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关于太阳能的真相

The Truth About Solar

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You’re watching ColdFusion TV.
欢迎来到冷流科技
Hi, welcome to another ColdFusion video.
想想太阳还是很神奇的
Our sun is amazing when you think about it.
它发出的光要穿行数百万英里
Light from the sun travels millions of miles across space,
穿过大气层才到达地球
through our atmosphere and to us,
给我们提供了温暖 光明还给地球上的植物提供能量
providing warmth, visual light and vital energy for plants on this earth.
想象一下 如果我们能有效利用
Imagine if we could utilize this energy from the sun
太阳能
in a meaningful significant way.
也是太阳能研究的努力方向
This is what solar power aims to do.
我们以前也犯过错
We’ve been previously taken for a ride
像太阳大道这种错误概念
by bogus concepts like Solar Roadways.
但真正的太阳是什么呢?
But what is the truth about solar?
它真的能改变世界吗?
Can it really change the world?
在这个视频里 我们将了解一下太阳能目前的状态
In this video, we’ll take a look at the current state of solar power.
似乎一场太阳能运动正在开始
It actually seems like a solar movement is beginning.
直接开始吧
Let’s get straight into it.
首先 让我们看看我们和什么一起工作
Firstly, let’s see what we’re working with.
有哪些来自太阳的能量被地球吸收?
What is the raw input energy from the sun absorbed by the earth?
所有被大气层 陆地 海洋吸收的能量
The total energy absorbed by the earth’s atmosphere, land and sea,
每年大约3.85个10的24次方焦耳
is around 3.85 yotta joules per year.
没听错吧?
That sounds like gibberish, right?
这到底真正代表多少能量?
So how much energy is that really?
它一小时释放的能量
Well, just one hour of this energy exposure,
就足够整个世界一年的消耗量
is more energy than the entire world consumes in one year.
换一种说法
Or to put it another way,
太阳一年释放的能量
one year of this exposure from the sun contains
是我们所拥有的地球上不可再生能源的
twice as much energy than we’ll ever be gained from
两倍多
all the earth’s non-renewable resources,
像煤 油 天然气 铀矿的总和
like coal, oil, natural gas and mined uranium combined.
那是很多的能量
So that’s a lot of energy,
但明显我们只能利用其中的一小部分
but obviously we can only use a fraction of it.
考虑到能量传递中的阻隔
Taking into account insulation,
云层覆盖 人类在用的陆地等等因素
cloud cover and land that’s usable by humans etc,
实际上我们能利用的部分大约在0.4%-13%
we can use about 0.4–13% of this raw energy from the sun.
好吧 这场太阳能革命是如何点燃的?
Alright, so how fast is the solar revolution happening?
太阳能的改造利用的却发展很快
The growth of solar power adaptation has actually been happening pretty fast.
自2000年起 每年以40%的速度增长
About 40% per year since the year 2000.
可以说 我们目前
For some perspective, we’re currently generating
我们现在利用太阳能和2004年相比多了97倍
over 97 times more energy from solar than in 2004.
听上去很多
Although this sounds like a lot,
目前 所有太阳能总和占比超过全球能源的1%
right now, total solar energy is still just over 1% of global production,
但增长速度喜人
but the rate of increase is encouraging.
事实上 2014年世界能源属的研究表明
In fact, a 2014 study by the International Energy Agency projected that
到2050年太阳能发电占比能达到27%
solar power could supply 27% of global electricity generation by 2050.
我知道你们有些人是怎么想的
Alright, so I know what some of you are thinking.
“全是废话 太阳能那么贵
“That’s all a load of rubbish. Solar is too expensive
出太阳时才能用 所以对另一个半球来说是没用的”
and only works when it’s sunny, so it’s useless in half the world.”
没错
While, this used to be true.
在过去好多年
In the past couple of years,
反对太阳能的声音在减少
some of the common arguments against solar are starting to fall.
太贵了吗?
So, is it too expensive?
我们来看看目前的成本
Let’s take a look at the current state of cost.
平均一下价格波动 太阳能发电每瓦
Adjusting for inflation, the cost of a solar module per watt
