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关于平行宇宙

The True Science of Parallel Universes

每个人都喜欢平行宇宙理论
Everyone loves the idea of parallel universes
也许这是对理想的世界的呼吁
– maybe it’s the appeal of an ideal world
在那里你有再一次的机会 事情会变得不同
where you have second chances and things turn out differently
一个现实交替
– an alternate reality where
你确实陷入了霍格沃茨 但星球大战和穿越时空并没有发生 最终你
you do get into Hogwarts and the Star Wars Chrono Cross aren’t made and you finally plug
回到第一次正确地插入了非对称性计算机代码
in your asymmetric computer code correctly on the first try…
但是科学(领域)真的还给这种想法留有余地吗?
but is there really a place in science for such wistful speculation?
我的意思是 如果“宇宙”意味着这里所有的一切 它是不可能有两个版本的 对不对?
I mean, if “the universe” is everything that there is, you can’t have two versions of it, right?
否则这一对宇宙才是真正存在的 而不是最开始我们所说的“宇宙”
Otherwise the pair would really be everything and what you started off calling the universe, wasn’t.
问题是:物理学家在非正式讲话中经常用“宇宙”这个词
The problem here is terminology: physicists speaking informally often say “universe” when
而真正的意思是“可见宇宙”——
they really mean “observable universe” –
那就是整个宇宙中我们到目前为止一直能够看到的一部分
that is, the part of the whole universe that we’ve so far been able to see.
讨论多个不同的可观测宇宙是非常棒的 例如
And it’s perfectly fine to talk about multiple different observable universes – for example,
一个接近我们可见宇宙边缘的外星人 他会看见完整宇宙中
an alien near the edge of OUR observable universe will see parts of the Whole Universe that
我们无法看到的部分 这是个众所周知的问题 这不是物理学家们所说的
we cannot yet see, but that’s a well-understood question and not what physicists normally
多个可观测的宇宙或“多元宇宙”
talk about when they discuss multiple observable universes, or “multi-verses.”
所以 让我们切入正题:在物理学中多元宇宙一词通常指
So let’s cut to the chase: in physics, the word “Multiverse” normally refers to
三个被提出的 独特 几乎不相关的宇宙物理模型之一
one of three distinct and largely unrelated proposed physical models for the universe
顺便说一下 这已经通过实验测试或证实
– none of which has been tested or confirmed by experiment, by the way.
这三个“多元宇宙”的模型是
The three “multiverse” models are:
类型一:泡沫宇宙或年轻的黑洞宇宙
Type 1) Bubble universes or baby black hole universes.
这是最简单的一种多元宇宙
This is the most straightforward kind of multiverse:
其基本思想也许是宇宙的其他部分
the basic idea is that perhaps there are other parts of the universe
它们太远以至于我们将永远不会看到他们
which are so far away that we will never see them
或者是在黑洞内部 同样我们永远不会看到它们
or are inside black holes so similarly we will never see them
这种模型作为一种尝试被创造出来
This kind of model was created as an attempt
来解释为什么我们的宇宙是这么擅长形成恒星 星系 黑洞和生活
to explain why our universe is so good at making stars and galaxies and black holes and life
按照这个论点推下去
as the argument goes,
如果宇宙中每一种相互分离 看不见的“泡沫”有不同的物理规律
if each of these separate mutually un-seeable “bubbles” in the universe had slightly different laws of physics,
当然 我们可能只存在于一个有正确的物理规律
then by definition we could only exist in one that had the right physical laws
允许我们必须生存在宇宙 那里可以形成地球
to allow us to exist like we have to live in a universe where the earth could form
因为如果地球不能形成 我们不可能生活在这里
because if the earth couldn’t form then we couldn’t be here
如果你不相信这个逻辑 不要担心太多
If you’re not convinced by this logic, don’t worry too much:
至今还没有任何实验证据证实存在这种多元宇宙
There’s not yet any experimental evidence for this kind of multiverse.
多元宇宙类型二:薄膜和额外的维度
Multiverse type 2) Membranes and extra dimensions.
来自弦理论的部分灵感用来预测正确的
Inspired in part by the inability of the mathematics of string theory to predict the right number
我们生活于其中的宇宙的维度数量 弦论学家提出一个想法
of dimensions for the universe in which we live, string theorists proposed the idea that
也许我们认为我们的宇宙实际上只是一个三维的表面
perhaps what we think of as our universe is actually just a three-dimensional surface
嵌入在一个更大的有9个空间维度的超级宇宙中
