isn’t what killed the dinosaurs.
这对人类来说仅仅只是一个事件
This is just one of those cases where people
有点被他们的新闻标题冲昏头脑了
have gotten a little carried away with their headlines.
因此 让我们一起来揭开事实的真相
So, let’s start with the facts.
大多数星星都像太阳一样:都是孤独的
A lot of stars are singletons like our Sun: They’re on their own, with no nearby stellar
附近没有星星陪伴它们
neighbors to keep them company.
但是天文学家发现很多星星都存在多星系统
But astronomical surveys have found that tons of stars are in multi-star systems,
当有相同的气体和云层时 多个星体
which happens when two or more stars form from the same cloud of gas and dust
会保持一起环绕轨道
and keep orbiting together.
迄今为止天文学家设想大部分单独的星星都是独生的
Until now, astronomers figured that most loner stars were always only children, while stars
而多星系统中的星星总有兄弟姐妹
in multi-star systems had always had siblings.
写文章的作者很想知道多星系统是如何随着时间进化的
The paper’s authors wanted to learn more about how multi-star systems evolve over time,
因此他们在英仙座分子云观察了24个年轻的多星系统
so they observed 24 young, multi-star systems in the Perseus molecular cloud, a stellar
距一个恒星的滋生地几百光年之外还有许多新星
nursery a few hundred light-years away that has lots of new stars.
大多数系统都是双星的并有两颗星星
Most of the systems were binaries, with two stars.
天文学家发现这些双星系统倾向于分离得很遥远
Astronomers have found that binary stars tend to be pretty far apart when they’re young,
随着他们变老会越靠越近
and get closer together as they age.
这正是团队在英仙座星系系统所看到的
And that’s exactly what the team saw in the Perseus star systems.
但是他们也发现双星轨道的路线上
But they also found something interesting about the way that the binaries orbited
在他们生活的圈子中 彼此在不同的位置
each other at different points in their lives.
年轻的双星仅仅只有成百上千的年纪
Young binaries that were just a few hundred thousand years old,
这在天文学家看来他们几乎是新生儿
which practically makes them newborns to astronomers,
他们倾向于往相同的轨道方向环绕他们的母系云层
tended to orbit in the same direction their parent clouds were spinning.
这并不奇怪:若他们仅是成形 就应该往相同的方向移动
That’s not too surprising: If they just formed, they should be moving the same way
无论他们未来会成形得怎样
as whatever they formed from.
但少数年老的双星系统的轨道多是随机的 这其实与
But the fewer older binaries orbited in ways that were more random, and didn’t really
他们的云层旋转方式没有关系
have anything to do with the way their clouds spun.
因此一些双星系统不得不改变他们自己原有的环绕轨道的年龄
So something had to have changed their orbits as they aged.
去找出是什么可能导致这些趋势 团队们所做的天文学家经常做到最好:
To figure out what might cause these trends, the team did what astronomers often do best:
他们转向电脑模拟
They turned to computer simulations.
他们在许多不同的情况下模拟星体的构成
They simulated stars forming under lots of different conditions, but only two of the
但实际上他们只尝试匹配了两个模型的数据
models they tried actually fit the data.
在两个模型中 所有的星体都需要一个很遥远的兄弟 而不是只是他们自己
In both models, all stars had to form with a distant sibling, instead of just some of
而且老年轨道的恒星会自然收缩
them, and the orbits would naturally shrink as the stars aged.
在第一个模型中 大约60%的时间里 相似的星体
In the first model, about 60% of the time, something like another star
将会凑得更近 而重力又会把孪生星体分开
would get too close, and its gravity would fling the siblings apart.
在第二个模型里 一些气云会环绕裂成碎片的星体
In the second model, the gas clouds around them would sometimes
并拖动他们分开
split into pieces and drag the stars apart.
无论哪种方式 这些双星都将会变成单独的个体 就像我们的太阳
Either way, these binaries would become single stars like our Sun.
如果任一一个模型是正确的 这将意味着每一个星体从一开始就伴随有一个孪生兄弟的
So if either model is right, that would mean that every star started with a sibling, and
而且这些单独的星体 就像我们的太阳 伴随着成长并失去了他们的邻居
that loners like our Sun lost their neighbors as they grew up.