在上世纪60年代中期是96美元
was 96 dollars in the mid-1970s.
现在 感谢科技的进步 经济的发展
Now, thanks to technological advancements and economies of scale,
现在每瓦仅36美分
the cost is now 36 cents per watt today.
同样的思路
On the same train of thought,
我们来看看一些有趣的
let’s take a look at some interesting breaking stories
有关全球降低太阳能电价的故事
in relation to the falling cost of solar from around the world.
在智利 北方电网用太阳能面板
In the country of Chile, their northern grid solar panels generated
生产的电量超出了本地的用电
more electricity than was consumed locally,
令电价降到0
causing the price of electricity to go down to zero.
尽管这对消费者是好消息
While this is great for consumers,
太阳能投资者血本无归 对他们就是一场灾难
solar investors are losing money, making it a disaster for them.
问题出在这里的投资者太多了
The problem was caused by too many solar developers being in the same place,
又不向其他电网传输
with no means of transmitting excess electricity to another grid.
德国也发生过类似的事
A similar thing happened in Germany,
他们的电价变成负的
and their energy prices went negative,
归因于太阳能电能过剩
due to an overabundance of energy from solar,
再加上传统的原子能和煤炭能源
in addition to traditional nuclear and coal power.
苹果公司的太阳能基地
On a similar thread, Apple’s new solar farms are generating
生产的能量 他们公司用不完
more energy than the company can use.
所以出售多余的能量
So it’s starting to sell the excess energy
这家新公司叫苹果能源
under a new company called Apple Energy.
再说说成本降低的问题
Still on the topic of falling costs,
Bloomberg发布了一份报告
Bloomberg has issued a report
称太阳能电价很快就能和传统煤电价竞争
stating that the prices of solar could soon rival traditional coal.
中国在太阳能电池方面领先
China is leading the way in solar cell production
据Trina称——他是世界上最大的太阳能面板制造商主席——
and could be looking at costs as low as 8 cents per kilowatt hour,
电价每千瓦时有望低至8美分
according to the Chairman of Trina, the world’s largest solar panel manufacturer.
还有最后一件关于太阳能面板价格相关的有趣的事
And one last interesting fact in relation to solar panel costs:
从2012起 太阳能电池
Since 2012, solar cells have been given
也遵守摩尔定律 也就是Swanson定律
a Moore’s Law equivalent called a Swanson’s Law.
随着国际货运提速 太阳能电池价格
It states that solar cell cost will halve every 10 years
每十年会减一半
as global shipments increase.
对吧 听上去不错
All right, this all sounds great.
但是 当云彩一出来 太阳能电池就没用了
But the party for solar is over as soon as the clouds come out.
根据这个人 这种说法 不全对
Well, this may not be entirely true, according to this guy anyway.
对于有关我们能源账单的问题
Well, on this question of our energy bills,
它是一个巨大的政治话题
which is the huge politic… a huge political topic here now,
对于“去哪里开发能源”我们是不是想错了
have we got it wrong in terms of where we are sourcing our energy?
记下我说的 太阳能将是英国长期唯一且最大的
Mark my words, solar will be the single largest producer
能源来源
of energy in the UK long term.
也许你会说 “那 如果有云呢?”
And you may say, “Well, isn’t it rather… maybe cloudy around here?”
我会说 你从没去过室外
I was gonna say you’ve never been outside.
即使是多云天
Um, yes and even though it’s cloudy,
依然有80-90%的能量能
you still get probably 80–90% of the energy
穿过云层透过来
coming through the clouds.
只是没有那么明亮而已
It’s just that you don’t have that bright point source of a sun.
想要认同我说的这一点
Um… and a way to appreciate this perhaps is to look at
只需考虑一个事实 植物就是以太阳能提供化学反应为养料的
the fact that plants are essentially a solar-powered chemical reaction.
我们英国是一个绿色环保的国家
And UK is a very green country.
这还不是全部
But that’s not all.
这些年 科学家研发的太阳能面板
This year, scientists have made solar panels
不管在晴天还是雨天都能发电
