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花生过敏的真相

The Truth About Peanut Allergies

When some people think peanuts they think this,
有些人一提到花生会想到这个
while others think this
但其他人会想到这个
When it comes to allergies,
当提到过敏时
peanuts are amongst the deadliest foods in the world,
花生是世界上最致命的食物之一
and because of their ubiquity in the food industry,
由于它在食品生产中十分常见
people have gone to great lengths to protect themselves,
人们需竭尽全力保护自己
But in recent years, the number of peanut allergies
但最近几年 在一般人群中
in the general population has actually increased.
对花生过敏的人实际上有所增长
So what’s the deal?
这是为什么呢?
Bascially ignore the “nut”,
忽略peanuts(花生)中的nuts(坚果)
Peanuts are a legume like a pea or soybean,
花生是一种豆科作物 类似豌豆或黄豆
which puts them in a separate class than
故相对于坚果过敏
normal nut allergies.
花生过敏属于不同的种类
Peanut allergies affect between 1-2% of the global population,
全球1%-2%的人口患有花生过敏症
with the affected population in the United States having
而美国患病人口
more than tripled in the past two decades.
在过去的20年中翻了三倍多
To get a better sense of why peanut allergies are so dangerous,
为了更好地理解花生过敏的危险性
here’s our buddy Andrew Maynard from the Risk Bites channel.
让我们欢迎来自Risk Bites的Andrew Maynard
The severe allergic response to peanuts can
对花生严重过敏
bring on a state of anaphylaxis,
会导致过敏反应
a potentially life-threatening, full-body reaction.
一种可能危及生命的全身性过敏反应
This affects these four systems in your body,
它会影响你体内的四个系统
with these corresponding symptoms
并伴随相应的症状
As you can see, anaphylaxis is pretty serious.
如你所视 过敏反应相当严重
The most dangerous symptoms are
最严重的莫过于
the throat swelling which can lead to suffocation,
喉咙肿胀导致的窒息
and the drop in blood pressure
以及血压下降
which can cause a person to enter into anaphylactic shock and possibly die.
从而导致患者过敏性休克甚至可能死亡
Even trace amounts of peanut residue can
即使是很少量的花生渣
cause a life-threatening response in some people,
也会对某些人造成生命威胁
which is a big problem
因其在食品工业中的应用
due to their prevalence in the food industry.
这是个大问题
What makes peanuts stand out from other food allergens are
花生之所以与其他食物过敏源不同
the unique proteins found inside.
是因为其特有的蛋白质
There have been 13 proteins identified to cause allergic reactions,
花生含有13种蛋白质可以引起过敏反应
Ara H 1 through 13.
Ara H 1到13
Peanut proteins are especially problematic
花生蛋白的问题在于
because they aren’t readily destroyed in your gut
当你在吃花生制品时
when you eat peanut products.
它们在肠道中很难被消灭
This means that when they get into your bloodstream after digestion
这意味着经过消化后它们仍可以进入你的血液
they still have what it takes to trigger an allergic reaction.
还是能够引起过敏反应
We still don’t know what makes these particular proteins so potent.
我们仍不知道是什么使这些特定的蛋白质如此活跃
But if you are severely allergic,
但是如果你确实严重过敏
the smallest amount of them
那么即使是很小的剂量
even if you just inhale them
只要你摄入了
can cause your body to go into defensive overdrive,
都有可能使你的身体进入防御过度的状态
potentially killing you in the process.
继而要了你的命
When this happens,
当这种情况发生时
the drug epinephrine – the substance in epipens
药物肾上腺素 – 肾上腺素笔中的药物
is a life-saver, if injected fast enough.
在注射及时的前提下 能够救你一命
It counters the symptoms of anaphylaxis
它能通过打开气管
by opening airways to make breathing easier,
减轻过敏症状 保证呼吸顺畅
and restricting blood vessels to increase blood pressure.
并通过收缩血管增加血压
But why are peanut allergies on the rise?
但为什么花生过敏现象在加剧呢?
One possibility is that
一个可能的原因是
we have been taking too many precautions
我们采取了太多的防御措施
to limit peanut sensitivity.

去限制花生的敏感性
In the early 2000s,
在二十一世纪初
mothers were advised to limit any peanut intake during pregnancy,
母亲在怀孕时会被劝说限制花生的摄入
and to even avoid feeding their child peanuts until the age of three.

甚至在孩子三岁之前都要避免喂食花生
As it turns out, recent research has indicated that
事实证明 最近的研究表明
introducing peanuts to a child’s diet very early on
将花生引入孩子早期的食谱
can actually reduce the chances of developing a serious allergy!

其实能减轻发展为严重过敏的机率
This new discovery may lead to a future decrease
这个新的发现在未来可能会减少
in the total population affected by peanut allergies.
受花生过敏困扰的人口数
Scientists are still digging into peanut allergies to
科学家仍在深入研究花生过敏源
reach a greater understanding of how to stop them.
期待找到解决它们的办法
We at reactions dream of a world were
我们梦想的世界是
with a little help from science
通过科学的帮助
every man woman and child can be blessed enough to
使每一个大人和小孩都能被庇佑
enjoy one of these (PBJ), anytime, anywhere.
随时随地享受这种食物
Make sure to check out Risk Bites channel on the way out today folks,
大家记得浏览Risk Bites频道
they got a ton of great videos
里面有海量的
about the science of health risks,
关于科学和健康风险的精彩视频
including a follow up video on the LEAP study about
包括下一支LEAP研究的视频
feeding peanuts to infants!
关于如何喂婴儿吃花生
Also, we want to give a huge shout out to Tehkidah
另外 我们想特别推荐Tehkidah
who posted this awesome lego glycine molecule.
他发表了超棒的乐高甘氨酸分子论文
Jawdroppingly brilliant, our hats off to you Tehkidah.
十分精彩 我们向你致敬 Tehkidah
Alright people, you know the drill,
好了大家 你们懂的
leave your chemistry questions in the comments,
在评论区留下你在化学方面的问题
subscribe and thumbs up on the way out.
退出时记得点赞和关注哦

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视频概述

花生过敏的危害、原因及应对措施等。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Andrea

审核员

审核员 AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ge4I5DqLhhs

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