但一些文章仍是以有限的数据为依据 因此我们并不知道这是否正确
Still, the paper’s based on pretty limited data, so we don’t know for sure if every
如果每个星体实际上都有一个孪生兄弟
star actually does start with a sibling.
我们需要等待并且看到未来与现在的观测是否相匹配
We’ll have to wait and see if future observations match up.
但与此同时 所有的一切都只是挖出一个老的假设
But in the meantime, all of this has dredged up an old hypothesis
关于一个被叫做复仇者的褐矮星
about a brown dwarf star named Nemesis.
在过去的50年中一些科学家声称天文事件
Some scientists over the last 50 years have claimed that astronomical events like the
就像发生小行星杀死恐龙的可能性过于偶然
asteroid that killed the dinosaurs happen too regularly to be by chance,
大概每27万年发生一次
about once every 27 million years.
在上个世纪80年代 天文学家率先带头计算像褐矮星那样的小行星
In the 1980s, that led astronomers to calculate that something like a brown dwarf, a small,
衰弱的星体不能启动骤变反应 去导致这种模式
failed star that couldn’t start a fusion reaction, could cause that pattern
如果它还环绕太阳大约一个半光年
if it orbited the Sun from about one and a half light-years away.
它的重力会影响小行星之类物体的环绕轨道并把他们抛向地球
Its gravity could affect the orbits of things like asteroids and fling them toward Earth.
研究者称这星体为复仇者
The researchers named this star Nemesis.
因为每一个好的星体需要一个大敌
Because every good star needs an archenemy.
因此有一些人一直在说这是一个新的研究证明
So some people have been saying that this new paper proves
这些复仇星体已经出来 导致内部的星体系统紊乱
that Nemesis has been out there, causing chaos in the inner solar system
这是从四亿年前形成的
since it formed four and a half billion years ago.
但这并不是所说的
But that’s not what it says.
像这样的说法并不完全
Like, at all.
实际上任一其中一个模型预示着在早期的时候要么会被打散
The models predict binaries either break up really early on
要么就是一圈一圈的环绕轨道直到变老
or that their orbits shrink as they get older.
所以是这样的:太阳可能曾经有过一个拍档
So, yeah: the Sun might have once had a partner.
但如果真的是这样 他们在数亿年前就已经分开
But if it did, they would’ve split billions of years ago,
而且他们现在不会在互相靠近
and they wouldn’t be anywhere near each other now.
这个推断可能是来自复仇女神的文章并被人们称之为久违的伙伴
The confusion probably comes from people calling the long-lost partner from this paper Nemesis.
但再次声明 这个星体并不适用于一颗小行星可能杀死恐龙的理论
But again: this star doesn’t fit the theory that a star might have killed the dinosaurs.
即使太阳的孪生兄弟仍然在环绕 这应该曾有上百次互相靠近并且比
Even if the Sun’s sibling was still around, it should be hundreds of times closer than
天文学家在上个世纪80年代所预测的1.5光年的距离更近
the 1.5 light-years astronomers predicted back in the 80s.
这就意味着到目前为止 我们近乎肯定的将会看到这样的情况发生
Which means we almost definitely would’ve seen it by now.
但是天文学家曾经对复仇者极为仔细的研究过
But astronomers have searched incredibly carefully for Nemesis,
而且他们提出过一大堆无关紧要的东西
and they’ve come up with a whole lot of nothing.
我们只是还没有发现任何接近我们的大问题
We just haven’t found anything that big anywhere near us.
因此这没什么好惊奇的对于报纸从来没有提起过复仇者这回事
So it’s no surprise that this new paper never mentions Nemesis.
因为即使这制造出一个噱头 这也没有什么可相关的
Because even though it makes for a great headline, it’s just not relevant.
多亏观看了太空空间新闻的这一段小插曲
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space News.
如果你想要去了解更多关于在太空的最新的研究和使命
If you want to learn more about the latest in space research and missions,
可以订阅youtube.com/scishow space
you can go to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.

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视频概述

这是关于星体的变化对于地球上生活的恐龙的影响,以及是否真的会存在双星的情况。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

天晴好个秋

审核员

译学馆审核员B

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZRyWHqZ-UEU

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