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巧克力有益健康吗? – 译学馆
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巧克力有益健康吗?

The Truth About Chocolate and Your Health

问题:巧克力是否对健康有益?
Chocolate.
巧克力
As if we needed any more excuses to indulge in the sweet stuff,
仿佛是因为人们需要为沉溺甜食找更多借口
there are constantly claims floating around that,
常常有人声称
hey, chocolate might actually be good for you.
嘿 巧克力很可能对你有益
There is some science to back that up but, you guessed it,
这是有科学依据的 但你应该也猜到了
the devil’s in the details.
真相总在细节里
Most of these claims involve flavonoids,
这些言论大多和黄酮有关
a class of compounds found in lots of plants including cacao,
很多植物里含有这类化合物 包括可可树
the plant whose seeds are used to make cocoa and chocolate.
其种子被用来作成可可和巧克力
And some studies have linked flavonoids to a decreased risk of heart disease.
有些研究表明黄酮能降低患心脏病的风险
Some experimental studies, which are considered the best type of study
实验研究被认为最能有效建立因果关系
for establishing cause and effect, have shown
部分此类研究表明
decreases in blood pressure when healthy adults were given
健康成年人在服用特殊加工后的高黄酮
specially developed, high-flavonoid cocoa drinks or chocolate.
可可饮品或巧克力后 血压会下降
For example, one 2015 study found that 100 adults
例如 一项2015年的研究发现100名成年人
who drank a high cocoa chocolate drink twice a day for one month
持续一个月 每天喝两次高可可含量的巧克力饮料
had a drop in blood pressure of around 4 millimeters of mercury,
其血压下降了4毫米汞柱
which is a measure of pressure.
毫米汞柱是血压的计量单位
And a drop in blood pressure of just two millimeters
血压仅降低2毫米汞柱
has been associated with a decreased risk of stroke or heart problems,
就被认为能降低中风和患心脏病的风险
at least on average within a population.
至少从人群平均水平来看是这样
There are also a few experiments that hint
也有一些实验显示
that flavonoids could improve blood flow to the brain,
黄酮可以促进大脑供血
which in turn might mean better brain function.
意味着可能可以增强脑功能
For example, a 2014 study in Nature Neuroscience found that
比如 2014《自然神经科学》中的一项研究发现
older adults did better on a memory task,
如果老年人连续喝三个月高黄酮可可饮料
and had increased blood flow to particular memory centers in the brain,
会在记忆力测试中表现得更好
if they had a high-flavonoid cocoa drink for three months.
并且脑部记忆中枢血液供给会增加
But there are a bunch of other studies
但是也有一些其他研究
that only show changes in brain blood flow
仅显示脑供血方面的变化
and not improvements in cognition.
未显示感知能力的提高
And there are a few key points in these experiments
这些实验中的关键证据表明
that mean that a candy bar now and then isn’t going to give you any benefit.
时不时来根糖果棒不会给你带来任何好处
For one, in most of these trials,
例如 在多数测试中
it took weeks or months to see any health benefits.
对健康的好处要数周或数月才会显现
And most of the cocoa drinks in the experiments
而且实验中使用的可可饮料
were specially made to have high levels of flavonoids
大多数是特制成黄酮含量较高的
— between 400 and 1000 milligrams —
即含量在400到1000毫克之间
using cocoa that’s processed differently
其选用的是特殊加工的可可
than regular supermarket chocolate.
而不是一般超市的巧克力
Even 400 mg is more flavonoids than chocolate normally has,
一般巧克力的黄酮含量甚至不足400毫克
and you’d need to eat at least two large bars of regular dark chocolate
你每天至少要吃两大块黑巧克力
every day to get that much.
才能达到这么多
Even if you did,
就算你真这么做
the way cocoa is processed to make it less bitter
为了让可可不那么苦而进行的加工
as well as adding milk or sugar has been shown
以及加入的牛奶和糖
to reduce the levels of flavonoids
会降低黄酮含量
or the body’s ability to absorb them.
或减弱身体对黄酮的吸收能力
Plus, the flavonoid-enriched chocolate
而且 实验中用的高黄酮巧克力
used in these types of experiments isn’t particularly tasty.
味道并不是特别好
Some participants were even put off from eating it.
一些参与者甚至再也不吃了
Yeah — these studies managed to make chocolate taste bad.
是的 这些研究中的巧克力很难吃
So you won’t be finding these flavonoid-rich drinks and bars at the supermarket.
所以你在超市找不到黄酮含量高的饮料或者食物
So overall, there is evidence
总而言之 证据表明
that flavonoids in chocolate and other foods
巧克力和其他食物中的黄酮
have a small beneficial effect on heart and maybe brain health.
对心脏和大脑健康有点好处
But how that works isn’t fully understood yet,
但它的原理还没被完全搞清楚
and more importantly,
更重要的是
these compounds occur in small enough quantities
要使这些化合物在日常售卖的
in your average bon-bon or candy bar that to get an effective dose,
夹心巧克力和糖果棒中达到可见效的剂量
you’d have to eat quite a bit more chocolate than you should.
你必须 吃非常多的巧克力
I mean, all the sugar and fat that comes with that chocolate
我的意思是 巧克力里的糖分和脂肪
is going to outweigh any benefits.
将超过其积极影响
So enjoy chocolate as a treat,
所以把巧克力当零食享用吧
but don’t expect to be living longer because of it.
但别指望能因此更长寿
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow,
感谢收看本期《科学秀》
which we couldn’t have made without the help of our community of supporters.
这一切多亏广大社区朋友们的支持
Check out patreon.com/scishow to learn more.
登陆patreon.com/scishow网站学习更多

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视频概述

多吃巧克力真的对我们有好处吗?还是害处更多?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZVqCrpFNfRk

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