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关于照相式记忆的真相 – 译学馆
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关于照相式记忆的真相

The Truth About Photographic Memory

人人都有照相式记忆 只是有些人没有胶片而已
We all have photographic memories, it’s just that some of us don’t have any film.
大家好我是DNews的Julia
Hey Guys Julia here for DNews.
我小时候最喜欢的一套书是关于小侦探Cam Jansen的
One of my favorite book series as a kid was about kid detective Cam Jansen,
她只要说一声“咔嚓” 就能够在她的脑袋中抓拍一张照片
who by saying “click” could snap a picture in her head
然后把场景像照片一样记录下来
and be able to remember the scene like she was looking at a photograph.
就像Cam Jansen这个角色 照相式记忆听起来也像是一个虚构的东西
Just like Cam Jansen, though, photographic memory seems to be a work of fiction.
我们的大脑一次性接受的信息是有限的
There’s a limit to the kind of information we can take it at once.
我们可以记住这个场景的某个细节 但不会每个都能记住
We remember certain details of a scene, but not EVERY detail.
比如我试着想《戴珍珠耳环的少女》这幅作品
Like if I try to think of the painting of the Girl with the Pearl Earring,
我可以记得她的耳环长什么样
I can kind of remember what her earring looks like,
但打死我也说不出来 她眼睛的颜色
but I couldn’t for the life of me tell you what color her eyes are.
小孩子经常拥有类似照相式记忆的东西 但它叫做清晰记忆
Little kids often have something close, though, called eidetic memory.
孩子们在看到一幅图像几分钟后能够极为详细地回忆起它
This is when kids can recall an image in extreme detail for a few minutes after they’ve seen it
但很多人随着年龄的增长逐渐丧失了这种能力
But because most people lose this ability as they grow up
一些科学家认为这是一种不成熟的记忆
some scientists think it’s an immature version of memory.
随着孩子们不断长大 学会了读写和抽象地思考
As kids grow up and learn to read and write and think abstractly,
记忆变得也越来越抽象
memory becomes more abstract too.
但还是有一些人拥有极强的记忆力的
Yeah there are some examples of people with REALLY good memory.
Stephen Wiltshire几乎就是一台人体相机
Stephen Wiltshire comes about as close as possible to being a human camera.
在经过短暂的直升机飞行之后
After just a short helicopter ride,
他就能重新画出纽约的轮廓 并且有着极高的准确度
he was able to recreate the skyline of New York to almost near accuracy.
当然 他是一名画家 他能放飞他的创意与想象
Of course, he is an artist, so he took some creative liberties.
但是没有严谨的科学研究证实他的能力
But no serious scientific research confirms his abilities.
这只是一个例子 还有其它拥有极佳记忆的案例
While that’s just one maybe example, there are other cases of people will really good memories.
非常非常强的那种
Like really crazy good.
一个著名的例子是 Jill Price是一个几乎能记住她生命当中每一天的人
One famous case, the story of Jill Price who remembers nearly everyday of her life was
她的故事被刊登在了杂志Neurocase上
published in the journal Neurocase.
她记得住她生活中的任何事
She remembers everything about her life,
小到能够记住某天自己穿了什么衬衫去的杂货店
down to what shirt she wore to Target to buy groceries on a certain day.
但是她的这种能力可能来自于某种时常被记忆所困扰的强迫症
Although her abilities might be the result of a kind of OCD where she obsesses over memories.
这听起来可不太好
Which doesn’t sound all that fun.
另一个发表在《学习与记忆神经生物学》杂志上的研究
Another study published in the journal of Neurobiology of Learning and Memory looked
检查了11位可能有着相似记忆力的志愿者的脑部
at the brains of eleven participants who might have similar memories.
科学家称这种能力为“非常优越的自传体记忆(HSAM)”
Scientists referred to this ability as Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM).
虽然他们在一些认知测试中表现得很普通
While they performed pretty average on some cognitive tests,
但研究者发现 他们的大脑确实独一无二
the researchers found that their brains were actually unique.
他们的白质连接更强
They had stronger white matter connections,
这让信息能够更有效率地转移进入大脑
which could allow information to be transferred more efficiently in the brain.
但是志愿者没有使用记忆宫殿和其它技巧
But the participants didn’t use memory palaces or other tricks.
相反 他们似乎具有一种天生的能力
The scientists found that “Instead, they appear to have some inherent ability
可以记忆并检索大量的公众事件和自传性质的事件
to retain and retrieve vast amounts of public and autobiographical events
绝不仅仅是通过简单的练习就可以达到的程度
well beyond what one may expect from simple rehearsal.”
你问是哪种练习方法?
What kind of rehearsal you ask?
记忆宫殿似乎是提升记忆力的最好方法
Well, mind palaces seem to be the best way to boost your memory.
如果你看过BBC出品的《神探夏洛克》 你就会知道它是什么了
If you’ve ever seen BBC’s Sherlock Holmes, you know what this looks like.
选择一个你熟悉的场景
Pick a scene you’re familiar
比如走在街上或者在家里走来走去
with like walking down your street or walking around your house
然后把你想要记住的事情放入某一个场所
and put things you want to remember in a certain spot.
比如我要想记住π
Like if I wanted to remember pi
我可以把3放到我的前门上
i could put the 3 on my front door,
把.14放到我大厅的墙上
I could put the .14 on the wall in my foyer.
然后把15放在楼梯扶手上
I could put the 15 on my banister
在楼梯的顶端放上92
I could put the 92 at the top of stairs.
你明白了吧
you get the idea,
当我在脑海里漫步于我的房子时
as I mentally walk through my house,
我会将数字与那些地点联系在一起
I would associate those numbers with those locations.
很多记忆冠军都是使用的这种方法
A lot of memory champions use this trick.
照相式记忆似乎不太真实
While photographic memory doesn’t seem real
而我们大多数人也没有特别的记忆力
and most of us don’t have special memories,
谢天谢地 因为我真的不想再来一遍中学时代那每一个难堪的日子了
thank God because I would really hate to re-live every embarrassing day of middle school,
有很多方法可以提高你的记忆力
there are ways to improve your memory.
比如心灵宫殿的技巧 或者像Trace说的闻一些迷迭香或者握紧你的拳头!
Like the mind-palace trick or Trace says to sniff some rosemary or maybe make a fist!
真的看一看这里的视频吧
No, really check out this video right here.
好了伙计们你们都用什么技巧来记东西呢?
Alright guys, what tricks do you use to remember things?
在下面评论告诉我们吧
Let us know in the comments below…

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视频概述

人类有照相式记忆吗?那些记忆冠军用的什么记忆方法呢?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

jameschan

审核员

审核员U

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YYSl8iXuA0

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