that produce energy from both sunlight and rain,
在全年发电方面又前进了一步
a step in the direction of all year-round solar energy generation.
再说说研发突破
While we’re on the topic of breakthroughs,
往前看
let’s move on a little bit and take a look at
这些年太阳能技术方面的
some new solar breakthroughs from this year alone.
突破 首先
Recent Breakthroughs in Solar Tech
麻省理工3D打印的太阳能电池
First, we have MIT building 3D solar cells
能吸收不同方向的太阳光 提供一个稳定的电流输出
to offer a more stable output for different angles of the sun.
比标准的平板电池提高到2-20倍的
They achieved anywhere from 2–20 times
电量输出
the power output of a standard flat cell.
这种特别的3D电池性能优异
This particular 3D setup works so well
它的设计通过计算机算法进行了优化
because its design was optimized by a computer algorithm.
麻省理工研发了和肥皂泡一样薄的太阳能电池
MIT has also created solar cells as thin as a soap bubble.
接下来的技术突破是我的最爱
This next breakthrough is probably my favorite,
因为它开始找到一个更好的做事方法
because it involves a startup just finding a better way to do things.
钙钛矿对光的吸收率比硅晶电池要高很多
Perovskite has absorption coefficient that is much higher than silicon cell.
它能吸收所有进来的光
It can absorb all the incoming sunlight
在一个比人的头发丝还要薄的层面
in a layer that is thinner than the human hair.
这种电池超轻 超柔韧
The cells are super light, flexible,
不像原来的那样易碎 而且能在人造光源下工作
don’t crack like the traditional ones and can work in artificial light.
由于原料丰富 制造起来很容易
As they can be easily manufactured from readily accessible materials,
成品价格便宜
production is surprisingly cheap.
由Olga Malinkiewicz选择的打印方法不仅稳定 而且有可再生性
The printing method chosen by Olga Malinkiewicz is stable and reproducible.
这使得将生产工艺规模化成为可能
This offers the possibility of scaling the manufacturing process.
箔片将会延长用在
The foil will prolong the life of batteries
一般电子设备上的电池寿命
used in popular electronic devices.
即使在人造光源下 也可给手机 平板和
And mobile, tablet or laptop will charge,
笔记本充电
even when exposed to artificial sources of light.
传统的太阳能电池将被紧紧贴在屋顶先进的高科技
Traditional solar cells will be replaced with technologically advanced foils
金属箔片替代
tightly attached to the roof.
它们色彩丰富 来和建筑设计的风格相呼应
They may come in a wide range of colors to match the building’s design,
给房屋提供电源
providing the household with electric power.
有些人还在找寻风投
These guys are still getting venture capital,
假如他们成功 就
but it could really push the state of
是最先进的太阳能技术
the art of solar forward, if they succeed.
看一眼太阳能运输
Taking a quick look at solar transport:
有一艘叫Scout全自动船
There’s an autonomous boat called Scout
它将成为第一辆横渡大西洋的太阳能船
that will be the first solar vehicle to cross the Atlantic.
有一种实验性的飞行器叫太阳脉冲
And there’s also an experimental aircraft called Solar Impulse
它目前在世界各地飞行 只靠太阳能
that is currently flying around the world only using solar power.
最后 丰田公司发布了最新版的汽车
And lastly, Toyota released an updated version of the Prius
车顶装有太阳能面板 这实际上已为车提供了能源
with a solar panel roof that actually helps power the car this time.
这些都不错
Ok, so this is all great,
我们不能就这么结束视频 却不提它的缺点
but we can’t end the video without talking about some of the downsides.
太阳能的缺点是什么呢?
What are the drawbacks of solar?
主要问题如下
The main problems for solar power are as follows:
本来 在一些特殊的日子 电力需求有些波动
Naturally, on any particular day, energy demand fluctuates.
太阳能的问题之一就是
One of the problems of solar is that
跟着波动来调整电量输出是很困难的
it’s not easy to adjust the output to match these fluctuations.
例如 家庭用电高峰在深夜
For example, peak demand happens at night in a household
和太阳能输入的高峰期
and this is the opposite time to
正好相反