embedded within a larger super-universe with 9 spatial dimensions.
像是一份报纸的每一页是它自己二维表面嵌入
Kind of like how each page of a newspaper is its own two-dimensional surface embedded
嵌入我们的三维世界
within our three-dimensional world.
当然如果空间有九维而不是三维 将会有很多的空间
And of course, if space had 9 dimensions rather than three, there’d be plenty of space
来承载其他的三维空间 他们就像我们所处的三维空间一样 形成了自己的宇宙
for other three-dimensional surfaces that appeared, like ours, to be universes in their own right,
但是 像一份报纸的页码 它们实际上是一个更大整体的一部分
but, like the pages of a newspaper, were actually part of a bigger whole.
这种表面都简称”薄膜”或”膜”
These kinds of surfaces are called “membranes” or “branes” for short.
提醒大家 至今还没有任何实验证据证实有这种多元宇宙
And as a reminder, there is not yet any experimental evidence for this kind of multiverse.
多元宇宙类型三:量子力学的多世界图片
Multiverse type 3) The many-worlds picture of quantum mechanics.
出人意料的是 物理学家们仍然没有完全了解波函数如何衰竭
Surprisingly, physicists still don’t fully understand how the collapse of the wavefunction
在量子力学发生 许多世界假说也就试图在解释
in quantum mechanics happens, and the many-worlds hypothesis makes an attempt at explanation
通过提议解释每个可能的备用时间线为宇宙是真实的
by proposing that every possible alternate timeline for the universe is real
他们都以过大 过分支的方式发生
and they all happen in an ever-larger, ever-branching way.
就像一个普遍的 你自己选择的冒险 每个故事都可能发生
Like, a universal choose-your-own-adventure where every possible story happens!
如果这样的话 因为我们被困住了 所以不可能实现
If this were the case, we might not realize it because we’d be stuck living out just
提供给我们的无穷多可能生活的其中一种
one of the infinitely many possible lives available to us.
在某种程度上 多元世界是类似于泡沫多元宇宙模型
In some ways, many-worlds is similar to the bubble multiverse model by proposing
也许任何事情都会发生
maybe anything that can happen, does.
在一系列事件产生适合人类出现的环境下 人类刚好出现了
And we just happen to exist in the series of happenings that were necessary for us to exist.”
如果你不相信这个逻辑 不要担心
If you’re still not convinced by this logic, don’t worry
至今还没有任何实验证据证实有这种多元宇宙
there is not yet any experimental evidence for this kind of multiverse.
当然如果你有想象力 你也可以结合这几种模型
Of course if you want to get imaginative, you could also combine several of these models
形成多宇宙
together into a multi-multiverse…
一个新的基于投机和未经实验证实超级投机模型
a new super-speculative model based, itself, on speculative and experimentally unconfirmed models.
但这并不是说我们无法测试这些多重宇宙假说
But that’s not to say we couldn’t test these multiverse hypotheses.
例如 如果我们的可见宇宙只是许多分离的泡沫或膜的一部分
For example, if our observable universe were really just one of many disconnected bubbles or membranes
如果它在过去一些时间与另一个泡沫或膜发生碰撞
and if it happened to collide with another bubble or membrane some time in the past
然后那碰撞肯定会产生一些效果
then that collision would certainly have had some sort of effect on
当我们仰望夜空的时候我们会看到
what we see when we look up at the night sky.
另一方面 多元世界理论可能很快就要被测试
On the other hand, the many-worlds interpretation might be tested fairly soon
由于实验员正在变得越来可以巧妙处理和控制
since experimentalists are becoming increasingly able to manipulate and control
他们的实验室里的更大的量子机械系统
ever-larger quantum mechanical systems in their labs
在量子领域与我们日常生活的经验之间建立联系的系统
systems that approach the line between the quantum realm and our everyday experience.
一如既往 我们必须记住物理学是科学 不是哲学
So as always, we must remember that physics is science, not philosophy;
在我们的尝试下 解释观察到的宇宙
And in our attempts, to explain the universe that we observe,
我们必须提出可以在原则上进行测试的主张 然后进行测试!
we have to make claims that can in principle be tested – and then test them!

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视频概述

平行宇宙的三个理论

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

杜小雅

审核员

YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ywn2Lz5zmYg

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