when there’s peak energy input from the sun.
像特斯拉能源墙这样的电池系统储存了能源
Battery systems like Tesla’s Powerwall that stored the energy
后面再释放出来 可能能改善这一点
and released it at a later time can help.
实际上 几乎没人注意到这样的电池
And in fact what few people notice is that batteries like this
更安全 更环保 更廉价
are now much safer, better for the environment and cheaper.
感谢日渐兴起的电动汽车
Thanks to the rise of electric vehicles.
尽管这样 量产还需要很长时间
Despite this, more time is still needed till production is large enough
使得这种能源储存技术普及开去
to make this kind of energy storage technology ubiquitous.
太阳能的第二个问题就是
The second problem with solar is that
目前最好的太阳能面板效率在30-35%
the best panels are currently about 30–35% efficient.
传统的煤的转换效率也没有超过50%
Even though traditional coal is less than 50% efficient,
提高太阳能效率 还有很长的路要走
there is still a way to go in solar efficiency.
将来随着技术的提高
But this should surely improve
一定会有所改善
as the technology comes along in coming years.
最后一个问题是问美国和其他国家
And lastly, a problem with solar is that older electrical grids,
老旧电网
like those in the United States and other countries,
将需要大量的资金投入去提升基础建设
would require a great deal of capital investment in infrastructure upgrades
去适应大范围的太阳能新能源
to make them compatible with large-scale solar energy.
我们这里得出怎样的结论呢?
Okay, so what’s the conclusion that we can make here?
关于太阳能尽管有很多想法 但仍不完美
While there are some kinks still left in solar and it’s not perfect,
有很多有才智的人们正在解决这些问题
there’s plenty of smart people working on the problem.
全球每年有40%的增长率
And with a global growth rate of about 40% year-on-year,
我们正在取得进步
progress is being made.
另外 各国政府迫切需要太阳能
In addition to this, governments have a renewed sense of urgency for solar.
德国希望到2020年太阳能占总能源的35%
Germany wants to be 35% solar powered by 2020.
中国要在2030年达到20%
China wants to be 20% by 2030.
澳大利亚的悉尼在2030年要达到100%
And the city of Sydney in Australia wants to be 100% solar powered by 2030.
更不用说迪拜计划了
And this isn’t to mention Dubai’s plans
它要建成世界上最大 最便宜的太阳能塔
to build the biggest and cheapest solar tower in the world.
这期视频并不是要(介绍)每一个你见到的技术突破
The point of this video isn’t so much a matter of every breakthrough
全面开花
that you’ve seen here today reaching full-scale production.
但你必须记住
But the thing you should take away
我想要给你讲的是
and what I’m trying to show you on this video is
这些突破在很多地方正在发生
that these breakthrough events are happening
加速发生
in a lot of places with increasing frequency too.
意味着太阳能电池方面的工业进步
This only means that the forces of industry progress in solar cells
正大踏步前进
are likely to be strong going forward.
很开心
And this is exciting.
最后说几句
And just to finish off,
我觉得 从太阳那里获得免费有用的能源
I think there’s something intrinsically charming about solar,
这种想法很棒
that idea of gaining usable energy from the sun for free.
不管怎样 谢谢观影 希望你有所收获
Anyway, thanks for watching guys. I hope you learned a thing or two.
如果你喜欢 请点赞
Feel free to give this video a thumbs up, if you liked it.
如果是新人 请订阅
And subscribe, if you’re new to the channel.
我是Dagogo 你正在看的是冷流科技
This has been Dagogo. You’ve been watching ColdFusion.
谢谢 伙计们 下次见
Cheers, guys! And I’ll catch you again soon for the next video.
开心
Have a good one.
冷流 新思想
ColdFusion, it’s new thinking.

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视频概述

驱动未来

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

Tiger_woo

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nabM5MGq_NY

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